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  • Zhang, Wei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Functional Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy plays a significant role in our daily lives, but most energy provided by fossil fuels causes serious environmental problems including air pollution, global warming, and ecological damage. In addition, it has been estimated that all of our fossil fuels will run out in 2088 and thus it is highly important to study and apply renewable energy sources. Among all the alternatives, solar energy is clean, sustainable, and abundant. It is estimated that the amount of power from the sun that strikes the earth in 90 minutes is more than the entire world consumes in one year. The perovskite solar cell (PSC) is one of the strongest tools to utilize solar energy because of its high power conversion efficiency and easy fabrication process. However, the lead that is normally used in the perovskite layer is considered harmful to the environment and to human health. Moreover, the low conductivity and hole mobility of the hole-transport material (HTM) Spiro-OMeTAD and the low overall device stability against humidity are all issues that might hinder the further development of PSC technology. This thesis concerns all of these aspects, with a general focus on different functional materials.

    The aim of this thesis was to develop environmentally friendly and low-cost functional materials in order to solve existing problems while at the same time revealing insights into carrier transport, molecular doping, and surface passivation.

    In Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, the current status of PSCs and the experimental and theoretical methods used in this thesis are presented.

    In Chapter 3, the properties of coordination complexes, including molybdenum clusters and polyiodide-linked gold complexes, and their potential application in solar cells as lead-free light absorbers are discussed.

    In Chapter 4, the synthesis of four coordination complexes with different metal cores and ligands and their application as HTMs in PSCs is discussed. Their oxidation potential, hole mobility, conductivity, and packing methods are presented.

    In Chapter 5, two p-type dopants – Cu(bpcm)2 and (MeO-TPD)TFSI – are introduced for the organic HTM Spiro-OMeTAD. Both of these could significantly increase the conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD films. In addition, (MeO-TPD)TFSI could work separately without hygroscopic LiTFSI at high doping amounts thus potentially increasing the device’s stability. The structure of oxidized Spiro-OMeTAD on the base of the Spiro(TFSI)2 is also discussed.

    In Chapter 6, density functional theory modeling of four different functional groups – including amino (−NH2), phosphine (−PH2), hydroxyl (−OH), and thiol (−SH) groups – in combination with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane is discussed in terms of estimating the adsorption energy with respect to different perovskite surface models. The amino functional group showed the strongest adsorption energy and was further compared with the thiol group in experiments.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 10:00 sal F3
    Asem, Heba
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Design of Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the devastating diseases such as cancer are relatively incurable and have high risks of relapse. Therefore, persistent endeavors have been devoted to improve patient survival rate and quality of life. Drug delivery systems (DDS) based on polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) have been demonstrated to increase the therapeutic index (efficacy/toxicity ratio) of chemotherapeutic agents. This thesis focuses on designing non-toxic and multifunctional biodegradable PNPs from preformed polymers for bioimaging and drug delivery applications. Multifunctional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs were simultaneously loaded with imaging probes, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and manganese-doped zinc sulfide (Mn:ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), as well as an anti-cancer drug, busulfan (Bu), during the particle formation. The NPs were utilized to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo and controlled drug release in vitro (Paper I). Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to achieve stealth property for in vivo purposes. Aluminum phthalocyanine, a photosensitizer and an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated in the PEG-b-PCL NPs for photodynamic therapy during particle formation. The biodistribution of the prepared nanophotosensitizer showed targeted drug delivery toward lungs, liver and spleen as monitored by the intrinsic fluorescence of the photosensitizer (Paper II). The PEG-b-PCL NPs were loaded with SPION or surface functionalized with VivoTag 680XL fluorochrome and utilized for in vivo multimodal imaging, MRI and fluorescence imaging (Paper III). This thesis also presents stable and engineered PNPs obtained using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Hydrophobic agents, nile red (NR) dye or doxorubicin (DOX) drug, were encapsulated in poly(N-[3- (dimethylamino) propyl] methacrylamide)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDMAPMA-b-PMMA) NPs via one-pot RAFT-mediated PISA in water (Paper IV). The PDMAPMA-b-PMMA NPs showed very monodisperse spheres and core-shell nanostructures. Stable and non-toxic poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs, synthesized via RAFTmediated PISA in water, were surface engineered by allyl-functional groups prior to bio-conjugation for targeted drug delivery (Paper V). The engineered NPs retained their colloidal stability and size post-allyl functionalization. DOX was efficiently (90 %) encapsulated in the PAA-bPBA NPs during NPs formation. A controlled release pattern of DOX from PAA-b-PBA NPs was observed over 7 days.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 13:00 Ka Sal-C, Kista
    Kroll, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Compile-time Safety and Runtime Performance in Programming Frameworks for Distributed Systems2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed Systems, that is systems that must tolerate partial failures while exploiting parallelism, are a fundamental part of the software landscape today. Yet, their development and design still pose many challenges to developers when it comes to reliability and performance, and these challenges often have a negative impact on developer productivity. Distributed programming frameworks and languages attempt to provide solutions to common challenges, so that application developers can focus on business logic. However, the choice of programming model as provided by a such a framework or language will have significant impact both on the runtime performance of applications, as well as their reliability.

    In this thesis, we argue for programming models that are statically typed, both for reliability and performance reasons, and that provide powerful abstractions, giving developers the tools to implement fast algorithms without being constrained by the choice of the programming model. Furthermore, we show how the design of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) for such distributed programming frameworks, as well as DSLs for testing these components written in them, can reduce the mental gap between theoretical algorithms and their implementation, in turn reducing the risk of introducing subtle bugs.

    Concretely, we designed and implemented two different versions of the Kompics Component Model. The first is called Kompics Scala and focuses on pattern matching of events, as well as programming ergonomics and similarity to theoretical algorithms. The second version is called Kola and is a language with a compiler of its own, focusing on compile-time safety. Finally, we present a third framework, called Kompact, implementing a hybrid Actor–Component model which is designed around runtime-performance and static typing, and is implemented in the Rust language. In order to compare our solutions to the state-of-the-art, we present the first cross-language, distributed, message-passing benchmarking suite. We evaluated the impact of network abstractions in these models on performance, and show that our approach offers between 2× and 5× improvements on throughput for certain applications. We also evaluated the performance tradeoffs of different message-passing models and different implementations of the same model. We show that all our implementations are competitive, and our hybrid model, in particular, has significant benefits in a wide range of scenarios, leading to improvements of up to 27× compared to the state-of-the-art of message-passing systems. 

  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 14:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Boric, Bojan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    The Ghost Boulevard2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1947, Soviet architect Alexey Shchusev developed a large-scale urban renewal project for the post-war city of Chisinau, the then-capital of the SSR of Moldova. Part of the master plan was the construction of Boulevard D. Cantemir, which would cut through the city’s historic fabric. Only two sections of the boulevard were built before the project was abandoned. During the period of radical institutional political and economic shift towards a market economy in the early 1990s, initiatives to build the boulevard re-emerged through red lines, zoning documents, and planning regulations. The lack of political consensus caused planning paralyses over the city, creating a legal void where different actors competed to appropriate spaces. The power of the red lines has prompted various kinds of materializations of the boulevard. The real battle takes place in the sphere of the imaginary, and memory management is one of the main planning tools. Exploring the trajectory of the “Ghost Boulevard,” I reveal conflicting political and economic agendas and the many forces that constitute complex processes of planning today.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-09 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Frid, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Analysis and Optimization of Installed Antenna Performance2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of six papers, which are labeled with roman numer-als. Papers I-III have already been presented in a licentiate thesis published in2017, and this Ph.D. thesis therefore focuses on Papers IV-VI. All six papersare within the scope of microwave and antenna engineering, with applicationsto radar, electronic warfare (EW), radio astronomy or communications.

    The common theme for Papers IV-VI is installed antenna performance(IAP). These papers present three methods for solving three problems relatedto IAP, by using information available in the installed far-field data. In thesepapers, we address the main challenges within the scope of IAP, i.e. antennaplacement, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), estimation of installed sys-tem performance (particularly direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation accuracy)and optimization methods to compensate for or minimize installation effects.The presented methods make no simplifying assumptions regarding the anten-nas or their installation, and instead rely on using the installed far-field data,which is obtained through computational electromagnetics. These methodsare therefore valid for generic array antennas. The presented methods areuseful for antenna placement studies, i.e. as input for the decision on antennaplacement on a platform such as an aircraft, ship, satellite or car.

    Paper IV considers the problem of antenna placement with respect toEMC. A platform, such as an aircraft, ship, satellite, or car, may have alarge number of radio-frequency (RF) systems installed onboard. Since somesystems transmit a high RF power, while other systems aim to receive weakRF signals, there is a significant risk for unwanted electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to an insufficient isolation between the antennas associated witheach RF system. This paper presents a method for estimating the isolationbetween antennas installed on the same platform, in order to determine therisk for EMI as a function of antenna placement. Finally, a numerical case-study is presented, considering two monopole antennas installed on a smallaircraft under line-of-sight conditions. Results are also presented for otherinstallation configurations, where the antennas are not within line-of-sight.

    Paper V considers antenna placement and radome design with respectto DoA estimation accuracy. Firstly, we define the term “installation error”applied to DoA estimation. A method for determining the DoA estimationaccuracy for a specific installation is thereafter presented. The paper endswith a numerical case-study for an array antenna installed behind a single-shell radome in the tail of a realistic full-scale model of a fighter aircraft.

    Paper VI presents a method to compensate for radome effects on radi-ation patterns for array antennas. A convex optimization approach is usedto minimize the side-lobe level, while taking the radome effects and mutualcoupling into account. The paper ends with a numerical case-study for amonopulse-array installed behind a single-shell radome.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-12 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Kim, Hyeyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wood-Based Nanocellulose In Lithium Ion Batteries and Electrochemical Coatings2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium ion batteries contain diverse functional polymeric materials, e.g. binders and separators. Naturally self-assembled wood cellulose can be disintegrated to nanosized particles with a diversity of morphology by top-down processes, adjusting the manufacturing parameters. The nanomaterials can then be reconstructed by bottom-up assembly to structures similar to that of the polymeric materials in lithium ion batteries, capable of replacing their functions and ensuring similar or improved performance.

    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the feasibility of wood-based cellulose nanofibers in lithium ion batteries and explore other possible applications. The relationship between the characteristics of nanocellulose, treated by different processes, and their performance as battery components were investigated using electrochemical and in-operando measurements. Development of electrode-integrated cellulose separators was enabled by a non-aqueous drying method. This significantly improved the drying efficiency and can be considered an eco-friendly process without using hazardous chemicals. This study sheds the light on cellulose as a promising separator material, satisfying the industrial needs without trade-off of durability of the material and ion transport properties.Other than lithium ion battery applications, cellulose nanofibrils are introduced as a pH-responsive polymer and a precursor of hydrogel, electrochemically coated on any conductive substrate. Not only hydrogel, this electro-precipitation method also enables to fabricate single or multi-layered composites. The hydrogel and the composites fabricated by this technique can work as functional materials in the diverse electrochemical applications.

    In summary, the results indicate that using wood-based cellulose as a raw material is beneficial to fabricate the functional materials by eco-friendly manufacturing processes, available for a variety of electrochemical applications, showing excellent performance.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-12 14:00 F3, Stockholm
    Frykholm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Building the City from the Inside: Architecture and Urban Transformation in Los Angeles, Porto, and Las Vegas2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Positioned in the research field of “interior urbanism” (Rice, 2016), this thesis considers entrance situations that occur between buildings and cities in order to develop new ways of investigating the relationship between architecture and urban transformation. From the main research question—How does architecture mediate urban transformation?—the thesis focuses on experience-driven narratives about the city (Pine & Gilmore, 2011). Looking at the means by which architecture situates the subject in an urban experience, the thesis asks how the experience contributes to a particular attention to the city. This approach intends to shed light on architecture’s role in both mediating and challenging neoliberal urbanism (Peck, Theodore, & Brenner, 2009; Fraser, 2019). The thesis argues for analyzing large-scale processes of urban transformation by placing a sharpened empirical focus on the built environment. This is tested by a transversal research method (Frichot, Gabrielsson, Havik, & Jobst, forthcoming) that intersects multiple investigative techniques. 

    The three cases that are addressed—the Westin Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles, the Casa da Música in Porto, and Wynn Casino in Las Vegas—each epitomize a particular discourse about architecture and urbanization. Through observations and the analysis of the three cases, the thesis unpacks three dimensions of architectural experience of the city: first, by highlighting the spatial logic of a stretched threshold; second, by considering temporality and ways of waiting; and third, by observing the labor that is necessary to keep the interior environment intact. A recurring narrative in these buildings lies in the suggestion that the process of urban redevelopment never ends. Together, the cases point to an oft-overlooked parallel between the refurbishment of building interiors and exterior urban transformations, adding empirical nuances to what has been labelled the “architecture of neoliberalism” (Spencer, 2016). The threshold between building and city is shown to be a fragile and unstable territory, which is under continuous negotiation and where the claims of multiple actors, conditions, and events come together. 

    The thesis attempts to make a contribution in three ways: by developing transversal methods, by considering the threshold as knowledge device, and by exploring micro-scale investigations of urban transformation. The project points to how the stretched threshold of these projects speak of a transforming relationship between architecture and capitalism, where the city is reconfigured through the stretching of interiors out to adjacent sidewalks and squares. If the city is built from the expanding insides of architecture, the city is by definition an unfinished project. To think of the instability of architecture not as a shortcoming but as a virtue opens up for a continuous engagement with the city as the unfinished construction site of a democratic project.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-16 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Chen, Yuanying
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Land-Sea Interactions in the Coastal-Marine System of the Baltic Sea under Hydro-Climatic Variability2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates a few important component processes for understanding and quantifying eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, that include characterization of nutrient loadings from land, water flow in the sea under changing climate conditions and transport of solutes originating from different locations along the coast. Furthermore, this study aims to improve our understanding on how processes from land (the nutrient loading conditions) and the sea (transport dynamics and water quality) couple to determine the fate of nutrients in the sea and the water quality in a selected localized coastal area, the Himmerfjärden Bay.

    Comprehensive data are compiled as a basis for numerical simulations. An open source tool for oceanographic studies FVCOM is used to simulate flow and transport processes in the Baltic Sea. Hydrodynamic simulations are verified in terms of temperature, salinity and water level for the year 2005. Results show that most of the investigated Swedish watersheds along the coastline are dominated by subsurface legacy sources, the loads of which are positively and linearly correlated with river discharges. Moreover, subsurface legacy sources are less likely to decrease over time compared with the current surface sources. The Baltic Sea has a stable flow structure considering flux directions between basins, while the flux magnitudes between basins are mainly determined by different wind conditions. The spreading patterns in the sea with solute released from different coastal areas are similar when the released amounts are comparable, even though different cases have different source input and water flow conditions. The overall spreading patterns in the sea are generally dominated by the total mass of released solute. Local transport dynamics and patterns around the coast differ greatly for different cases and are determined by the local flow conditions. Different water quality indicators are influenced by different land-based or sea-based measures for water quality improvement. The dry-cold hydro-climatic condition is the most favorable for improving the water quality and elevating the ecological status in the Himmerfjärden Bay.

    Based on this investigation, varying hydro-climatic factors impose important influence on the different component processes of nutrient loading from land to the sea. For example, the change of river discharges from land in the future would influence the total load into the sea from subsurface legacy sources, and finally influence the general spreading patterns of nutrients in the sea. The change of wind conditions would affect the flow and transport dynamics at local scale and flow fluxes magnitudes between marine basins at the sea scale. Change towards a dry-cold condition would be beneficial for the water quality and lead to improvement of coastal water quality, while the change towards a wet-warm condition will be generally unfavorable for improving the water quality. Clearly more comprehensive studies are needed based on the component processes considered in this thesis, for mapping water quality and eutrophication long-term trends in the Baltic Sea with confidence that is sufficient for effective mitigation measures and policies. 

  • Public defence: 2020-03-17 10:00 F3, 114 28 Stockholm
    Pinto Basto de Carvalho, Joao Frederico
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Topological Methods for Motion Prediction and Caging2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To fulfill the requirements of automation in unstructured environmentsit will be necessary to endow robots with the ability to plan actions thatcan handle the dynamic nature of changing environments and are robust toperceptual errors. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms to facilitatemotion planning in human environments and rigid object manipulation.Understanding human motion is a necessary first step to be able to performmotion planning in spaces that are inhabited by humans. Specifically throughlong-term prediction a robot should be able to plan collision-avoiding paths tocarry out whatever tasks are required of it. In this thesis we present a methodto classify motions by clustering paths, together with a method to translatethe resulting clusters into motion patterns that can be used to predict motion.Another challenge of robotics is the manipulation of everyday objects.Even in the realm of rigid objects, safe object-manipulation by either grippersor dexterous robotic hands requires complex physical parameter estimation.Such estimations are often error-prone and misestimations may cause completefailure to execute the desired task. Caging is presented as an alternativeapproach to classical manipulation by employing topological invariants todetermine whether an object is secured with only bounded mobility. Wepresent a method to decide whether a rigid object is in fact caged by a givengrasp or not, relying only on a rough approximation of the object and thegripper.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-20 10:00 F3 KTH, Stockholm
    Staf, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Solid Mechanics.
    Mechanical Modelling of Powder Compaction2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting tool inserts, for instance used in steel machining, have the requirement to be toughand are therefore most often manufactured out of cemented carbides, using powdermetallurgy. Manufacturing components with powder metallurgy has its advantages in highproductivity and good net shape. The powder is spray dried and compacted to half itssintered volume. Because of friction between the powder and the pressing tool, the densityafter compaction is uneven, leading to uneven shrinkage during sintering. To get the rightshape after pressing and sintering, the pressing tool must often be compensated, which isboth expensive and time consuming. By doing computer simulations of the manufacturingprocess, the shape after sintering can be predicted and used to compensate the pressing toolbefore it is manufactured, thus saving both time and money. Also cracks and porosity in thepowder blank can be predicted with such simulations.

    This thesis studies mechanical modelling of powder compaction in general and compactionof cemented tungsten carbide powders in particular. Because of the amount of powdergranules in a typical geometry, the mechanical behavior is modelled with a continuumapproach, using the finite element method (FEM). Accuracy is important in the presentapplication and therefore a detailed elastic-plastic material model with a density dependentyield surface of Drucker-Prager CAP kind is used.

    For accurate material modelling it is important to include relevant features and to excludeunimportant physical effects. In Paper A sensitivity studies are therefore performed inorder to conclude which properties in the material model that have a significant influence onthe result. The studies show that anisotropy can be disregarded in the current application.

    In Paper B the effects from creep and compaction speed are studied. It is concluded thatcreep has no influence on the density after compaction, which also is confirmed by densitymeasurements using a neutron source in Paper D. The compaction speed on the other handinfluences the friction coefficient between powder and pressing tool, lower at increasedspeed. In Paper C frictional behavior is scrutinized experimentally with the aid of aninstrumented die. The friction coefficient is determined and analyzed, and it is shown that itdepends on the normal pressure.

    The sensitivity studies in Paper A show that measurements of the local density are neededin order to determine and verify material properties. Since the analyzed powder containstungsten (W), which has a high atomic number, a polychromatic beam of thermal neutronsis needed. In Paper D it is shown that the local density can be measured with 3D imagingand a thermal neutron source.

    From the results and conclusions in the above-mentioned papers, a material description forpowder compaction is suggested. This description is implemented in FEM in Paper E andapplied to reverse engineering in order to determine important material parameters.Experiments in a pressing machine with a pressing method that includes multiple unloadingsteps is used. The material description with the determined parameters is verified withdensity measurements using a neutron source.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-27 10:00 K2
    Varini, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical characterization of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 at different stages of lifetime2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Li-ion batteries have entered our everyday life first as power sources for small electronics, and recently for electric vehicles and stationary storage applications. As the requirements on the performance and lifetime of Li-ion batteries increase and diversify, it becomes paramount to properly understand their electrochemical performance at single-electrode level, and their evolution over cycling. This is crucial for both the design of improved electrode materials, better suited for the most recent applications, but also for accurately predicting the performance decay of existing devices. As the component of focus, the positive electrode was chosen, since it limits both power and energy in Li-ion batteries. Specifically, the material investigated was LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111), a state-of-the-art, fully commercial electrode, as well as the precursor for Nirich LiNixMnyCo1 –x –yO2, towards which research is very active. Starting at Beginning of Life, NMC111 was characterized though a combination of electrochemical techniques at varying temperatures (Constant Current cycling, Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy), which were compared and discussed in terms of electrode response and suitability. Thermodynamic and dynamic properties were obtained, and supported the design of a semi-empirical model for predicting LIBs voltage characteristics. This knowledge was also used to monitor the evolution of NMC111’s performance under high voltage operation, and the possibility of connecting changes in the electrochemical response to specific ageing phenomena: this information could support the creation of physics-based predictive models.