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  • Presentation: 2017-12-18 10:00 Hall 443, Sing sing, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nylund, Annette
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Learning at Work and Productivity in Swedish Business Firms: Based on the Swedish MEADOW Survey 2009/20102017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background of the thesis is the ongoing struggle for better understanding of driving forces for economic growth. Some important and rewarding new steps have been taken the last decades in the research of economic growth theory. For example, the theory includes not only the use of technology but also the creation and implementation of new technology entwined with management and learning practices at work. However, the development of knowledge on the matter can be described as slow. The explanation is argued to be the lack of data, which complicates and prevents the development of theory. The lack of data and the intertwined dependence with the development of theory in the matter constitutes the starting point for the research in the thesis.

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the development of measures of management of work and learning practices at work that can be used in productivity models. The analyses are based on the micro-level data from the Swedish MEADOW Survey 2009/2010, at Statistics Sweden. Factor and regression analysis are performed, other analytical techniques are also used.

    Some key findings of how management and learning practices at work can be described and measured show that the business firms use the different practices in bundles. The findings indicate synergy effects on performance when more than one management and learning practice is applied. Two different management approaches are tested, both models predict productivity. However, there is a difference in the productivity model a such when it includes the two management approaches; the measure of the contemporary use has a better fitness then the theoretical model. Focus and delimitations of research questions in the forthcoming doctoral dissertation are discussed, see Future Research – the Logic Next Step, in Chapter 6. Final Reflections.

  • Presentation: 2017-12-18 13:00 E52, Stockholm
    Lupo, Giandomenico
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Detailed simulations of droplet evaporation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Droplet evaporation (and condensation) is one of the most common instancesof multiphase flow with phase change, encountered in nature as well as intechnical and industrial applications. Examples include falling rain drops, fogsand mists, aerosol applications like electronic cigarettes and inhalation drugdelivery, engineering applications like spray combustion, spray wet scrubbing orgas absorption, spray drying, flame spray pyrolysis.Multiphase flow with phase change is a challenging topic due to the inter-twined physical phenomena that govern its dynamics. Numerical simulation isan outstanding tool that enables us to gain insight in the details of the physics,often in cases when experimental studies would be too expensive, impracticalor limited.In the present work we focus on simulation of the evaporation of smalldroplets. We perform simulation of evaporation of a pure and two−componentdroplet, that includes detailed thermodynamics and variable physical andtransport properties. Some of the conclusions drawn include the importance ofenthalpy transport by species diffusion in the thermal budget of the system, andthe identification and characterization of evaporating regimes for an azeotropicdroplet.In the second part we develop a method based on the immersed boundaryconcept for interface resolved numerical simulation of laminar and turbulentflows with a large number of spherical droplets that undergo evaporation orcondensation.

  • Presentation: 2017-12-18 14:00 D3, Stockholm
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Paving the way for green qualities -Role of Environmental Assessment2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing urban development projects in planning practice while simultaneously providing sufficient green spaces has proven to be challenging. As a result, there is a growing need for practical approaches and tools for the integration of urban green qualities in the on-going densification of cities. Environmental assessment, as a proactive decision aiding tool, can hold an important role in integrating green qualities in urban development plans and projects. However, in recent years environmental assessment has only added moderate value to planning issues regarding green space. Therefore, this thesis was designed to contribute to the knowledge and understanding on the role environmental assessment can have in the integration of green qualities in future urban development plans and projects in efforts to aid practitioners. This aim was achieved through examination of existing urban green space planning practice in the Stockholm region (Paper I) and the practice of environmental assessment in a selection of European countries in relation to the following factors identified to be important for practice: timing, quality control, alternatives, monitoring and public participation (Paper II). The findings from both studies were then analysed to identify possibilities of green space planning within the framework of these factors. A qualitative research was employed for this study including: semi-structured interviews with municipal planners in the Stockholm region and environmental assessment experts for the European Commission, literature review, document analysis and case study analysis. The case studies analyzed in Paper I were located in municipalities of Haninge and Huddinge, suburban areas located to the south of Stockholm. In Paper II, the experts interviewed were environmental assessment experts from the European Commission from: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia. Through analysis of the results from both studies, the potential role of environmental assessment in integrating green qualities in urban development plans and projects are explored and discussed in relation to the factors. The potential of environmental assessment to enhance public participation and dialogues amongst actors, or bring forth green space issues within alternatives are a few of the roles discussed. Furthermore, a selection of pathways is suggested for the integration of green qualities in future urban development through the application of environmental assessment. For example, the implementation of developer dialogues in the environmental assessment process and the development of knowledge exchange platforms for sharing experiences in relation to green space planning and environmental assessment.

  • Presentation: 2017-12-19 10:15 D3, Stockholm
    Högström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Towards Sustainable Urban Development in Expansive Urban Regions: Conditions and Challenges for Municipal Spatial Planning Practice2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the local to the global level, there is a growing insight that human actions are having a profound and wide-reaching impact on natural and social systems. As a consequence, there is a need for sustainable development and planners are now challenged to integrate social, ecological and economic aspects in utilized planning process that span from the regional to the local. Thus, to put sustainability into practice requires a multi-level approach that takes into consideration the actions and the development in different countries, societies, cities and communities. In other words, sustainability is dependent on the performance and outcomes of multi-level systems of governance (including planning systems) across different contexts. Based on two case studies in the expansive Stockholm region, this thesis aims to explore the conditions for spatial planning to support a shift towards sustainable urban development. More specifically, it aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the conditions for spatial planning practice to promote sustainability in a context of rapid urban expansion and to analyze the management and utilization of available statutory planning instruments as a means to foster an effective interplay in planning practice. The results show that a shift towards sustainable urban development requires that planning practices are allowed to engage in learning processes with the aim to emancipate an effective interplay throughout systems of governance. In particular, it is important that planning processes are able to (i) integrate knowledge from ‘strategic’ levels with local project-specific conditions that are revealed throughout the detailed development planning process and (ii) make use of this synthesized body of knowledge to inform decision-making. The interplay in planning practice is an important mechanism to link ‘direction’ and ‘action’ in planning practice.

  • Presentation: 2017-12-20 10:00 B:218 (Hörsal Q2), Stockholm
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Learning Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Using Non-stationary Linear Predictors2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation problem of stochastic nonlinear parametric models is recognized to be very challenging due to the intractability of the likelihood function. Recently, several methods have been developed to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator and the optimal mean-square error predictor using Monte Carlo methods. Albeit asymptotically optimal, these methods come with several computational challenges and fundamental limitations.

    The contributions of this thesis can be divided into two main parts. In the first part, approximate solutions to the maximum likelihood problem are explored. Both analytical and numerical approaches, based on the expectation-maximization algorithm and the quasi-Newton algorithm, are considered. While analytic approximations are difficult to analyze, asymptotic guarantees can be established for methods based on Monte Carlo approximations. Yet, Monte Carlo methods come with their own computational difficulties; sampling in high-dimensional spaces requires an efficient proposal distribution to reduce the number of required samples to a reasonable value.

    In the second part, relatively simple prediction error method estimators are proposed. They are based on non-stationary one-step ahead predictors which are linear in the observed outputs, but are nonlinear in the (assumed known) input. These predictors rely only on the first two moments of the model and the computation of the likelihood function is not required. Consequently, the resulting estimators are defined via analytically tractable objective functions in several relevant cases. It is shown that, under mild assumptions, the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal. In cases where the first two moments are analytically intractable due to the complexity of the model, it is possible to resort to vanilla Monte Carlo approximations. Several numerical examples demonstrate a good performance of the suggested estimators in several cases that are usually considered challenging.

  • Presentation: 2018-01-29 10:00 Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), Stockholm
    Wan, Qiansu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Life Cycle Assessment of Paper Based Printed Circuits2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed circuit boards have been massively manufactured and wildly used in all kinds of electronic devices during people’s daily life for more than thirty years since the last century. As a highly integrated device mainly consists of silicon base, an etched copper layer and other soldered components, massive production of printed circuit boards are considered to be environmentally unfriendly due to the wet chemical manufacturing mode and lack of recycling ability. On the other hand, the newly invented ink jet printing technology enables cost-effective manufacturing of flexible, thin and disposable electrical devices, which avoid acid etching process and lead to less toxic emissions into the environment. It is important to consider life cycle analysis for quantitative environmental impact evaluation and comparison of both printed circuit boards and printed electronics to enhance the sustainability of a new technology with product design and development. This thesis first reviews the current approaches to conventional and modern printing methods, as well as the state-of-the-art analysis of sustainability and environmental assessment methodologies. In the second part, a typical ink jet printed electronic device is introduced (an active flexible cable for wearable electrocardiogram monitoring). This active cable is designed for the interconnection between bio electrodes and central medical devices for bio signal transmission. As the active cable consists of five different metal transmission traces which are formed by printing conductive ink onto paper substrates, different shielding methods are investigated to ensure high quality bio signal transmission. Specifically, the results prove that passive shielding methods can significantly decrease the cross talk between different transmission traces, enabling the transmitting of bio signals for wearable ECG monitoring. This research also explores environmental issues related to printed electronics. For the full life cycle of printed electronics, we focused not only on quantitative environmental emissions to air, fresh water, sea and industrial soil, but also on resource consumption and impacts analysis. Finally, comparative environmental performance evaluation of traditional cables and ink jet printed active cables are made to examine the environmental impact and sustainability of both technologies, and the results show the strengths and weaknesses of each technology by analysis and assessment.