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  • Presentation: 2019-01-22 10:00 U61, Stockholm
    Bekele, Abiy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Application of Automated Non-contact Resonance Testing for Low Temperature Behavior of Asphalt Concrete2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact resonance testing is a well-documented non-destructive testing method and its applications on asphalt concrete have also been implemented successfully. The test is carried out manually by inducing an impact in order to excite the test specimen and taking measurements of the vibrational response. In an effort to improve the manual procedure of impact resonance testing, an automated non-contact methodology is developed and its applicability with regards to low temperature behaviors of asphalt concrete is investigated. Results from this work show that repeatable fundamental resonance frequency measurements can be performed on a disc shaped specimen in an automated manner without the need to open the thermal chamber. The measurements obtained from the new method have been verified by taking similar resonance frequency measurements using an instrumented impact hammer. It has also been shown in this work that the proposed method is suitable to investigate the lone effects of cyclic thermal conditioning on asphalt concrete without any other possible biasing effects associated with contact in the conventional testing. A hysteretic behavior of stiffness modulus is obtained on three different asphalt concrete specimens subjected to repeated low temperature cyclic conditioning. Reduced modulus values at each temperature are obtained in all the tested specimens after a low temperature stepwise conditioning at temperatures from 0oC to -40 oC. This observed behavior shows that the dynamic modulus of the tested specimens is affected by low temperature conditioning. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and the phase angle or damping ratio increases after low temperature conditioning. Hence, valuable and practical low temperature characteristics of different asphalt concrete mixtures can possibly be obtained by using the proposed methodology.

  • Presentation: 2019-02-01 14:00 rum A124 , KTH Arkitekturskolan,, Stockholm
    Hällgren, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Designing with Urban Sound: Exploring methods for qualitative sound analysis of the built environment2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis Designing with Urban Sound explores the constitution and qualitative characteristics of urban sonic space from a design-oriented and practice-based perspective. The act of lifting forth and illuminating the interaction between architecture, the creation of sound and a sonic experience aims to examine and develop useful tools and methods for the representation, communication and analysis of the exterior sonic environment in complex architectural spaces. The objective is to generate theoretical and practical knowledge within the field of urban sound planning and design by showing examples of different and complementary ways of communicating and analyzing sound than those which are commonly recognized. 

  • Presentation: 2019-02-07 13:00 Ocean and Pacific, Stockholm
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Towards a sustainable mobility paradigm? An assessment of three policy measures2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation and mobility are important components in the organisation and structure of people´s daily activities, but the transport sector has considerable environmental impacts, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions and land use. Governance of the sector is difficult, as there is an ongoing a shift in governance structures away from hierarchical towards more collaborative governance. Given these challenges, it may be necessary to shift the focus from mobility to accessibility and to adopt a new paradigm in transport planning.

    This thesis critically investigates what a paradigm shift might mean for the Swedish national and municipal transport, housing and parking planning context and examines what a Social Practice Theory framework could contribute in analysing such a paradigm shift. This is done by investigating three different policies that are arguably in line with a shift in planning paradigms.

    All three policy measures open up decision making to different stakeholders or even citizens, reflecting a shift in governance, and all highlight the need to shift the focus from physical infrastructure to accessibility, through collaboration with a range of stakeholders. However, in each case, current conditions and practices render a transition more difficult.

    The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) states the importance of reducing the need to travel and of using existing infrastructure more efficiently, and stipulates that these types of measures should be considered before new infrastructure investments. However, the STA has a limited mandate to finance these measures, resulting in ambiguous signals and frustration among regional STA officials. This thesis shows that making the STA’s mandate more function-oriented would facilitate a transition in line with the sustainable mobility paradigm.

    Another policy measure discussed in the thesis is a shift from minimum parking requirements, where developers are required to build a minimum number of parking spaces, to flexible parking requirements, where the number of parking spaces provided depends on the local context and where other mobility services may replace the need for physical parking spaces. In this thesis, people who have bought apartments in developments with flexible parking requirements were surveyed in order to understand their practices and how they perceive and plan to use the mobility services provided.

    The feasibility of using a new parking management tool, Parking Benefit Districts, in a European context (Stockholm, Sweden) was assessed. In a Parking Benefit Districts system, parking charges are implemented, increased or extended to curb parking, with the revenues being returned to the area where the charges are imposed and with citizens, or other stakeholders, participating in decisions on how to use the revenues. The underlying intention is to increase acceptance of parking charges, as on-street parking charges may be deemed necessary by planners, but are unpopular among citizens and other stakeholders. This thesis shows that there are no legal barriers to implementing a Parking Benefit District programme in Sweden, but there are some limitations on how revenues can be used. Moreover, Sweden does not have this planning tradition and the programme may not be perceived as legitimate. Another important issue is equity and participation, e.g. it is important to consider who to include and how to include them.

    Overall, the policy measures studied involve a shift away from an infrastructure-centred to a people-centred approach. However, other planning practices and institutions may push in different directions. This thesis shows that a Social Practice Theory framework can be useful as a lens through which researchers and policymakers view possible changes needed to achieve a sustainable mobility paradigm.