1234567 1 - 50 of 362
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Emanuel, Martin
    Conny Kullman, interview from 2017/20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

  • BRODERICK, MARTIN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    PALM, RASMUS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    PSD2 - A Catalyst for the Future of Retail Banking: Banks’ strategies to reach a competitive advantage from PSD2 in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new EU regulation, revised payment services directive (PSD2), will change how the retail banking market works today. It will obligate banks, with the consumer’s consent, to provide access to account information and thus open up the market for new actors. This study aims to provide an understanding of the effects PSD2 will have on the retail banking market in Sweden and how the banks will act to cope with the changes it entails. There is a lack of academic articles on PSD2, and the reports that do exist are to the greater extent published by consultants. Hence, this report seeks to bridge that gap by exploring banks from a strategic point of view, taking a starting point in the theory of competitive advantage and open innovation, in order to analyse different banks’ strategies that they are considering when PSD2 is enforced. This will be a cornerstone for understanding the future development of the Swedish retail banking market. To gain in-depth knowledge about the banks’ strategies to cope with PSD2, a case study has been made where 10 semi-structured interviews have been conducted with 10 different banks operating in Sweden - this represents the greater majority of all banks in the Swedish retail banking market. From the empirical findings in this report, it is clear that very few banks consider that only complying to PSD2 is a good strategic alternative. Instead, most banks see greater business opportunities in PSD2 and from this study it is evident that the market is heading towards an open banking approach. However, the path towards open banking differs between banks. All banks will focus on becoming compliant but due to differences in size, capabilities and resources, the banks try to differentiate themselves through different approaches. Some banks will attempt an open banking approach immediately, while others will start by becoming a producer of services and from there decide whether or not to move into open banking. What has been made crystal clear from the analysis of the empirical findings, is that no banks will start off by becoming a distributor of more advanced customer data to third parties.  

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 12:30 Senaatzaal, Delft
    Gorenstein Dedecca, João
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Expansion Governance of the Integrated North Seas Offshore Grid2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of offshore power transmission and generation in the North Seas of Europe is accelerating rapidly. This is due to several drivers, including the decarbonization and reform of the European power system, and innovations in offshore wind and high-voltage direct current transmission. So far, this European North Seas offshore grid is composed of conventional transmission lines, which perform the interconnection of onshore power systems and the wind farm connection functions separately. An integrated offshore grid is an innovative concept where some of the transmission lines perform simultaneously both the interconnection and connection functions. Earlier research leveraging optimization approaches already demonstrated that such an integrated offshore grid can provide socio-economical, technical and environmental benefits.

    The offshore grid is characterized by its multiplicity of actors, working in several levels, from the European to the sub-national. This makes governance the only adequate decision-making mode to manage the grid expansion towards more integration. Governance combines hierarchies, markets and networks in order to guide decision-making in a networked multi-level, multi-actor system. The expansion governance of the offshore grid can be analyzed according to six building blocks: meta-governance, planning, financing, ownership, pricing and operation. Previous studies have identified important barriers in these building blocks for the development of an integrated offshore grid. These comprise the difficulties in the site planning and development of integrated projects, the allocation of costs and benefits among actors, and the compatibilization of national support schemes to offshore wind.

    This research applies an exploratory approach to expansion governance to understand how the offshore grid can be managed towards more integration in the presence of these barriers. Therefore, it does not prescribe investments in specific offshore wind farms and transmission corridors. This approach combines energy systems modeling and regulatory analysis to focus on the management of investments in offshore assets, which are central to developing an integrated grid.

    The Offshore Grid Exploratory Model (OGEM) was developed in this thesis to endogenously represent integrated governance barriers: the complexity of planning integrated lines and the interests of individual North Seas countries. OGEM confirms that an integrated offshore grid is beneficial to Europe. However, these benefits are highly dependent on the e-Highway2050 scenarios used, and asymmetrically distributed between countries and actor groups. Governance barriers (represented as model constraints) lead to a modest reduction in benefits, and do not change the distribution asymmetry.

    The impact of the barriers is more pronounced regarding investment changes in transmission technologies and integrated lines. They increase path dependence and hinder the deployment of multiterminal HVDC lines. Also, the location and potential of offshore wind interacts with investments in offshore transmission, both of which can change radically in the presence of governance barriers.

    The impact of these barriers on the offshore expansion pathways allows to recommend design principles for governance frameworks of offshore investments. These comprise the need for: a comprehensive expansion candidate portfolio including both non-integrated multiterminal HVDC and integrated projects; to consider the interrelation of expansion periods in planning; and to consider different rates of innovation for transmission technologies.

    In parallel, the Clean Energy Package is analyzed for the changes they bring to the European regional governance of offshore expansions. Five challenges are identified. The first two deal with the interaction of the governance structure of the European and national levels with the regional one. Then, the third challenge deals with the participation of the United Kingdom and Norway in the European expansion governance. On the other hand, the las two challenges concern specific governance building blocks. The planning challenge indicates that the regional planning of the offshore grid is dependent on national development plans, which in their turn must consider national interests. And the pricing and financing challenge indicates that cost allocation for Projects of Common Interest rigidly precedes the application for financing, invalidating the cost allocation in case the application is unsuccessful. Importantly, these challenges are largely unaddressed by the Energy Union reform.

    The thesis concludes with a number of policy recommendations. They concern meta-governance and the need for capacity building at the regional level. Then, multiple recommendations cover planning. Beyond following the design principles above, the planning challenge needs to be solved. Also, planning models and data should move towards open-modeling approaches which would facilitate the consideration of a broader candidate portfolio. Regarding financing and pricing, the regulation should foster more anticipatory investments than the current practice, and the Projects of Common Interest cost allocation and funding challenge should be solved. These recommendations constitute specific changes to the European expansion governance which would significantly improve the playing field for an integrated offshore grid.

  • BIRGERSSON, KRISTOFFER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    GRANATH, PHILIP
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Improving Software-as-a-Service Sales by Managing the Knowledge of Change Agents: A Case Study of an IT-company in a Servitization Transition2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Servitization describes the trend amongst companies of supplementing tangible product offerings with services. A case in point is the cloud computing which represents a paradigm shift of servitization in the IT industry as it allows physical products to be delivered entirely remotely as a service. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) constitutes a delivery business model of cloud computing which allows customers to access a supplier's application through a cloud infrastructure and is seen as a disruptive innovation. Despite the growing market for cloud computing services, the concept is claimed not to be very understood by many businesses. When transitioning from product-oriented to service-oriented value propositions, successful companies have for instance put efforts on the education of their sales personnel. Such employees could be seen as change agents whose goal is to influence the adoption decision making processes of the organization’s clients. Furthermore, as economies have become more knowledge-intensive, Knowledge management has become more critical. Previous research has put little attention to how Knowledge management relates to the diffusion rate of innovations. This study, therefore, explores how management of change agents' knowledge can facilitate the mediation of innovations. A case study was conducted of an IT company experiencing a servitization transition towards SaaS offerings to achieve the purpose of this study. The study is delimited to the diffusion of SaaS as an innovation within the financial industry in Sweden. 12 employees within the Case Company and six clients were interviewed regarding the subjects previously mentioned. The results suggest that the mediation of SaaS is done through personal communication, presentations, and distribution of sales material. The study has found that change agents need to be clear in their mediation efforts of SaaS solutions as the understanding of what SaaS includes sometimes differs between clients and suppliers. Furthermore, customers considered SaaS solutions for systems that they view as not being directly value-adding and for those systems they prefer standardization as it allows cost-efficiency. SaaS allows multi-tenant environments and is therefore suitable for standardized offerings, as standardization corresponds well to the business logic appropriate for a codification Knowledge Management strategy. The Case Company already conducts a codification strategy. However, the finding of this study suggests that they should strengthen it since a focused KM strategy is preferable to attain more of its benefits and to increase the organizational knowledge creation capabilities. Conducting a codification strategy is something they have good capabilities of pursuing and is suggested to facilitate the change agents' mediation of innovations. Sales material at the Case Company is identified as dependent on personal performance and standardizing the material would thereby ensure an even quality. Making a variety of standardized material easily accessible would further allow the change agents to select material with appropriate messages aimed at specific types of customers, which is important since the customers are found to have different preferences

  • Noble, Joseph
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Study of two - dimensional Kirigami in different materials2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of a 2D material can be altered with Kirigami, a Japanese paper cutting art. Such altered materials are called metamaterials – where a certain geometry is imposed on a material to change its material properties.This thesis documents the effects of a specific Kirigami pattern cut into a range of different 2D materials, such as plastic films or paper – the results of which will be used to evaluate the suitability of each material candidate to a product, the ‘IV strip’, designed and produced by Ortrud Medical AB.The strip contains a patterned ‘spring’ area, which has reduced stiffness due to the patterned defects imposed on it, and a force indication zone. The force indication zone will not be considered.The material selection study used a Pugh’s Evaluation matrix method to choose the best candidate. A few materials were chosen due their suitability in criteria such as robustness of results, tearing force and patient comfort. One material was selected for further experimentation due to its interesting stress/strain characteristics.A further study was then carried out to assess the possibility of tuning the pattern dimensions to alter the tensile properties of the metamaterial. This study includes both computational and experimental methods to verify the feasibility of a simulation model. The study found that it is possible to draw relationships between cut length and stiffness of the pattern. Whilst the computational and experimental results were similar for very small deformations, the FEM simulation struggles at higher deformations because of the lack of available material properties for the program input.

  • Yudhanira, Ela
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Optimize the user experience of Linked Data visualization2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Linked Data to model and visualize complex information entails usability challenges and opportunities to improve the user experience. This study seeks to enhance the user experience of a product information tool which is developed with Linked Data approach. The research was carried out in an industrial setting and follows the case study paradigm. It consists of 1) user research and literature review to define design requirements, 2) prototyping, and 3) usability testing. The user research produced a list of user experience issues which were in turn translated into design requirements by reflecting on related research and following the user's needs and goals. The design requirements formed the design elements which are embedded into the development of low- and high-fidelity prototypes. Next, usability evaluation of the final high-fidelity prototype examined the extent to which the design decisions could optimize the Linked Data visualization. The results show that several design decisions, such as adding interaction dynamics and the use of rich color representation, could indeed improve it. Also, in terms of general information and visual notation, the shift from UML diagram to node-links diagram received positive feedback from the users. But both node-links diagram and UML diagram received similar scores for the effectiveness and efficiency.

  • Strallhofer, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Ahlqvist, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Classifying Urgency: A Study in Machine Learning for Classifying the Level of Medical Emergency of an Animal’s Situation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the use of Naive Bayes as well a Linear Support Vector Machines in order to classify a text based on the level of medical emergency. The primary source of testing will be an online veterinarian service’s customer data. The aspects explored are whether a single text gives enough information for a medical decision to be made and if there are alternative data gathering processes that would be preferred. Past research has proven that text classifiers based on Naive Bayes and SVMs can often give good results. We show how to optimize the results so that important decisions can be made with these classifications as a basis. Optimal data gathering procedures will be a part of this optimization process. The business applications of such a venture will also be discussed since implementing such a system in an online medical service will possibly affect customer flow, goodwill, cost/revenue, and online competitiveness.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-15 10:00 Gard aulan, Solna
    Sjöstedt, Evelina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Systems Biology.
    Towards a deeper understanding of the human brain2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the proteome variation in different parts of the body provides fundamental molecular details, enabling further findings and mapping of tissue specific proteins. By combining quantitative transcriptomics with qualitative antibody based proteomics, the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) project aims to protein profile each human protein-coding gene. Genes with varying expression levels in the different tissue types are categorized as tissue elevated in one tissue compared to others, thus connecting genes to potential tissue specific functions. This thesis focuses on the most complex organ in the human body, the brain. With its billions of neurons specifically organized and interconnected, the ability of not only controlling the body but also responsible for higher cognitive functions, the brain is still not fully understood.

    In my search for brain important proteins, genes were classified at different stages based on expression levels. In Paper I and II the transcriptome of cerebral cortex was compared with peripheral organs to classify genes with elevated expression in the brain. Brain expression information was expanded by including external data (GTEx and FANTOM5) into the analysis, in Paper III. Thereafter, in Paper IV, the three datasets (HPA, GTEx and FANTOM5) were aligned and combined, enabling a consensus classification with an improved representation of the brain complexity. The most recent classification provided whole body gene expression profiles and out of the 19,670 protein-coding genes, 2,501 were expressed at elevated levels in the brain compared to the other tissue types. Twelve individual regions represented the brain as an organ, and were further analyzed and compared for regional classification of gene expression. One thousand genes showed regional variation in expression level, thus classified as regionally elevated within the brain. Interestingly, less than 500 of the genes classified as brain elevated on the whole body level, and were also regionally elevated in the brain. Many genes with regionally variable expression within the brain showed higher expression in a peripheral organ than in the brain when comparing whole body expression. Based on elevated expression in the brain or brain regions, more than 3,000 genes were suggested to be of high importance to the brain.

    In addition, this high-throughput approach to combine transcriptomics and protein profiles in tissues and cells further generated new knowledge in several different other aspects: better understanding of uncharacterized and “missing proteins” (Paper III), validation of an antibody improving classification of pituitary adenoma (Paper V) and in Paper VI the possibility to explore cancer specific expression in relation to clinical data and normal tissue expression.

    There are multiple diseases of the brain that are poorly understood on both a cellular and molecular level. While my work mainly focused on identifying and understanding the molecular organization of the normal brain, the ultimate goal of mapping and studying the normal expression baseline is to understand the molecular aspects of disease and identify ways to prevent, treat and cure diseases.

  • BENGTSSON, LUDVIG
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    SKOG, PONTUS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Improving business performance with organizational learning: A case study of factors affecting organizational learning and its relationship with business performance2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an intra-organizational case study which investigates the concept of organizational learning and its relationship with business performance. Furthermore, factors affecting organizational learning are explored. A mixed method approach is used, combining quantitative data from a survey instrument called the Strategic Learning Assessment Map (SLAM) with qualitative data from interviews and observations. This thesis shows that at the studied organization the organizational level knowledge stock has the highest association with business performance, followed by the group level knowledge stock. The individual level knowledge stock and misalignment does not achieve reasonable significance. When it comes to factors affecting organizational learning, Organizational culture and information processing capacity were identified as main barriers. Furthermore, individuals at the targeted organization acquire knowledge in informal ways and they learn routines over heuristics which also were identified as main factors affecting business performance.

  • BACK, OLIVER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    ISAKOVIC, EMIR
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Agile Project Portfolio Management Challenges2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization allows companies to reach a larger customer base and to focus on niche markets, driving specialization. Conversely, it also lets customers choose from a wider array of options on any given market, which all together leads to increased competition. Such global scale competition is straining profitability and urges companies to innovate both strategy and operations in search of competitive advantages. The ensuing increased rate of change has placed an emphasis on achieving flexibility to ensure alignment with market needs, with companies successful in quick modifications flourishing even in face of unpredictable and unceasing turbulence. The trend toward increasing turbulence is acutely experienced by the automotive industry. Due to the commoditization of hardware in light of digitalization, the automotive industry is undergoing a shift in profitability toward software. The adaptation of strategy to the market is vital to survival, which in turn means that the operationalization of the strategy is crucial. One way to actualize the strategy is through project portfolio management (PPM). As corporate strategy and project portfolios are tightly connected, PPM is essential to implementing the strategy. It is of interest to study the flexible qualities of PPM in an individual industry moving from stable to turbulent, in order to gain insight into the challenges of that industry. The flexible properties of PPM in the automotive industry is thus of utmost importance to the survival of companies. The built-in flexibility of PPM is however not always enough and there is an increasing interest in agile PPM (APPM). So far, there is little advancement on the topic of APPM, and the need for further understanding is obvious with consideration to recent market developments, especially in the automotive industry. This thesis has employed a single case study to understand what challenges traditional companies in the automotive industry face when trying to become more agile in their project portfolio management in order to align their organization around agile practices on the team level and increase responsiveness to external changes. Adopting an abductive approach, empirical data was collected using interviews, observations, documents as well as a survey. The results of this study are twofold. Firstly, an exhaustive mapping of a major automotive company’s PPM process is presented. Secondly, this mapping is utilized to establish what PPM processes could be made more agile and what the main challenges are.

  • ANDERSSON, ALEXANDER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    ESSUNGER, KARL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Physical or Digital Payments: Towards a DominantDesign?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid digitalisation development has been stampeding widely across today’s societies, and not least in the payment industry. Though, the digitalisation in the payment industry has been very deviating, even between similar well-developed countries, and while there are positive and negative effects with both digital- and physical payment means, there is little knowledge that highlights the influencing factors and accompanied problems. This study therefore explore swhich, and how, different factors influence a country’s degree of digital payments, and creates further understanding of where the payment markets are heading in the future. It is done through a case study of four different industrialised countries, Sweden, Italy, Canada, and Switzerland which involves mapping the countries’ payment markets, as well as potential factors influencing a population’s payment habits, through a perspective of innovation theory in terms of dominant designs and technological discontinuities. Theory of network externalities and two-sided platforms are further used to explain and discuss how a two-sided market, likethe payment market, is affected by changes and other circumstances in different ways.Conclusions are then drawn from the used theories together with a comparison of the findings,and identifies certain influencers to a country’s distribution of payments, as well as provides indications of where the different payments markets are heading in the future. Data is mainly gathered through written material and credible databases, but also from semi-structured interviews.

  • ALIC, ALMEDINA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    EMILSSON, CAROLINE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Introducing New Rain Data: A Case Study of Value Proposition Development for Ericsson Weather Data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid development with many innovations has happened in recent years. Nevertheless, more than half of all innovations fail, why it is important to understand the customers: their demand, their needs and their benefits. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a value proposition for a high technological product in rain measurement, called Ericsson Weather Data (EWD). Since it is a technology-driven product, it is necessary to understand the potential customers to determine the product's market potential. Therefore, semi-structured interviews have been conducted with potential users in Sweden. The purpose has been to understand how they use rain data, which challenges and improvement opportunities there are with current rain data and which the most prominent value drivers are. Our empirical findings show that most of rain data in Sweden is free and published online by public entities. However, the current measurements are one-point measurements, which leads to information losses. This complicates the assessment of rain damages, why there is a great desire for increased spatial resolution. In addition, there is a need for better information regarding local cloudbursts. We have developed a value proposition, matched to the customers’ needs. EWD measures rainfall using the existing mobile network, which is more deployed and achieves a better spatial resolution than the traditional equipment. In addition, EWD measures rain data with an interval of ten seconds, generating tighter (more) information about local cloudbursts. As cloudbursts and spatial resolution were highlighted as the most important factors, a value proposition with resonating focus has been developed, meaning that we focus on these two factors.

  • SHAHIN, AMINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    PERCEPTIONS OF COMPETENCEIN EVALUATION AND PROMOTIONPROCESSES: ON THE REPRODUCTION AND CHANGE OFMALE DOMINANCE IN MANAGEMENT ININDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s industrial markets are experiencing changes with the realization of new radical technologies, which are disrupting how organizations work. This new wave of technology and focus towards sustainability is shifting the competencies needed within organizations to maintain their competitive advantage. The adoption of such technological innovations without causing any delays requires a widespectrum of competencies among employees to be present in industrial organizations. One way to achieve this is to have a diverse top management team that reflects a wide spectrum of competenciesand skills. However, achieving this is a challenge due to the culture of gendering found inorganizations, especially with regard to evaluation and promotion processes. The purpose of this report is to investigate the way in which evaluation and promotion practices in industrial organizationscan contribute to the reproduction and change of male dominance in management. Through exploring the different perceptions of competencies, evaluation and promotion processes, and ways to how to drive gender balance within an industrial organization, the purpose of this report is achieved. The main approaches taken include using available theory on organizational change, gendered work ideals, homosociality, perceptions of competence, and ways to evaluate employees to analyze data gathered. This is then tied with a field study done on one of the Swedish companies operating in a male dominated industrial environment. The analysis addresses the common ways in which evaluation and promotion processes can contribute to the reproduction of male dominance andways to prevent that from happening. The proposed recommendations address the opportunities forchange at company A, based on theory work for gender balance.

  • Staberg, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Häglund, Emil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Claesson, Jakob
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Injury Prediction in Elite Ice Hockey using Machine Learning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sport clubs are always searching for innovative ways to improve performance and obtain a competitive edge. Sports analytics today is focused primarily on evaluating metrics thought to be directly tied to performance. Injuries indirectly decrease performance and cost substantially in terms of wasted salaries. Existing sports injury research mainly focuses on correlating one specific feature at a time to the risk of injury. This paper provides a multidimensional approach to non-contact injury prediction in Swedish professional ice hockey by applying machine learning on historical data. Several features are correlated simultaneously to injury probability. The project’s aim is to create an injury predicting algorithm which ranks the different features based on how they affect the risk of injury. The paper also discusses the business potential and strategy of a start-up aiming to provide a solution for predicting injury risk through statistical analysis.

  • Spansk, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Exploring viewer experience and usability of eye tracking interaction in ice hockey broadcasts2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple media platforms today are fighting for viewer attention. Sports broadcasting companies are up against second screen platforms which keep feeding consumers with their constant push-notifications. Both The Nielsen Company and Apple predicts that television needs to get more interactive (e.g. AR, VR, eye tracking) in order to keep up. This paper introduces an eye tracking controller system in order to see if it could aid in this regard. This controller allows the viewer to look up statistics and other game related information on-demand on the main screen. A user study was conducted to determine if this controller could make the viewer have an enhanced viewing experience than a regular broadcast while at the same time also evaluated the usability of the system. 14 participants were recruited for the study, aged between 22 and 31 years old. The results indicate that the viewers have an enhanced viewing experience and find the controller very easy to understand and use. However, the results do not indicate any increase in visual attention towards the main screen. To gain further insight into the possibility of incorporating this system, further evaluation on a wider age group is needed. It is also recommended to conduct further research on the possible usage of this controller in different sports and with various functionality.

  • Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid RUAG Space i Göteborg den 2 maj 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet” (Saab’s on board computers and TT&C for space activities) was held at RUAG Space in Gothenburg on May 2, 2017, and was led by Lennart Lübeck, assisted by Mar-tin Emanuel. The seminar focused on how Saab’s (or, more correctly, until 1983, Saab-Scania’s, and from then on Saab Space’s) Gothenburg office embarked on European space-related projects, in particular relating to communication sys-tems, Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C), as well as onboard computers (OBC) for spacecraft. After having failed to win bids on ESRO satellites in the 1960s, Saab joined the MESH consortium in 1967. In the seminar, MESH’s success-ful bid for OTS (Orbital Test Satellite) stands out as an im-portant turning point for the company’s future contracts with ESRO and later ESA. With respect to Saab’s development of onboard computers, it initially relied substantially on collabo-ration with the American company TRW. Building on the learning process from the ESRO-funded development pro-gram for an Engineering Model, Saab, and later RUAG Space, would deliver onboard computers for several genera-tions of the Ariane launching rockets, SPOT-satellites, and many more. Beginning with the Hipparcos satellite, TT&C and the onboard computer were merged into a data handling system. In the process, what had previously been two sepa-rate groups of the company merged into one. With respect to Saab’s motives to engage in space technology in the first place, the main motive appears to have been to maintain and promote the company’s technical expertise, more so than any hopes to be able to set up large-scale manufacturing. The seminar also treated the relationship between Saab’s two branches engaged in space-related activities. Although their organizational belonging shifted over the years, Linköping remained the location of management and formal interna-tional contacts—and also nationally-oriented projects—while the Gothenburg office was home to the projects for the in-ternational market. The OBC group in Gothenburg tried to maintain as much independence as possible vis-à-vis Linkö-ping, although it relied on upper management for negotiating and winning international contracts. Also important to secure European contracts for Saab was the support, at critical mo-ments, of the Swedish delegation to ESRO and ESA, as well as excellent Swedish contacts with CNES.

  • Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Bildens behandling och utvecklingen av digital fjärranalys: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 juni 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a transcript from the witness seminar “Bildens behan-dling och utvecklingen av digital fjärranalys” (Processing the im-age and the development of digital remote sensing), held at the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology in Stock-holm, June 14, 2017, and was led by Håkan Olsson and Johan Gärdebo. The seminar participants, who were all pioneers from the early Swedish development of digital remote sensing, de-scribed their role in various initiatives and activities for devel-opment of remote sensing related image processing from the 1970s until the late 1990s. During this period, several university groups, government agencies and companies located all over Sweden took interest in remote sensing. The Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOA) developed the first digital image analy-sis system, Piccola, in the early 1970s. Piccola, hosted as a main frame computer at Stockholm’s computer centre QZ, became a central resource for the early development of digital remote sensing in Sweden. During this early period, Professor Gunnar Hoppe at Stockholm University took a leading role for technol-ogy- and method development by chairing the National Remote Sensing Committee, providing a forum for various initiatives to meet, grant funding, and build momentum for concerted efforts. In the end of the 1970s, the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) became the central force for development of the remote sensing infrastructure in Sweden. Piccola was replaced by a more mod-ern interactive image analysis system at SSC, the IAS system. This was part of SSC efforts to make satellite remote sensing operational. Additional parts in this effort included establish-ment of a satellite data receiving station at Esrange and later in the 1980s the establishment of the SSC’s subsidiary Satellitbild AB in Kiruna, which processed SPOT satellite data for the world market. SSC also developed the EBBA series of image analysis systems, attached to a PC, which were used by several Swedish research groups. From the late 1970s and onwards, there were a number of spin-off companies from FOA, most notably Con-text Vision and Teragon, that developed image processing hard-ware and software for uses also beyond that of geographical in-formation. These companies also sold systems to the Swedish Land Survey and SSC. Swedish organisations had a large pres-ence internationally, for example as part of development projects by consultancy firms, which also led to more operational uses of image processing. As computer capacity increased, in particular the introduction of colour graphics on standard computers, im-age processing development moved from special hardware to standard work stations and eventually personal computers and the applications that have become operational, for example in the forest sector, has been integrated with GIS applications in tailor made production-oriented systems.

  • Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    IRF och den svenska rymdforskningen: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Institutet förrymdfysik i Kiruna den 16 november 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The  witness  seminar  “IRF  och  den  svenska  rymdforskning-en” (IRF and Swedish space research) was held at IRF (Insti-tutet  för  rymdfysik,  The  Swedish  Institute  of  Space  Physics)  in  Kiruna  on November 16, 2017,  and  was  led  by  Martin Emanuel  and  Johan  Kärnfelt.  The  seminar  covered  three  themes: key events in the history of the institute; the funding structures  of  Swedish  space-related  research;  and  issues  con-cerning  instrumentation  of  space  physics  experiments.  Vari-ous key events were proposed, ranging from contingencies in the establishment of the institute in 1957 to the institute’s en-gagement  in  ESRO’s  very  first  scientific  satellites,  the  Swe-dish-Soviet research collaborations initiated in the 1970s, and the  Swedish  scientific  satellite  Viking  launched  in  1986.  The  1960s  was  a  difficult  decade  for  Swedish  space-related  re-search,  with  most  national  funding  channelled  through  the  European   Space   Research   Organisation   (ESRO).   Since   ESRO  prioritized  satellite  programmes,  the  institute—as  the  only  Swedish  group  with  experience  of  satellites—fared  well  compared  to  other  research  groups.  The  institute  came  to  dominate  Swedish  space  physics.  In  the  period  1970–1994, the  first  director  of  the  institute  also  chaired  the  scientific committee  of  the  Swedish  research  councils  (Forskningsrådens rymdnämnd)  until  1972,  and  then  of  the  Swedish  National  Space Board (Statens delegation för rymdverksamhet). The issue of potential bias and conflict of interest was discussed. Whereas some  panellists  stressed  the  fair,  smooth  and  non-conflicting nature of the situation, others argued that certain groups felt discriminated.   The   participants   often   mentioned   the   im-portance of having in-house engineering skills at the institute: it  was  cheaper,  made  possible  the  long-term  build-up  of  competence, and allowed for the immediate collaboration be-tween the scientists and the engineers in the design of exper-iments. In contrast, many other groups relied on the technical expertise  of  the  Swedish  Space  Corporation  (SSC; Rymdbo-laget). The relationship between the institute and SSC appears to  have  been  one  of  both  cooperation  and  competition.  Breakthroughs  in  microelectronics  in  particular  had  a  large  impact  on  the  instrumentation  of  scientific  experiments.  In-deed, Soviet interest in Western microelectronics was pointed out by several participants as an important motivation for the Soviets to partake in space research collaboration with the in-stitute; for the institute, the collaboration meant opportunities to launch experiments with Soviet rockets.

  • Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Svenska bidrag till europeisk radarfjärranalys: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Kungliga Tekniska högskolan i Stockholm den 13 november 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The    witness    seminar    “Svenska bidrag    till    europeisk radarfjärranalys”  (Swedish contributions  to European radar remote   sensing)   was   held   at   KTH   Royal   Institute   of    Technology  on  November  13, 2017,  and  was  led  by  Eva Cronström and Johan Gärdebo. The seminar focused on the development  of   radar  remote  sensing  from  the  1960s  until  the  early  2000s. While  the  US  had  developed  radar  satellites  since the 1960s, the international demonstrations did not take place until the launch of  Seasat in 1978. In Sweden, the major industries  Saab  and  Ericsson had  conducted  seminar-series on    space    technology    since the    1960s.    The    Swedish    government  agencies  have  over  the  years  provided  limited  funding,  primarily  through  the  Swedish  Board  for  Space  Activities, that served to catalyse subsequent initiatives from a number of  groups within academia and the industries. Apart from environmental problems there were several projects th at initially  had  been  funded  by  national  defence  organisations. The  mid-1970s  was  a  period  when  many  of   the  major  organisations  on  radar data began  collaborating.  The  most  prominent  developers  of   radar  remote  sensing  were  the  Swedish  National  Defence  Research  Institute  (FOA),  the  Swedish Space Corporation, Saab and Ericsson. The Swedish Coast    Guardand the    Swedish    Meteorological    and    Hydrological  Institute  were  the  main  users  of   radar data. Experiments  with  airborne  systems  provided  the  embryo  to  subsequent radar data  from  satellites.  While  the  US  Seasat  demonstrated uses   of  radar data,   it   also   made   visiblelimitations  for  European  influence  over  American  systems. The  European  Space  Agency  (ESA)  embarked  in  late  1970son developing its own radar data through the satellites ERS-1, and  -2,  and  later  Envisat.  Since  uses  for  satellite  radar datawere defined  as  experimental,  it  could  be  described  as  “a solution in search of  a problem”. During the 1980s and 1990s, the   Chalmers   University   of    Technology,   along   with   the   above-mentioned groups,  were  central  to  experiments  and  applications   of    European   radar   data,   most   notably   for   monitoring  in  support  of   icebreaking  and  winter  monitoringin   the   Baltic   Sea. These   efforts   also   provided   various opportunities for  Swedish  industry,  gave  Swedish  research  groups a central position in European organisations for radar data,   and   developed   methods   for   ground-truthing   and   understanding  of   what  radar data  contained  and  could  be  used  for.  By  the  1990s,  the  infrastructure  for  receiving  radar data  expanded.  Experiences  from  the  ERS-satellite  had  been  integrated  as  part  of   the  new  Envisat-programme,  as  well  as  in the parallel development for the airborne CARABAS. The research groups began applying for more sources of  funding,which brought them closer to operational users, like the Coast Guard and the forest industry. This later led to new research questions,   for   example   how   to   study   stem   volume   and   biomass  of   forests,  and  subsequently  the  initiation  of   the  European  satellite  programme BIOMASS.  The  development  of  radar data  has seen  initiatives  on  the  ground,  on  airborne  systems,  and  on  satellites  that  all  remain  relevant  at  present.  Since the   time   for   developing   systems   are   very   long,   sometimes more than a decade, many applications often find their use first on airborne systems and later on satellites. With greater openness in data policy since the 1990s, there are also more  commercial  activities  downstream  for  data  uses.  The  Swedish  research  groups’  involvement  in  new  instruments and  applications  has stimulated  industry  directions,  financing by   SAAB   of   academic   positions,   and established   ESA’s   receiving   station   in   Kiruna.   In   sum,   the   efforts   havestrengthened Sweden’s  role  in  political-  and  climate  relateddiscussions regarding use of  radar remote sensing.

  • Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Wormbs, Nina (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Politiken kring svensk rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 17 januari 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  witness  seminar  “Politiken  kring  svensk  rymdverksam-het” (Politics relating to Swedish space activities) was held at Tekniska museet on January 17, 2018, and was led by Lennart Nordh,  assisted  by  Johan  Gärdebo.  The  seminar  focused  on  the relationship between Swedish space activities and various forms of politics, from the 1960s until the 2000s. The discus-sants  presented  various  definitions  of  politics,  recurrently  re-turning  to  the  question  whether  or  not  Sweden  ever  had  a  comprehensive space policy or not. According to the partici-pants,  Swedish  space  activities  have  been  linked  to  their  real  or  perceived  contributions  to  other  policy  areas—research, technology,  foreign  policy,  regional  policy,  and  European  in-tegration—but without a clear overriding political vision per-taining  to  space  specifically.  Initiatives  were  characterized  as  “management  by  opportunities,”  which  implies  making  full  use of opportunities arising in- or outside of the space activi-ties.  In  addition  to  this,  policy-makers,  whether  within  the  Swedish  National  Space  Board,  the  Swedish  Space  Corpora-tion, or the Swedish space industry, have called upon allies in other European governments, organizations and industries, as well  as  individuals  within  the  Swedish  establishment  to  exert  pressure  on  the  Swedish  Government  at  critical  moments.  On other occasions foreign pressure was exerted without any proposals  from  Swedish  actors.  It  was  noted  that  regional  support  for  Kiruna  has  been  important  since  Swedish  space  activities began in the 1960s, and the Esrange space range was established.  The  seminar  identified  several  examples  of  how  policy-makers  within  the  Swedish  space  sector  negotiated  with  governmental  officials  to  gain  support  for projects  and  to expand the scope of space activities into other policy areas. Telecommunication,  remote  sensing  and  meteorology  were  discussed as the main areas in which space technology found operational use—although research and geographic surveying was  also  mentioned.  Since  the  1990s,  the  main  changes  have  been  driven  by  the  Swedish  integration  into  the  European  Union,  the  reduced  Swedish  ownership  in  major  industrial companies, and the increased commercialization of space ac-tivities.  The  previously  dominant  state  funding  was  comple-mented by increasing private financing, and new start-ups be-gan   to   compete   with   previously   established   companies.   Meanwhile, the ability of Swedish state actors to influence the future of Swedish space enterprises has diminished.

  • Adamsson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Curriculum learning for increasing the performance of a reinforcement learning agent in a static first-person shooter game2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we trained a reinforcement learning agent using one of the most recent policy gradient methods, proximal policy optimization, in a first-person shooter game with a static player. We investigated how curriculum learning can be used to increase performance of a reinforcement learning agent. Two reinforcement learning agents were trained in two different environments. The first environment was constructed without curriculum learning and the second environment was with curriculum learning. After training the agents, the agents were placed in the same environment where we compared them based on their performance. The performance was measured by the achieved cumulative reward. The result showed that there is a difference in performance between the agents. It was concluded that curriculum learning can be used to increase the performance of a reinforcement learning agent in a first-person shooter game with a static player.

  • Dalton, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Herre, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Exploring the Business Case of a Risk-Averse Electric Vehicle Aggregator in the Nordic Market2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic power system is facing the challenge of the ongoing decrease of synchronous generation along with increased penetration of inverter based renewable generation leading to reduced system inertia. Meanwhile, the electrification of the transport sector will result in a significant amount of additional electrical loads. However, the electrification of private transport is a technology of growing interest that can provide flexibility to the power system if adequately utilized. Electric vehicles (EV) can be considered as temporary energy storage with availability, energy and capacity constraints.

    In this paper, we use first hand data of a real EV fleet of Tesla vehicles and their historical driving patterns to develop a two-stage stochastic optimization problem. This model maximizes the profit of a risk-averse EV aggregator that aims to place optimal bids on the day ahead in both energy and Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) markets. Only uni-directional charging is examined, while we take into account uncertainty from prices and vehicle utilization. Case studies are carried out modelling individual vehicle driving behavior in different Nordic price areas in both winter and summer.

    We identify a strong alignment of EV availability and periods of high FCR prices. Results show that consumption is shifted largely towards early hours of the morning. When compared to a  reference ”cost of charging case”, up to 50% of the cost of charging can be covered in Norway, while the entire cost is met in Sweden.

  • Demirel, Aday Leo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    St. Thaddeus: Syriac Orthodox Church2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Syriac Orthodox Church is one of the oldest churches in the world. It employs the oldest surviving worships in Christianity. The Syriac Orthodox Church has about 5.5 million members, with only 231 remaining churches.

    This project explores the most important and traditional elements for a church, with a focus on the developing possibilities on traditional structure into contemporary approach. A modern proposal in Södertälje Centrum for both religious and non-religious people.

  • Ekström, Lisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Intervention for the Specific: An Architectural Dialogue With the Historical City of Visby2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How can contemporary architecture approach an extremely specific and historical context?Grounded in the site and its history, this question is investigated through theprocess of adding a literary theatre and housing in the city centre of Visby, Gotland.

  • Fröderberg, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    PANNCENTRALEN: Form Follows Process & The Nature Of Order2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It seems clear to me that humanity currently stands at a major crossroad where “the old truths have lost their validity and new ones are yet to emerge”, to quote late sociologist Zygmunt Bauman. It seems also clear that these “new truths” has to be formulated quickly if we do not want to end up on the wrong fork of the road... During recent years, these two insights has driven my desire to understand where we are now, how we ended up here and how we might move forward. Whereas I began in the field of architecture, my curiosity has led me to look into a wide array of subjects ranging from economy to thermodynamics and sociology in order to comprehend the bigger picture. In this thesis however, I have limited myself to the architectural realm again and I have done so through a close reading of a figure I found along the way: Christopher Wolfgang Alexander. During the course of the project, I have read his four-volume, magnum opus “The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe ” (2003-2004) where he summarizes over thirtyfive years of scientific and architectural research and practice into a “grand unified theory of architecture”. His views on many issues (social to scientific) align a lot with with mine so the goal of this project has been to let his theoretical framework guide my own creative process in order to be able to evaluate the result – does his work present some “new truths” to help us move forward or is it just another blind alley?

  • Forsberg, Filip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Naturum Vindelgransele: The Laws of the Forests2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a project about human relation to nature. How we have used the nature in our surroundings and created architecture that comes from the material access and practical needs of our daily lives and what I can do with this knowledge as an architect. It is a project striving to bring focus to the lost knowledge of forestry and history and skills of traditional woodcrafts. I asked myself, what can I learn from traditional building techniques to create architecture based on site specifcs and material logics? And how can architecture help us understand our surroundings and history?

  • Gensler, Barbara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Ground Control to Major Tom: Spaceport Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A place where Star Voyagers start their space journeys – Welcome to Spaceport Sweden.

  • Grometto, Matteo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Green-Housing2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My thesis project investigates the potential behind the integration of agricultural practices and living spaces. Combining advanced urban farming methods embedded in a residential context allows for the symbiosis of a typically urban lifestyle with highly efficient food production. The use ol building materials fully derived from renewable sources aims to apply concepts of circular economy in order to find an effective solution to the currently unsustainable building industry, still oriented towards traditional materials.

  • Gustafsson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    The Nobel Palace: Reconstruction & Transformation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project presents a third proposal for Nobel Palace originally designed by Ferdinand Boberg.

  • Jakobsson, Frej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Regionens Hus Skövde: An Architectural Intervention2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is based on the idea that something called "Regionens hus" should be giving something back to the region and city it's placed in, and definitely not totally close of a strategically important site with a Likewise closed program. The propositon is to inject a cultural and educational program of equal size to the suggested office, and at the same time relieve and give more space to the nearby University and Cultural house. The site is treated according to its current flows of people and its status as a transitioning space, and the distribution and room sequence is based on a building where every program enhances each other, and people can experience what is seen as the most qualitative aspect of the city - other people.

  • Jiang, Zhongyu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Transition Space2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is the expansion of the Stockholm public library. Engaging in study from the misconstrued translations of images, a "transition space" next to the old library. There are four aspects of interpretation for the word "transition" in my project: path, shape, type and memory. During the year in studio 5, imagine reality, I delves into the issue of integrate forms through the misinterpretation of images. The spaces were created by making use of technologies to transform 2d images to 3d volumes, and were developed to respond to site context and the program requirements, primarily through a series of strategic Boolean operations. It is irrational and accidental, but provides more possibilities for architecture design.

  • Ignat, Simon
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Deep Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Resource Allocation in Virtualized Network Functions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is the transition from proprietary hardware functions to virtualized counterparts of them within the telecommunication industry. These virtualized counterparts are known as Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) and are the main building blocks of NFV. The transition started 2012 and is still ongoing, with research and development moving at a high pace. It is believed that when using virtualization, both capital and operating expenses can be lowered as a result of easier deployments, cheaper systems and networks that can operate more autonomous. This thesis examines if the current state of NFV can lower the operating expenses while maintaining quality of service (QoS) high by using current state of the art machine learning algorithms. More specifically the thesis analyzes the problem of adaptive autoscaling of virtual machines (VMs) allocated by the VNFs with deep reinforcement learning (DRL). To analyze the task, the thesis implements a discrete time model for VNFs with the purpose of capturing the fundamental characteristics of the scaling operation. It also examines the learning and robustness/generalization of six state-of-the-art DRL algorithms. The algorithms are examined since they have fundamental differences in their properties, ranging from off-policy methods such as DQN to on-policy methods such as PPO Advantage Actor Critic. The policies are compared to a baseline P-controller to evaluate the performance with respect to simpler methods. The result from the model show that DRL needs around 100,000 samples to converge, which in a real setting would represent around 70 days of learning. The thesis also shows that the final policy applied by the agent does not show considerable improvements over a simple control algorithm with respect to reward and performance when multiple experiments with varying loads and configurations are tested. Due to the lack of data and slow real time systems, with robustness being an important consideration, the time to convergence requiredby a DRL agent is to long for an autoscaling solution to be deployed in the near future. Therefore, the author can not recommend DRL for autoscaling in VNFs given the current state of the technology. Instead the author recommend simpler methods, such as supervised machinelearning or classical control theory.

  • Klintmalm, Aksel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Hilma Af Klint Museum2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Hilma af Klint museum on the island of Lidingö in Stockholm

  • Hellmér, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Using eDNA to improve environmental monitoring for water bodies effected by hydropower in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to contribute to the base of knowledge on environmental monitoring by increasing understanding of how eDNA, electrofishing and sampling fishing may be used to examine fish biodiversity. It also aims at understanding if fish indexes developed within the Water Framework Directive reflect biodiversity, as well as the potential of eDNA data to serve as input to these indexes. This was done by using three different approaches.

    Firstly, in order to establish which of the methods eDNA, electrofishing and sampling fishing is more suitable to measure the different dimensions of biodiversity (species richness, species evenness and genetic diversity), a literature review comparing the different methods was carried out. It was found that eDNA yields a more detailed results for species richness, electrofishing yields better results for species evenness and sampling fishing is outperformed by eDNA and electrofishing alike. Both electrofishing and sampling fishing may collect data for genetic diversity analysis, however electrofishing outperforms sampling fishing with regards to amount of species caught, making electrofishing a more suitable data collection method.

    Secondly, in order to gain insight on practical usage of eDNA, a case study of Spjutmo (Dalarna county) was reviewed. It was established that eDNA generated more detailed information of species richness in the case of Spjutmo (as compared to electrofishing). The relative abundance data generated by the eDNA study might be seen as a measure of species evenness. However, electrofishing yielded data which may serve as input to species evenness indices. To the best knowledge of the author, none of the methods generated data on genetic diversity in this specific case.

    Officials from the energy company Fortum and the county board of Dalarna were also interviewed in order to get insight on what potential they see for eDNA to contribute to environmental monitoring. Both officials point at the ability to estimate abundance as a desired feature, hence a better understanding of what the relative abundance results indicates is wanted. The two interviews indicate that this understanding is an important feature to develop in order to make metabarcoding studies effective in current environmental monitoring.

    Thirdly, in order to understand if fish indexes developed within the Water Framework Directive reflect biodiversity, a literature review was performed. It was found that, all but one of the compared indexes incorporates or somewhat incorporates species richness. However, only five indexes are indicative or somewhat indicative of species richness. Species evenness is incorporated or somewhat incorporated by two indexes, which are also indicative or somewhat indicative of species evenness. None of the indexes incorporate or indicate genetic diversity.

    Within the third literature review, the potential of eDNA data to serve as input to current fish-based indexes developed within the Water Framework Directive, was studied. It was found that eDNA data may serve as input to only one index in its present form. However, five indexes also use proportional information (e.g. proportion of tolerant species), which possibly could be provided by eDNA data. The index where usage of eDNA data is currently possible uses presence-absence information.

  • Lennartsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Reuterswärd, Hedvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hur studenter använder blåljusfilter och hur de upplever tekniken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and discusses the use of some of the blue light filters available on the market today. It is a quantitative survey conducted to get a result describing how our test subjects use blue light filters today and what they think should be improved for future development. The result is discussed and compared with the theories found in related research.

    The problem we look into in this essay is “How is blue light filters experienced and used?”. The method used to obtain a result was to send out a survey to 22 blue light filter users.

    You can see clear connections between users' results and theories that blue light filters help to counteract deterioration of sleep quality due to watching a screen for hours before going to sleep. We also see that many people want improvements in technology such as the ability to make the filter more personal according to their own lifestyle.

  • Gram, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Reduktion av luftburna partiklar PM10 i Södertälje centrum: En utvärdering av åtgärder2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The levels of the airborne particle matter PM10 are currently high in the Swedish city of Södertälje and it has been high since the particle measures begun in 2006. PM10 stands for small particles with a diameter less than 10 micrometer. In the street of Turingegatan in central Södertälje the Swedish environmental quality standards has been exceeded 5 years during the last decade. The PM10 daily mean value per year in Turingegatan was compared to the values of Hornsgatan, a busy street in the capital city Stockholm. It was shown that the levels of PM10 had decreased in Hornsgatan during the last decade, while no decreasing trend of the particle levels was shown on Turingegatan. The particle levels were considerably higher in Hornsgatan compared to Turingegatan in 2007. As measures were imposed on Hornsgatan the PM10 levels in the street almost halved during the following 8 years. In 2014 and 2015 the particle levels was higher in Turingegatan than in Hornsgatan.

     

    The first measure to decrease the PM10 levels in Södertälje was imposed in March and April 2017. Dust binding with CMA (Calcium magnesium acetate) was implemented in selected streets of Södertälje. CMA is a salt that keep moisture stick to the pavement of the street, to prevent road dust from whirling up in the air. An assessment of this measure was carried out by three graphic analyses and by using a modelling tool called NORTRIP. NORTRIP is a model developed to simulate levels of particle matter in the air generated from road traffic. NORTRIP stands for NOn-exhaust Road TRaffic Induced Particle emissions.

     

    This report present the result of the investigation and compilation of the PM10 levels in two streets in Södertälje, further the particle levels has been compared to levels in the country side and Hornsgatan in the capital city. The NORTRIP model was used to simulate the particle levels in Turingegatan. The model can be used to simulate the change in particle levels while imposing different scenarios of e.g. measures to reduce the particles. This report present an evaluation of the following scenarios in Turingegatan; ban of studded tyres, reduced amount of traffic, reduced traffic speed, increased number of dust binding occasions, road cleaning, ban of heavy vehicles and disadvantaged meteorology.

     

    An investigation of the mean value per hour in 2016 showed that the maximum mean value exceeded 600 µg/m3 in Turingegatan which is devastating from a health perspective. However, such high PM10 levels were not common since the value of the third quartile was only 18 µg/m3. The PM10 daily mean value per year in Turingegatan was compared to the PM10 levels from the measuring station in Norr Malma which is located in the country side. The particle levels in Norr Malma got to represent the natural background levels of PM10. These levels constituted of 26-40 % of the PM10 levels in Turingegatan the last decade; this means that 60-74 % of the particle levels in Turingegatan have been generated locally in the street. A compilation of the daily mean values per month in Södertälje revealed that the highest PM10 levels were measured in March and April every year since the PM10 measures started.

    The NORTRIP model was used to simulate the PM10 values in Turingegatan from 22nd of December 2016 until 27th of April 2017. The model computed the daily mean value of the period with a similar result compared to the measured values; the daily mean value differed only by 1 %. However, the simulation overestimated the values considerably several times. The peaks of the simulation were often higher than the peaks of the measured values. A conceivable reason for this is the lack of input data regarding road moisture. It is probable that the model calculated the road to dry more and faster than was happening in reality which caused the high peaks in the simulation. The model calculated the number of daily mean values exceeding 50 µg/m3 during the period to 28 days which comported with the measured result. However, 19 out of the 28 days of the exceeding daily mean value was found to be on the same date in the modelled values and the measured values.  A distinct correlation was found between the measured and modelled data, however it did not show significance. The result from the model has substantial potential to improve with access to more important input data such as road moisture.

    The NORTRIP simulation of different scenarios on Turingegatan from 22nd of December 2016 until 27th of April 2017 showed that the most efficient measure was reduced traffic by 30 %, this reduced the daily mean value of PM10 by nearly one third. This measure was also most efficient to lower the amount of days exceeding a daily mean value of 50 µg/m3, 16 days was prevented from exceeding. The second most efficient measure to lower the daily mean value was ban of heavy vehicles, followed by ban of studded tyres. Considering the number of days exceeding 50 µg/m3 the ban of studded tyres gave the second best effect by reducing 15 days from exceedance. The result of the simulation showed that additional frequent dust binding during the period was also efficient to reduce the airborne particle levels, the locally generated daily mean value was lowered by 25% and the number of exceeding days was lowered by 11. Increasing the number of road cleaning occasions gave the least effect. The daily mean value was reduced by 3% and two days was prevented from exceeding 50 µg/m3. Thus it is not preferable to start with this measure.

    The scenario with disadvantageous meteorology meant that no precipitation took place during the modelled period. The result showed that the total and locally generated daily mean value would increase by 61% and 79% respectively, and the number of exceeding daily mean values increased by 11 days. The scenario is implausible since precipitation probably exist at least some time during the period, however it was of interest to investigate the importance of precipitation with concern to the particle levels. The result of the scenario simulations in NORTRIP shows similar results as earlier studies and can therefore give a trustworthy indication of how the PM10 levels gets affected by the different scenarios. The numbers and percentages resulting from the modelling in this study should be interpreted carefully though, due to the many uncertainties of the input data.

    The graphic analyses that focused on the dust binding effect on Turingegatan showed that the dust binding had reduced the PM10-levels; however the result contained severe uncertainties. The graphic analyses did not involve meteorological parameters which contributed to the uncertainties. No effect or pattern was discovered while investigating the hourly mean values in connection to the spread of dust binding agent. One of the graphic analyses showed that one day probably had been prevented from exceeding 50 µg/m3 as a result of the dust binding. The NORTRIP simulation of the dust binding effect showed that the total daily mean value of PM10 was reduced by 12% and the locally generated PM10 levels was reduced by 18%. I conformity with one of the graphic analyses, the simulation encountered that 1 day was prevented from exceeding 50 µg/m3.  However, the daily mean value of the measured data in Turingegatan this day did not show any exceedance as the NORTRIP-modelled result did. This indicates the weakness of the modelled result. However, a contexture of the results from the graphic analysis and the simulated result shows a good probability that one day was prevented from exceedance.

  • MARTSCHENKO, TATIANA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Introducing sustainability measures to retail district retrofits: Edmonton’s Westmount Centre Case Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many North American suburban shopping malls have become under-performing retail islands drifting in oceans of asphalt parking lots. This thesis examined three potential future scenarios for the aging retail shopping mall landscape;

    1. Maintaining status quo

    2. Upgrading the property for a mixed-use neighbourhood centre

    3. Implementing strategies for attainable sustainability targets

    These scenarios were examined using a proposed retrofit of Edmonton, Canada’s Westmount Centre as a case study, to determine if this retrofitting approach could be a pilot for other districts.

    The principles of 2030 District (2030 District, 2012) guided this thesis, a concept which proposed that by 2030 all newly constructed districts be energy neutral and that existing districts be retrofitted to use less than 50% of the energy that they presently consume. The Spider charts developed by Haas & Troglio (Haas & Troglio, 2011) were used to create strategies that included incorporating existing proven, economically viable technologies to the proposed retrofit. The three resulting scenarios were then evaluated using Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - Neighbourhood Design, version 4 (LEED-ND v4), to make a case for raising the threshold for sustainability and mitigation measures when planning new and retrofit projects in North America (USGBC, 2014). The goal of the thesis was to find a solution that holistically meets the goals of LEED-ND, where partnerships between numerous stakeholders provide a business model for urban sustainability, which includes planning, implementation and verification (2030 District, 2012).

    By examining proven sustainability measures and applying them to the normative scenario, makes the case that strategic implementation during a situation of opportunity, through timely stakeholder interaction, will result in a district that is both sustainable (environmentally, socially and economically) and provides a good return on investment.

    This thesis is a starting point for the iterative process, a compelling argument and business case for further investigation and action for Westmount Centre and by extension, to other retail districts.

  • Robiglio, Alessio
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater by mainstream Partial Nitritation/Anammox process2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream Partial Nitritation/Anammox, also known as Mainstream Deammonification, is a promising technology for future wastewater purification that aims to remove nitrogen from wastewater in order to prevent the eutrophication. It is less costly than the traditional nitrification/denitrification process and it heads towards the direction of converting the WWTPs from energy consuming into energy producing facilities.

     

    This Master’s thesis is based on a study regarding the nitrogen removal from mainstream wastewater. It was conducted at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk that is a research facility in the area of the Henriksdal Waste Wastewater Treatment Plant in Stockholm. Three parts of the study were developed. The main one had the purpose to evaluate the process performances of a biological pilot-scale IFAS reactor used for Mainstream Deammonification that was operated from October 2017 to March 2018. This evaluation was addressed to comprehend how the pilot-scale reactor works at different operational conditions. The remaining studies analysed the progress of the pilot-scale reactor in relation to different factors and to the settling properties of the activated sludge used in the process.

     

    It was found that the process performances improved by changing the aeration pattern from 40 to 50 minutes for non-aeration time and from 20 to 10 minutes for aeration time and by increasing the dissolved oxygen set-point from 0.6 to 1.0 mg/L. The enhancement of the performances consisted in an inhibition of nitrite oxidizing bacteria and rise of the total nitrogen removal efficiency. In addition, anammox biofilm was observed to grow on the carriers and it was observed that the activated sludge did not have good settling properties.

  • Javanmardi, Ramtin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Rehman, Dawood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Classification of Healthy and Alzheimer's Patients Using Electroencephalography and Supervised Machine Learning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s is one of the most costly illnesses that exists today and the number of people with alzheimers diease is expected to increase with 100 million until the year 2050. The medication that exists today is most effective if Alzheimer’s is detected during early stages since these medications do not cure Alzheimer’s but slows down the progression of the disease. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a relatively cheap method in comparison to for example Magnetic Resonance Imaging when it comes to diagnostic tools. However it is not clear how to deduce whether a patient has Alzheimer’s disease just from EEG data when the analyst is a human. This is the underlying motivation for our investigation; can supervised machine learning methods be used for pattern recognition using only the spectral power of EEG data to tell whether an individual has alzheimer’s disease or not? The output accuracy of the trained supervised machine learning models showed an average accuracy of above 80%. This indicates that there is a difference in the neural oscillations of the brain between healthy individuals and alzheimer’s disease patients which the machine learning methods are able to detect using pattern recognition.

  • Svensson, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Applicability of Planetary Boundaries to improve Sustainability Performance at Companies: A Case Study at Sandvik Materials Technology2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The question investigated in this study is whether the framework ‘planetary boundaries’ can be a suitable tool for improving sustainability performance at companies or not. It does so by investigating three analytical and eight related empirical questions. The methods in this study include; a structural literature review, qualitative interviews with key players at the focal company Sandvik Materials Technology and a qualitative analysis of the steel industry and Sandvik Materials Technology’s relationship to planetary boundaries.

    From the literature study, it was concluded that as for now, methods for applying the planetary boundary framework lack in maturity. It does not follow from this that there is no scientific relevance in developing methods for application, but more research is needed to confirm a methodological framework for application which is suitable for companies.

    The interviews revealed a skeptical attitude towards the framework´s ability to improve Sandvik Materials Technology´s sustainability performance. To derive environmental targets from science was viewed as a necessity, however environmental targets in companies must take other aspects (e.g. cost-effectiveness and business opportunity) into account as well.  

    The qualitative Planetary Boundaries analysis showed that the activities and processes at Sandvik Materials Technology is well suited for an environmental assessment based on a planetary boundaries perspective. Some focus areas remained the same as in their current environmental strategy (e.g. climate change and fresh water abstraction) but others (biosphere integrity and biochemical flows) appeared as new possible focus areas. Sandvik Materials Technology´s main focus, resource use, were however excluded from an environmental assessment based on a planetary boundaries perspective.

    Due to the lack of mature methods, an implementation of the framework at a company requires a strong commitment at the company. The researcher concludes that such level of commitment is lacking at Sandvik Materials Technology. Therefore, this study reaches the conclusion that the planetary boundary framework is, at least for now, not alone a suitable tool for improving sustainability performance at the focal company Sandvik Materials Technology.

  • Gedusevs, Janis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Smartphone sustainability assessment using multi-criteria analysis and consumer survey2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is a fairly new emerging business concept for manufacturing industry and this thesis will focus on smartphone manufacturing industry. In 2015 there were 1.86 billion smartphone users and it is estimated to increase to 2.87 billion in 2020. Currently the average lifetime of a smartphone is 21 months and According to Consumer Technology Association the technical life expectancy of a smartphone is 4.7 years. The European Commission approximated that from 17–20 kg of electronic waste is produced per person per year and that smartphones are contributors for increase of electronic waste.

    Also the smartphone manufacturing process has an impact on the people who are involved with manufacturing and resource extraction process.  Related social problems include conflict minerals, issues in manufacturing campuses, health problems and excessive worktimes. There has been suspicion that large manufacturing companies use labour market in areas that have a high risk of poverty or lack of national authority that can protect labour rights. To investigate these emerging issues that has an impact on smartphone manufacturing sustainability, a sustainability ranking criteria for individual smartphones devices and their manufactures was developed.

    Furthermore, the aim of the research is to develop a ranking system using life cycle perspective and to evaluate sustainability of a smartphones upcycling, recycling, and social aspects. This aim will be accomplished by the following objectives: Develop evaluation system for smartphones using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) to evaluate sustainability; Comparing sustainability of smartphones Fairphone 2, iPhone 7, Samsung Galaxy S7 and LG G5, using developed Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA); Conducting general sustainability- focused survey about consumer demand for sustainable and ethical electronics.

    The method used in this research to assess smartphone sustainability was Multi-Criteria Analysis(MCA), based on eco-design trends and three pillars of sustainability, – economic, environmental and social. Eco-design will be supported using EcoDesing Roadmap by Conrad Luttropp and Göran Brohammer.

    In parallel with MCA method a survey was developed to briefly assess consumer’s behaviour in terms of choosing sustainable electronics. For better understanding about the consumer value on purchase decision, a survey was made considering the technical and sustainable aspects. The results of this survey will be used as indicator.

    Furthermore, results from this research (Table 1 MCA evaluation results) revealed that majority of chosen smartphones where lacking sustainable products aspects. This MCA ranking system also confirm that for sustainable designed smartphone it is equally important to have well established environmental management system for overall manufacturing process and afterlife of smartphone.

    Continuing, after conducting deeper analysis with combined results from MCA, survey revealed that general public are willing to pay more for sustainable products, but consumers lack information about the overall manufacturers` sustainability, as well Indicating that communication between manufacturers and consumers are very weak or even one way.

    The conclusion of the study about Smartphone sustainability assessment using multi-criteria analysis and the consumer survey has provided better understanding about the lack of transparency and complex logistics manufacturing process of smartphone.

    The lack of qualitative data and transparency from the manufactures side is a major issue that creates lot of uncertainties about smartphone manufacturing process and social issues for workforce that is involved in this manufacturing process.

  • Eklund, Frida
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Visualisation - Interaction - Collaboration, VIC.
    Make people move: Utilizing smartphone motion sensors to capture physical activity within audiences during lectures2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It takes only about 10-30 minutes into a sedentary lecture before audience attention is decreasing. There are different ways to avoid this. One is to use a web-based audience response systems (ARS), where the audience interact with the lecturer through their smartphones, and another is to take short breaks, including physical movements, to re-energize both the body and the brain.

    In this study, these two methods have been combined and explored. By utilizing the motion sensors that are integrated in almost every smartphone, a physical activity for a lecture audience was created and implemented in the ARS platform Mentimeter. The proof of concept was evaluated in two lectures, based on O’Brien and Toms' model of engagement. The aim was to explore the prerequisites, both in terms of design and implementation, for creating an engaging physical activity within a lecture audience, using smartphone motion sensors to capture movements and a web-based ARS to present the data.

    The results showed that the proof of concept was perceived as fun and engaging, where important factors for creating engagement were found to be competition and a balanced level of task difficulty. The study showed that feedback is complicated when it comes to motion gesture interactions, and that there are limitations as to what can be done with smartphone motion sensors using web technologies. There is great potential for further research in how to design an energizing lecture activity using smartphones, as well as in exploring the area of feedback in motion gesture interaction.

  • Bywall, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Environmental Management and its related Financial and Environmental Performance Measurements: A study within Swedish Retail2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Company managers have increasingly adopted environmental management in the 2000’s, and the relationship between environmental management and financial performance has been a subject for discussion during the last decades because of inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to investigate this relationship between environmental management and financial performance within companies, and to analyse how Swedish retail companies are evaluating the environmental and financial results from environmental management. The methodology used for the study is a literature review to capture the current knowledge area in research, a study of companies’ sustainability reports and an interview study to collect empirical evidence from the retail sector.

    The literature study shows a positive result between environmental performance and financial performance, a positive relationship between environmental management and financial performance, and non-conclusive data of the relationship between environmental management systems and financial performance. Furthermore it shows that companies are measuring and reporting environmental performance but no or few companies are reporting the financial outcome from environmental management, however companies seem to measure cost savings from environmental management. From this study, no consensus of a general methodology of the measuring of the financial outcomes from environmental management has been found. The findings are not representing the entire retail sector and should rather be seen as empirical evidence from a number of retail companies. The conclusion made was that the ambitions within environmental management differ within one industry sector, and that there seem to be no general methodology for measuring the financial outcome from environmental management.

  • Dahiya, Anuj
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. 1994.
    Energy Flow Analysis of Muesli Production: To Identify Cleaner Production Measures2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production of muesli is an energy intensive process which consumes enormous amount of energy invarious forms. In this study, energy flow accounting tool has been employed which is a valuable tool for mapping and quantifying the energy flows within a specific system such as a nation, city or factory. Thistool aids in highlighting the pathways of energy throughout the system and identifies the sources ofenergy loss. Furthermore, to support identification and assessment of CP measures the energy flowaccounting method was integrated within the CP assessment methodology framework. Energy balance established with the help of energy flow accounting method, also highlights different energy inflows andoutflows in the process such as steam, oil, gas and raw material. The utmost energy consuming subprocesses in muesli production are cleaning, rolling, air blowers, husk removal, extruder and mothermachine. Since Läntmannen Cerealia at Järna generates steam, hot water and district heating from removed husk, along with recovering the steam loss in form of condensate, the overall efficiency of their system is approximately 90%. Moreover, an attempt to establish extensive energy balance at the plant has not been undertaken. This factor serves as the stimulus for the study project as it promises futurework in this domain. This comprehensive report demonstrates a nearly accurate picture of the energybalance of muesli production at Läntmannen Cerealia. The energy losses in different manifestation ofenergy during various sub processes have also been presented in the report. Additionally, suggestions for improvement have been furnished to reduce the energy losses during the process of production. However, feasibility analysis is recommended before the implementations of these measures. Implementation of the aforementioned measures could potentially decrease the energy losses in production of muesli and can boost the environmental performance of the entire process.

  • Nordin von Platen, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Nature-based Solutions for Flood Risk Reduction, Contamination Control and Climate Change Adaption2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy precipitation events are expected to increase in the future, due to climate change. This predicted change will increase the risk of flooding, especially in urban areas. To mitigate these challenges and support a sustainable urban development, Nature-based solutions (NBS) can be used as a flood risk reduction measure. The NBS wetlands and constructed wetlands, composed of ponds, canals and ditches, are commonly used solutions which are multifunctional and primarily provides flood regulatory services, water quality improvements and increased biodiversity. To reach the full potential of NBS, the location and design is crucial. At present planning practise, a user friendly and time efficient tool to investigate suitable locations within a catchment is missing, where the concept of connectivity has arisen as a useful approach. In this study, the NBS concept and the potential of wetlands for flood risk mitigation have been investigated. In addition, the connectivity of two study case catchments has been analysed by using the Connectivity Index (IC index) by Cavalli et al. (2013). The aim has been to evaluate whether the IC index can be used to find suitable locations for NBS. Further, the study seeks to investigate how the IC index can be integrated into NBS planning practice in order to create useful information for the decisionmaking process. To validate the IC index result, a comparison has been performed with earlier flood events, two hydrological models, Multi criteria decision analysis and spatiotemporal soil parameters. From the obtained result and analysis, preliminary solutions have been proposed for two case studies in Sweden and Portugal. The result shows that IC index is promising as an, early stage, first assessment tool in NBS planning practice which can be used in order to allocate areas suitable for NBS. To find the most beneficial location and the site-specific design, a deeper investigation of the site-specific conditions is required. Moreover, a successful implementation is dependent on a close collaboration between different stakeholders and expertise. Finally, this study shows that realizing the potential of NBS wetlands is essential to create sustainable urban development and liveable and attractive cities.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-12 10:00 V32, Stockholm
    Gao, Yulong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Stochastic Invariance and Aperiodic Control for Uncertain Constrained Systems2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainties and constraints are present in most control systems. For example, robot motion planning and building climate regulation can be modeled as uncertain constrained systems. In this thesis, we develop mathematical and computational tools to analyze and synthesize controllers for such systems.

    As our first contribution, we characterize when a set is a probabilistic controlled invariant set and we develop tools to compute such sets. A probabilistic controlled invariantset is a set within which the controller is able to keep the system state with a certainprobability. It is a natural complement to the existing notion of robust controlled invariantsets. We provide iterative algorithms to compute a probabilistic controlled invariantset within a given set based on stochastic backward reachability. We prove that thesealgorithms are computationally tractable and converge in a finite number of iterations. The computational tools are demonstrated on examples of motion planning, climate regulation, and model predictive control.

    As our second contribution, we address the control design problem for uncertain constrained systems with aperiodic sensing and actuation. Firstly, we propose a stochastic self-triggered model predictive control algorithm for linear systems subject to exogenous disturbances and probabilistic constraints. We prove that probabilistic constraint satisfaction, recursive feasibility, and closed-loop stability can be guaranteed. The control algorithm is computationally tractable as we are able to reformulate the problem into a quadratic program. Secondly, we develop a robust self-triggered control algorithm for time-varying and uncertain systems with constraints based on reachability analysis. In the particular case when there is no uncertainty, the design leads to a control system requiring minimum number of samples over finite time horizon. Furthermore, when the plant is linear and the constraints are polyhedral, we prove that the previous algorithms can be reformulated as mixed integer linear programs. The method is applied to a motion planning problem with temporal constraints.

  • Sandell, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Modelling and Power Optimization of a Hybrid Vehicle Refrigeration System2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the modelling and power optimization of a vapor compression refrigeration system in a hybrid vehicle. The system consists of a compressor, a condenser, two expansion valves, an evaporator and a chiller. The achieved model describes the states of the system and the total power consumption of the components when the system is in balance, i.e. there is no time dependencies of the variables. The model is based on thermodynamic laws and properties together with empirical parameters which are estimated from given data of a refrigeration system. A comparison is made between the model and the given data, which shows good conformance. The model is optimized with respect to the system power consumption for different cooling demands at the evaporator and chiller, and the optimal solutions describes the values of system state variables and the control variables. Three different variations of the optimization problem have been examined, the first one simulates a stationary vehicle, the second one a moving vehicle and the third one simulates a stationary vehicle with fixed speed of the evaporator fan. It has also been tested what impact the ambient air and glycol temperatures has on the optimal solution. The results of the optimization problems shows that when increasing the demanded cooling power at the evaporator, both the compressor frequency and the evaporator air flow increases, but the air flow increases faster to its maxi-mum capacity since evaporator fan consumes less power than the compressor. When increasing the cooling demands of the chiller we see the same behavior, but when the evaporator cooling demands are much higher than the chiller’s, the compressor frequency are determined solely by the evaporator cooling demand. For the case of the moving vehicle, the air flow through the condenser is higher without requiring any power from the condenser fan. This results in a lower total power consumption, thanks to the zero condenser fan power and a reduced compressor power as a result of the lower condenser pressure. For the case when fixing the evaporator fan effect, the system produces an evaporator cooling power of a minimum 3 kW even though it is not demanded. Apart from that, the results looks similar to the normal case. The results also showed that the values of the ambient temperatures have a great impact on the optimal solutions.

  • Dastgheib, Seyedehfatemeh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Lightning Design.
    Light and Perception of safety in-between buildings: The role of lighting in perception of safety from a female perspective in in-between spaces of residential areas2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will investigate the relationship between lighting and perception of safety through a case study. The main focus of this study is outdoor lighting with consideration of gender equality and perception of safety. Although street lighting is generally recognized as the most important environmental features that influences subjective perception of safety after dark, there is still lack of knowledge regarding the needed quality of light for this purpose and how it may influence perceived safety. Literature review indicates that effect of light on perceived safety works through two different mechanisms: natural surveillance and social integration. The main focus of this thesis is on natural surveillance. Indeed, light by increasing visibility in interaction with presence of people, enhance possibilities of natural surveillance. Based on literature review, a tool has been developed to have a more specific examination of visibility.Besides, the women’s safety audit (WSA) diagnostic tool is used as a qualitative data collection tool to identify unsafe spots in the chosen area by 10 local female participants. The chosen area is a residential area in Eskilstuna city, called Årby neighbourhood. All the participants were asked to determine unsafe spots from their perspective in the chosen area during an exploratory night walk. In the next step, the identified unsafe spots are analysed by means of the developed tool in terms of visibility.The result of this thesis supports the previous findings regarding the relationship between visibility and safety perception. Results show that urban settings with low level of prospect (obstructed view), high level of entrapment (escape difficulty), high level of concealment (lots of hiding spots), lack of illuminated visual spatial boundaries (sky plane, vertical plane and ground plane), low level of facial recognition and obstacle detection, low level of illumination of path, high level of glare and varied lighting distribution are judged as the most unsafe by women. In addition, the study revealed that illuminated ground plane has the minimum impact on sense of safety in comparison with other safety-related environmental factors. Consequently, this study highlighted that standards and guidelines, which are related to ground plane, are not very beneficial for improving perception of safety.

  • Dascalita, Raluca
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Lightning Design.
    That meaningful light: A phenomenological approach to meaning in lighting design2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bek, Rim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Lightning Design.
    The Perceptual and Psychological Effects of Artificial Lighting on Peripheral Vision in Humans2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information processing differences between foveal and peripheral vision allow for different perceptual experiences and emotional responses. A lighting set-up was used to test the spatial perception and emotional state of 14 participants with the use of foveal and peripheral vision in a photograph and immersive environment respectively.  The space was associated with high levels of tension, inspiration, and alertness and was regarded as being more spacious, with higher light intensity, and more uniform lighting distribution when perceived with peripheral vision.