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  • Natale, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Optimization of liquid flow rate distribution in etching modules through numerical simulationsand experiments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to simulate the liquid flow rate distribution in the etching modules and find the optimal setup in order to achieve a distribution as homogenous as possible. The commercial software Matlab 2015a has been employed for all the numerical simulations. The optimization has been carried out varying several parameters, i.e. spray cross sections of the nozzles, the oscillation parameters, the rotating angle of the nozzles within etching module 1 and the nozzle arrangement inside the modules. Furthermore, the optimization has been carried out separately along the two directions of the modules. The results achieved computationally have been validated via experimental procedures. During this study a specific experimental setup has been developed in order to be able to compare experimental and computational results. The validation process has shown that the computational method matches the experimental results to a good extent. The experimental liquid distribution in etching module 2 widely matches the simulations to a quantitative extent, while the one in etching module 1 provides the same qualitative but different quantitative results.

  • Mateu Royo, Carlos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Field Measurements and Modelling Analysis of CO2 Refrigeration Systems with Integrated Geothermal Storage2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of CO2 trans-critical booster refrigeration system integrated with geothermal storage to provide the cooling and the heating demands with high energy efficiency. During summer season, heat is rejected from the CO2 refrigeration system, increasing the amount of sub-cooling and storing this heat into the ground. During winter season, the heat stored in the ground is extracted and used as heat source to provide the heating requirements of the supermarket. 

    Using field measurements data from medium size supermarkets in Sweden, existing solutions for integrated geothermal storage in a CO2 refrigeration system as well as proposal solution are modelled and compared with stand-alone CO2 trans-critical booster system. The techno-economical comparative analysis shows that hybrid CO2 trans-critical booster system with GSHP as an integrated geothermal solution has 6% lower annual energy use than a stand-alone CO2 system with heat recovery solution for refrigeration and heating in North of Europe.

    In addition to the computer simulations, field measurements monitoring of ten medium size supermarkets with integrated geothermal storage have been studied. Measurement system proposal guide is done to fulfill a proper energy analysis of the supermarket installation with the integrated solution. Evaluation of the missing measurements is done for the available supermarkets. One important conclusion of this part is that none of the supermarkets analyzed has enough measurement to realize a proper and comprehensive energy analysis.

  • Hamedi, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Electrical connection for aluminium conductors in automotive applications: Prestudy of available solutions for electrical connection methods of aluminium cables2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing weight of electrical component and wiring harnesses in a vehicle contrary to the demand of light constructed vehicles as well as the constantly increasing and fluctuating price of copper compared to aluminium’s stable and far lower price, the use of aluminium conductors as an alternative have been promoted. 

    This thesis work lay theoretical research of the available methods used for electrical connection of aluminium conductors in order to increase the knowledge about the available termination techniques. 

    Due to aluminium’s characteristics such as lower conductivity and strength, tendency to form oxides and relax over time, differences in thermal expansion coefficient and high potential for galvanic corrosion, there is a risk of deterioration and degradation of the connection if the termination of aluminium conductors is not done correctly without being aware of the challenges when it comes to aluminium connection. 

    The founded solutions are different welding and soldering techniques such as friction welding, ultrasonic welding, resistance welding, plasma soldering and many other modifications of conventional crimp. 

    A robust termination system that faces all those challenges and ensure a reliable connection during the entire life length of the vehicle and in order to inhibit corrosion different type of sealing of the contact interface will be required. 

    In order to evaluate the performance of the founded connection method, testing with evaluation of, tensile strength of conductor to contact attachment, tightness demand, corrosion resistance, vibration and heat evolution at the contact attachment have to be conducted.

  • Abu Nijmeh, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Catalan Canales, Diego
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Prokrastinering i form av medieanvändning: En jämförelsestudie kring kön och sysselsättning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Procrastination has long been a problem for many. Whether it is school work, training or something else, most individuals have experienced that they deliberately postpone a task for a later occasion. This phenomenon has in recent time been integrated into our society in a negative way. In our media-centered society we are becoming more connected where nowadays almost all of Sweden's population has access to the internet. Technology has brought many opportunities, but it has also opened up for new ways to procrastinate.

    This study aimed to investigate procrastination in the form of media usage by a large target group. We intended to find out eventual differences in procrastination habits between the sexes, but also between workers and students. Previous research has already shown that procrastination differs with age and occupation. With this in mind we seek to answer the question: Which digital media does people use when they procrastinate and on which technical platforms does this happen? In order to answer this question, we conducted a preliminary study on a smaller group of people to get a better understanding of what matters were relevant in this context. This preliminary study then formed the basis for a survey of 91 participants.

    The results showed clear differences between both men and women and between students and workers. Differences regarding both media usage and procrastination habits were seen where some differences were more notable than others. The result confirms previous studies in several aspects and gives us some insight into how different procrastination habits might look.

  • Lindström, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Nilsson, Linette
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Forest: Stay Focused för bättre fokus hos studenter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is a rapidly expanding research area where many studies have shown positive results. Gamification is a technique used when it is desirable to influence human behaviors and this study examines if the elements of gamification can motivate students to be more focused on their studies. The question at issue is in which ways does the implementation of gamification affect the concentration levels of students during their studies, and what are the consequences of the removal of said gamification? Using an experiment, we investigated whether the gamification elements of the application Forest: Stay Focused were sufficient to motivate our participants to stay focused during their studies. The study was conducted over two weeks. Ten students participated in the study, half of which began to study with a timer without any gamified elements, and the rest were to use the application with gamified elements. After the students used one of the study techniques for one week, they were to use the other technique during the second week. The reasoning behind this was to investigate if there were to occur negative effects on the students focus if the gamified elements were removed.

    The results showed that the participants were equally focused no matter what study technique they used. The participants of the study did not think that the use of the application made them more focused compared to the timer, although they preferred to use the application over the timer. The participants showed no change in how focused they were during their studies when the gamified elements were removed, which may be due to too few gamified elements in the application or that the participants had not gotten used to the study technique of using the application. The study's ambivalent results indicate that further research in this area is needed. Despite these results, we conclude that the application's gamified elements are not sufficiently motivating to prevent students from losing focus during their studies.

  • Sanchez Karlsson, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Designing a Game for Learning About Recycling2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world is getting more crowded, at the same time as people increase their consumption, there is a need for us taking control of our resource consumption and changing our behaviors into more sustainable ones. First of all, our consumption needs to decrease in order to prevent use of resources and prevent the production of waste. Secondly, there is a need for reusing and recycling materials already in the system, where the latter is a subject this study is going to focus on. In order to increase knowledge of recycling, exploration of new methods of spreading information and awareness is of interest. This study explores the spreading of information with a game-based learning approach, targeting young adults. A quantitative pre-study was conducted to investigate their recycling behavior, to get an understanding of what prevents and promotes recycling. Based on the findings from the pre-study, along with findings from previous research, a game was developed with the aim of meeting these preventing and promoting factors. The game explores how a digital game can be used to spread information of recycling along with a motivation to recycle. It was followed by a qualitative user study, to evaluate the game and explore users’ experience of learning through a game. According to the results, a game-based learning approach showed to be appreciated amongst the participants in general. They showed appreciation towards this type of learning and thought it was an entertaining alternative of learning. Crucial game elements for learning were detected along with further improvements. The game-play contributed to a knowledge increase, and after playing the game, participants saw potential in it being a motivational tool, but mostly, they saw it as a tool for motivating learning. 

  • Hedenqvist, Clarissa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Bång, Filippa
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    En studie om effekter på inställning och insikt genom tillgång till hållbarhetsrelaterade Quantified self-data2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The logging of personal data using technology aiming to increase self-knowledge, also known as Quantified Self, is a rapidly developing movement. At the same time, we are using far more carbon dioxide than our planet can handle. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relation between the use of Quantified Self tools and the attitude towards one's own carbon dioxide emissions regarding food, recycling and travels. We wanted to explore whether the method could be used to affect people’s views on their own emissions.

    The research question was how access to QS-data regarding carbon dioxide emissions from food, recycling and travels affects individual’s attitudes towards behaviour change and knowledge about their own behaviour within these areas. To answer the question at issue we conducted a study where the participants got daily feedback on their carbon dioxide emissions from the three categories mentioned and were asked to answer a questionnaire, both before and after the study, about their attitude towards the matter.  

    The results were then analyzed using The Behaviour Change Wheel model - capacity, opportunity and motivation in relation to behaviour. The results showed a connection between the feedback on the emissions and an increased understanding for, and motivation to decrease, one’s own carbon dioxide consumption. The access to QS-data had a positive effect on most of the participants in the sense that after the study, they were willing to try to live more climate friendly.

    For future research within the subject it is relevant to reflect on the design of the QS tool that is being used for the data gathering and in which context the data is being presented, since it could affect the outcome. In future studies, it could be interesting to use participants without an initial interest of changing one’s habits to be more climate friendly, since it might give more clear results of actual changes in attitudes towards, and knowledge about, climate encouraging measures.

  • Westin, Emil
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Visualization of Quantified Self with movement and transport data2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transport systems account for a large part of the worlds CO2 emissions. In order to reach goals, set to lower emissions, we need to travel less by car and increase the use of sustainable means of transportation. Through the use of self-tracking devices and by visualizing the data collected, individuals can learn about, and discover, habits, patterns and practices amongst themselves. In this thesis, the question of how much individuals know about their own CO2 emissions created from the modes of transportation they use on an everyday basis, is explored.

    The paper examines how a visualization of personal movement and transport data affects individuals' understanding of their own CO2 emission as well as their motivation towards using more sustainable modes of transportation. A two-week user-study was conducted with 15 participants. The participants tracked their movements and transports using a mobile application on a smart phone, and their data was presented in a web-application. Prior and post to the user-study, a self-evaluation questionnaire based on the COM-B model was handed out.

    Results showed that participants' understanding increased regarding putting their emission amounts in relation to what is low and what is high between transportation modes. An increased awareness of personal transportation patterns and what the environmental impact the choice of transport mode has, was indicated. Further, participants' motivation towards using more sustainable modes of transportation seems to be dependent on realizing if they have low or high emissions but also if there exist available alternative transport options to switch to. 

  • Larsson, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Erlandsson, Zacharias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Skillnad i läseffektivitet mellan scrollbaserad skärmläsning och RSVP-läsning på Apple Watch.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The small screen of the smart watch limits the amount of words that are displayed in one paragraph without scrolling on the screen. It is also in the software developer’s and consumer’s interest that the user quickly receives text-based information via their smart watch. RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) is a technique with potential to improve reading on smart watches since the technique is independent of the screen size, which is not the case with scroll-based reading.

    The problem statement is “Does RSVP-applications increase reading efficiency more than scroll-based screen reading on smart watches? Or is reading comprehension decreased in an attempt to streamline reading?”.

    This study continues to build on previous studies that examines reading speed with RSVP on other platforms. Because of this, the study aims to show if the findings and conclusions regarding RSVP on other platforms also applies on smart watches.

    To examine the difference in reading comprehension and reading speed between scroll-based reading and the speed-reading application Wear Reader on a smart watch, tests were performed in a structured and controlled environment. The participants in the study were college students who read two short texts with a large amount of information. One of the texts were read using scroll-based reading while the other was read with RSVP. Reading speed was measured using a stopwatch while reading comprehension was calculated with a questionnaire about the text they just read. The reading speed on RSVP was set to 1.5 times the participant’s reading speed on a printed reference text.

    The gathered data from the performed study indicates that the reading comprehension in the use of RSVP is reduced compared to that of the traditional scroll-method. As a measurement of the difference between the two methods the effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d-value. This resulted in a value of 0.519 which constitutes a medium-sized effect size.

    Because of the RSVP-method’s high speed it’s average reading efficiency is higher than that of the scroll-based reading method. Here a calculation of Cohen’s d-value results in the effect size 0.712, which corresponds to a medium-sized difference.

  • Lundh Haaland, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Ström, Oscar
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Påverkan av koldioxidavtrycksmärkning vid val av maträtt på restaurang2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Livsmedelsverkets undersökningar visar att koldioxidutsläppen relaterade till livsmedelskonsumtion utgör ungefär 25 % av genomsnittssvenskens totala miljöpåverkan vilken gör den till viktig spelpjäs i att nå upp de framtida klimatmålen. För en hållbar miljöpåverkan beräknas det genomsnittliga utsläppet per person och år ligga på ett till två ton. År 2014 låg det genomsnittliga utsläppet per person i Sverige 5 gånger över den gränsen. Syftet med projektet var att besvara “Hur påverkas svenska kunders val av maträtt på en restaurang om koldioxidavtryck i form av färgkodning och km färd i bil presenteras på menyn, samt hur påverkas försäljning av markerade rätter jämfört med icke-markerade rätter?”

    Undersökningen genomfördes under 16 dagar i april 2017 på restaurangen Open Café i Stockholm där rätterna på menyn satts i förhållande till varandra utifrån koldioxidavtryck. Koldioxidavtrycket beräknades med eget framtagen mjukvara, mjukvaran är kopplad till en mat-klimatdatabas som utvecklats inom ramen för forskningsprojektet ”Förbättrad energirådgivning och förbättrade energivanor genom quantified self assisted advisory”. Markeringen som implementerades följde ett trafikljus system med grön markering för rätter med minst koldioxidutsläpp följt av gul och röd. Trafikljussystemet är en vanlig typ av nudging vilket är ett sätt att påverka konsumentens val vid köptillfället. Resultatet av undersökningen jämfördes med restaurangens tidigare data för att avgöra huruvida koldioxidavtrycksmärkningen haft någon påverkan på konsumentens val. Resultatet visade en statistisk signifikant ökning i försäljning av markerade rätter överlag, samt en statistisk signifikant ökad försäljning av rätter markerad med grönt för en av maträtt-kategorierna som undersöktes. Vidare visade resultatet av undersökningen på en minskning i koldioxidavtryck per servering på 2 % dock med en låg statistisk signifikans. På grund av den låga statistiska signifikansen går resultatet inte att generaliseras. 

  • Grönborg, Lucas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Johansson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Hållbara matinköp: En studie om koldioxidpresentation i en digital inköpslista2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food is today one of the big criminals in greenhouse gas emissions and to be able to reach the climate goals we need to cut down on food with high carbon footprints. The focus of this study is on how direct information with the help of ICT could be used to increase people's knowledge about carbon footprints of food and their motivation to choose food with low carbon footprints. For this study a digital shopping list was developed in the form of a web application adapted for mobile devices that presented carbon footprints of different food. During a two week long test period a group of 38 participants used this web application as their shopping list. They also filled out forms focused on knowledge and motivation before, during and after the test period.

    The fundamental theory that is used in this study is The Behavior Change Wheel. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about carbon footprints of different food, both for food that the participants had been exposed to and those they had not been exposed to during the test period. The use of the web application resulted in a general increase in knowledge about carbon footprints of food with a strong effect size of 1,078. The result did though show that the web application didn’t have as big impact on the participants motivation when 51 % of the participants felt a low motivation to change or take away food from their shopping list because of the carbon footprint.

    Six persons changed or took away food with, what they thought had, a high carbon footprint. These were 9 % of all purchases that were made during the test period. The main reason why the participants didn’t change or take away food was that they thought the carbon footprint of their shopping list already was low. Other reasons were that they had hard time finding substitutes for the food with high carbon footprints and that they didn’t have the time. This study’s primary focus is on how changes in people’s knowledge and motivation affect behavior. However, the study is too short to draw any conclusions about behavior change.

  • Claesson, Philip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Odqvist, Patrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Förbättringspotential i Stockholms Gymnasieskolors Matrelaterade Koldioixutsläpp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming and climate changes due to greenhouse gas emissions are urgent problems needed to be addressed by leaders, nations, organizations and citizens around the world.

    In a more global world many western countries import more than they export, resulting that the country in some ways of measuring might be attributed with less greenhouse emissions than it should. For this reason, it is important to measure a country’s carbon footprint by measuring consumption, not only production. Studies show that Sweden is one of those countries. Sweden’s public consumption stands for about 20% of the national carbon emissions. Food in general stands for a substantial part of this public consumption, but there are big variances between different types of foods and diets.

    In this report, we address the public consumption of Stockholm assessing whether the carbon emissions connected to food served in public high schools differ between schools. We evaluate whether there is a significant difference between the carbon emissions of high schools and discuss whether some of these schools could be a positive influence on others. A hypothetical conclusion of how much carbon emissions could be reduced is drawn.

    Our study was conducted by building a web based prototype that analyzed purchase data and matched it with LCA data from the open database LCAFDB. We choose to divide the schools into two groups where Group 1 were schools with lower carbon emissions per food and Group 2 were schools with higher emissions per food. The average difference between schools in group 1 and 2 was 1,83 kilograms of carbon per kilogram of food. 71% of the students attended a school in Group 2, meaning that if the schools in Group 2 reduced their emissions to the level of the schools in Group 1, the potential reduction of emitted carbon would be 75,5 kilograms of carbon per student and year. Extrapolated to a national level, the results correspond to 79 000 tons of carbon yearly nationwide, although the selection was not randomly selected. [PC1] The study concludes that there are substantial differences between schools, implying substantial potential improvements.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-08 13:00 B242, Stockholm
    Thibblin, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Scania CV AB.
    Thermal Barrier Coatings for Diesel Engines2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the heat losses in heavy-duty diesel engines is of importance for improving engine efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Depositing thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) onto engine components has been demonstrated to have great potential to reduce heat loss from the combustion chamber as well as from exhaust components. The overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the thermal cycling lifetime and thermal insulation properties of TBCs for the purpose of reducing heat losses and thermal fatigue in heavy-duty diesel engines.

    In the thermal cycling test inside exhaust manifolds, nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) performed best, followed by YSZ with conventional microstructure and then La2Zr2O7. Forsterite and mullite could not withstand the thermal cycling conditions and displayed large cracks or spallation. Two sol-gel composite coatings displayed promising thermal cycling performance results in a furnace test under similar conditions.

    Thermal cycling testing of YSZ coatings having different types of microstructure, in a furnace at temperatures up to 800°C, indicated that the type of microstructure exerted a great influence. For the atmospheric plasma sprayed coatings, a segmented microstructure resulted in the longest thermal cycling lifetime. An even longer lifetime was seen for a plasma spray–physical vapour deposition (PS-PVD) coating.

    In situ heat flux measurements inside the combustion chamber indicated that plasma-sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 was the TBC material providing the largest heat flux reduction. This is explained by a combination of low thermal conductivity and high reflectance. The plasma-sprayed YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings provided very small heat flux reductions. Long-term testing indicated a running-in behaviour of YSZ and Gd2Zr2O7, with a reduction in heat flux due to the growth of microcracks in YSZ and the growth of macrocracks in Gd2Zr2O7.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-20 16:04
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Personal Autonomy and Informed Consent: Conceptual and Normative Analyses2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is comprised of a “kappa” and two articles. The kappa includes an account of personal autonomy and informed consent, an explanation of how the concepts and articles relate to each other, and a summary in Swedish.

    Article 1 treats one problem with the argument that a patient’s consent to treatment is valid only if it is authentic, i.e., if it is “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. As interventions with a patient’s life and liberties must be justified, the argument presupposes that the authenticity of desires can be reliably determined. If the status of a desire in terms of authenticity cannot be reliably determined, discarding the desire-holder’s treatment decision on the basis that it is inauthentic is morally unjustified. In the article, I argue that no theory of authenticity that is present in the relevant literature can render reliably observable consequences. Therefore, the concept of authenticity, as it is understood in those theories, should not be part of informed consent practices.

    Article 2 discusses the problem of what it is to consent or refuse voluntarily. In it, I argue that voluntariness should be more narrowly understood than what is common. My main point is that a conceptualization of voluntariness should be agent-centered, i.e., take into account the agent’s view of her actions. Among other things, I argue that an action is non-voluntary only if the agent thinks of it as such when being coerced. This notion, which at first look may seem uncontroversial, entails the counterintuitive conclusion that an action can be voluntary although the agent has been manipulated or coerced into doing it. In defense of the notion, I argue that if the agent’s point of view is not considered accordingly, describing her actions as non-voluntary can be alien to how she leads her life. There are other moral concepts available to describe what is wrong with manipulation and coercion, i.e., to make sense of the counterintuitive conclusion. Voluntariness should be reserved to fewer cases than what is commonly assumed.

  • Wang, Qihui
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Color-based Human Hand Segmentation Based on Smart Classification of Dynamic Environments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Color is an effective and widely used feature for hand detection. In order to dealwith the problematic situations such as hand color diversity and the variationin background and lighting conditions, a multi-classifier supervised learning approachis proposed using the color information of each pixel. Training imagesare first clustered into dozens of groups based on their global color histograms,and a linear SVM classifier is independently trained within each group. In thisway each group can represent a specific chrominance or luminance situation,and each classifier is optimized for a specific segmentation task.In this project, the optimal clustering solution for the classification task onthe given dataset is explored, and different combinations of four color spacesRGB, HSV, YCbCr and LAB are tested to construct clustering histograms ortraining features. Test results on the dataset show that clustering in LAB colorspace and training in multiple color spaces RGB HSV YCbCr LAB can producebetter results than other combinations, especially those using single color space.It also outperforms a recent hybrid color space solution for skin detection. Theproposed multi-classifier approach is easy to implement and computationallyefficient compared to most existing methods for hand segmentation.

  • Martin, Manu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Hand Segmentation from RGB Images in Uncontrolled Indoor Scenarios Using Randomized Decision Forests2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hand segmentation is an integral part of many computer vision applications suchas gesture recognition, human activity detection, hand-eye coordination anal-ysis, gaze detection etc. Many of these applications require a solution whichcan segment hands in real-time while working in low-capacity computing en-vironments. Training a classier to classify pixels into hand or background isone of the most popular methods used by researchers in the past. Many stud-ies have pointed out that using a Randomized Decision Forest (RDF) basedclassier brings out the best segmentation performance. However, the test sce-narios used by these studies were restricted in many aspects such as unclutteredimage backgrounds, controlled lighting and/or restricted variation of hand orbackground in images. Additionally, only a limited set of image features wereutilized by these methods to extract properties associated with the pixels.In this thesis, the performance of RDF based pixel classiers in hand seg-mentation when used in uncontrolled indoor environments is evaluated. A pairof new image features were devised to extract information from the neighbor-hoods around pixels and new implementation methods were forged for someexisting image features to make them faster. Seven image features, extractingproperties of pixels such as color and texture, as well as properties of pixelneighborhoods such as dierences, histogram, statistics and probabilities weretested with RDFs for hand segmentation. Additionally, as datasets with imagesof hands in uncontrolled indoor environments were nonexistent, a new datasetnamed ManoHandDB was created through manual annotation. The segmenta-tion performance was optimized by ne tuning the parameters of each imagefeature as well as the parameters of RDF. It was found that using a combinationof the color, texture, neighborhood histogram and neighborhood probability fea-tures outperforms existing methods for segmenting images in restricted as wellas unrestricted indoor environments. The experiments also shed light on theadvantages of each feature over the others as well as on the dependency ofthe feature on the training dataset qualities such as variations in background,illumination, hand scale and visible hand parts.

  • Zaccaro, Vito Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Timber-concrete hybrid innovations: A framework to evaluate economical and technical factors for the construction market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the focus of the construction market is on sustainability aspects, for which purpose, the employment of wood seems promising. Nevertheless, in countries having high potentiality like Sweden, the timber construction market finds difficulties in growing. The reason lies in the lack of standards for design and industrialization and on the strong competition of the concrete industry. The timber-concrete hybrid solution is presented in this study as a solution beneficial for both the timber and the concrete markets: the former would benefit of a pulling action towards standardization and larger market, while the latter would fulfil the environment-friendly requirements and better differentiate in the competitive landscape.

    Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to provide a framework to evaluate innovations in construction market, highlighting the characteristic issues related to the matching of timber and concrete constructions, and detecting the main economic and technical factors to help in the decision-making process. This framework will help to organize and evaluate all the information and the boundary conditions about the introduction of a concrete-timber hybrid construction solution, which eventually would enhance the timber construction market itself through a preliminary association with concrete market.

    Firstly, some consideration on the market areas and on the general perceptions towards the timber construction are presented; then, the focus is moved onto the dynamics of concrete and timber supply chains, highlighting similarities, diversities, and possible reciprocal benefits, to finally detect the market indicators to be considered for a decision-making path related to the timber-concrete hybrid construction.

    From the technical side, a conceptual design is proposed, considering the industrialization of such hybrid solution. Annex A shows how standardization and modularity of the products would enable compatibility and interchangeability between timber and concrete, on account of the open system within the construction market. Annex B displays a schematic picture of how the exploitation of timber and concrete’ properties, with the industrialization of these two materials, can be best employed for a hybrid building. A preliminary technical evaluation of the timber-concrete hybrid is carried out by dividing the building into modular units and focusing on the main systems (horizontal loadbearing system, vertical loadbearing system, external envelope, inner partitions), while making consideration on structural design, fire protection, building technology details, building service systems integration, construction plan, and costs.

    The innovations within the construction market are often hindered by the fear to undertake a high-risk project. The proposed framework allows to increase the awareness on the general factors to be evaluated, and to undertake a gradual adoption of the “new” timber construction solution. The key points underlying the whole timber-concrete hybrid problem are standardization and modularity, necessary for a quality-oriented production. Further studies need to be carried out with an applicative intent: application of the general framework to real cases and pilot projects; automatic tools for the design and construction optimization including economic and technical factors; innovative and original hybrid solutions, which better exploit the timber-concrete synergy.

  • Gebresilassie, Mesele Atsbeha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Spatio-temporal Traffic Flow Prediction2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement in computational intelligence and computational power and the explosionof traffic data continues to drive the development and use of Intelligent TransportSystem and smart mobility applications. As one of the fundamental components of IntelligentTransport Systems, traffic flow prediction research has been advancing from theclassical statistical and time-series based techniques to data–driven methods mainly employingdata mining and machine learning algorithms. However, significant number oftraffic flow prediction studies have overlooked the impact of road network topology ontraffic flow. Thus, the main objective of this research is to show that traffic flow predictionproblems are not only affected by temporal trends of flow history, but also by roadnetwork topology by developing prediction methods in the spatio-temporal.In this study, time–series operators and data mining techniques are used by definingfive partially overlapping relative temporal offsets to capture temporal trends in sequencesof non-overlapping history windows defined on stream of historical record of traffic flowdata. To develop prediction models, two sets of modeling approaches based on LinearRegression and Support Vector Machine for Regression are proposed. In the modelingprocess, an orthogonal linear transformation of input data using Principal ComponentAnalysis is employed to avoid any potential problem of multicollinearity and dimensionalitycurse. Moreover, to incorporate the impact of road network topology in thetraffic flow of individual road segments, shortest path network–distance based distancedecay function is used to compute weights of neighboring road segment based on theprinciple of First Law of Geography. Accordingly, (a) Linear Regression on IndividualSensors (LR-IS), (b) Joint Linear Regression on Set of Sensors (JLR), (c) Joint LinearRegression on Set of Sensors with PCA (JLR-PCA) and (d) Spatially Weighted Regressionon Set of Sensors (SWR) models are proposed. To achieve robust non-linear learning,Support Vector Machine for Regression (SVMR) based models are also proposed.Thus, (a) SVMR for Individual Sensors (SVMR-IS), (b) Joint SVMR for Set of Sensors(JSVMR), (c) Joint SVMR for Set of Sensors with PCA (JSVMR-PCA) and (d) SpatiallyWeighted SVMR (SWSVMR) models are proposed. All the models are evaluatedusing the data sets from 2010 IEEE ICDM international contest acquired from TrafficSimulation Framework (TSF) developed based on the NagelSchreckenberg model.Taking the competition’s best solutions as a benchmark, even though different setsof validation data might have been used, based on k–fold cross validation method, withthe exception of SVMR-IS, all the proposed models in this study provide higher predictionaccuracy in terms of RMSE. The models that incorporated all neighboring sensorsdata into the learning process indicate the existence of potential interdependence amonginterconnected roads segments. The spatially weighted model in SVMR (SWSVMR) revealedthat road network topology has clear impact on traffic flow shown by the varyingand improved prediction accuracy of road segments that have more neighbors in a closeproximity. However, the linear regression based models have shown slightly low coefficientof determination indicating to the use of non-linear learning methods. The resultsof this study also imply that the approaches adopted for feature construction in this studyare effective, and the spatial weighting scheme designed is realistic. Hence, road networktopology is an intrinsic characteristic of traffic flow so that prediction models should takeit into consideration.

  • Sedin, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    A comparison of Polar Code Constructions and Punctur-ing methods for AWGN and Fading channels2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today 5G and other wireless standards are being developed for the future of our society. The different use-cases of future wireless services are going to be ever-more demanding, whether it is vehicular communication or low-powered sensor networks. High-rate, ultra-reliable and low-power are future requirements that will also affect the coding schemes being used. A relatively recent coding scheme, called polar codes, has the potential to fulfill all of these requirements if the coding scheme applied is well-designed. In this thesis we will be focusing on practical algorithms for implementation of polar codes at medium-sized block-lengths.

     

        Polar codes are very different from other modern coding schemes. The code construction is rather unique in that they are dependent on the underlying channel, where the code construction can change with the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio of the AWGN channel. The puncturing of polar codes is also non-trivial compared to other coding schemes. Since the Polar Codes are dependent on the underlying channel, the fading channel performance is thus important to consider. In this thesis we aim to show through simulations how these different concepts affect the Block Error Rate (BLER) performance. Specifically, we compare how code constructions compare over the AWGN channel, how code construction affects the BLER performance with puncturing and how puncturing affects the performance over fading channels. We find that an appropriate code construction is very important for optimal performance over the AWGN channel with puncturing, in our case using Gaussian Approximation. We also find that different puncturing methods have vastly different performances for different rates over the AWGN and Rayleigh fading channel and that applying an interleaver is very important for optimal performance.

  • Fenske, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hammarling, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kylande solsken: En studie om potentialen för soldriven komfortkyla i svensk kontorsmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing demand for cooling in Swedish office buildings, as well as a growing need for sustainable energy solutions, solar-powered indoor cooling looks set to become an increasingly interesting topic. The aim of this study has been to model a typical office building using local climate and insolation data for Stockholm, and examine the potential of utilising solar energy to cool this building to acceptable temperatures throughout the year. Two systems were examined: a compression-chiller powered by electricity supplied by PV-panels, as well as an absorption chiller powered by hot water from solar collectors. It was found that both systems could achieve acceptable indoor temperatures in combination with shading of windows. Although the electric system reached a higher overall efficiency, there are a range of environmental concerns which must be taken into consideration regarding the materials used in construction and operation of such systems. Both systems could be improved by installing local energy storage capacity. It was also considered beneficial to connect each system to wider networks, such as the electricity network and district heating network, in order to secure energy supply on hot but cloudy days. This simultaneously reduces the space and investment required for energy storage. 

  • Cruz Nunez, Paulo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Sorcini, Emil
    Utvekling av ett nytt roterande fantom: Vid extrakorporeal strålbehandling av lokalt avancerat sarkom i skelett2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Extrakorporeal strålbehandling av skelettsarkom är en variant av strålbehandling där en del av en patients skelett opereras ut från kroppen. Skelettsegmentet transporteras sedan vidare till ett annat behandlingsrum där den bestrålas inuti ett fantom m.h.a. en linjäraccelerator. Detta sker medan patienten är nedsövd. Efter bestrålningen kan skelettsegmentet opereras tillbaka in till patienten. På Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset i Solna görs denna strålbehandling med en metod som kräver relativt lång bestrålningstid. Detta beror på fantomets kubiska form. Ju närmare ett fantom är strålkällan desto mindre stråltid behövs. Vid det kubiska fantomet används två strålfält, ett framför och ett bakom fantomet. Det här betyder att ifall fantomets position förs närmare strålkällan, så måste den föras tillbaka lika mycket åt andra hållet efter första strålfältet. Detta gör att det blir opraktiskt samt att man inte vinner någon tid. Målet med detta projekt var att skapa ett fantom som kan förflyttas så nära strålkällan som möjligt för att minska så mycket stråltid som möjligt. Detta kommer i sin tur minska den totala behandlingstiden. Genom att skapa ett roterande cylinderformat fantom som inte är riktningsberoende, så kunde fantomet förflyttas 25 cm närmare (från 95 cm till 70 cm), jämfört med det kubiska fantomets avstånd till strålkällan. Cylinderfantomet var gjord av akrylplast och en rotationsanordning konstruerades för att rotera fantomet. Vinkelhastigheten på rotationsanordningen sattes till 15 varv/minut. Det kubiska och cylindriska fantomet jämfördes genom simuleringar. Det visade sig att bägges stråldosfördelning var likvärdiga. Bestrålningstiden kunde förkortas ner från 640 sekunder till 340 sekunder utan att negativt påverka dosfördelningen jämfört med tidigare metod.

  • Borromeo, Reenalyn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Emil, Olsson
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Utvärdering av kompensationsmetoder för virvelströmmar i magnetisk resonanstomografi med bSSFP2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mest etablerade metoden för hjärtavbildning med MRI kallas bSSFP. Denna baseras på att signalen hålls i ett jämviktstillstånd genom noggrann balansering av magnetiska gradientfält. Vid avbildning av objekt i rörelse med hög temporal upplösning sker snabba skiftningar av gradienterna som inducerar virvelströmmar i magnetkamerans ledande komponenter och i patienten. Virvelströmmarna som skapas stör det homogena statiska fältet som krävs för avbildning med bSSFP och leder till artefakter vid avbildning.

    Det finns därför ett intresse i att kompensera för virvelströmmarnas påverkan vid avbildning. I detta arbete utvärderas tre befintliga kompensationsmetoder: ”Tiny Golden Angle”, ”Double Averaging” och ”Through Slice Equlibriation”. Respektive metod tillåter olika parameterval. Målet med detta arbete är att avgöra vilken, eller vilka, kombinationer av metoderna som ger bäst kompensation för virvelströmmar utan att påverka bildernas kliniska värde. Undersökningen baserades på att kombinera olika metoder samt parametervärden hos respektive metod och applicera detta vid avbildning av ett fantom. Sedan gjordes en kvantitativ analys av fantombilderna och baserat på fantomstudien skedde ett urval av kombinationer för hjärtavbildning av en frivillig testperson. En visuell bedömning gjordes sedan på hjärtbilderna.

    Resultatet tydde på att individuell applicering av metoderna kompenserade för virvelströmmar, men även att vissa kombinationer av dessa bidrog med förbättrad bildkvalitet. Samtliga bilder bedömdes vara av klinisk kvalitet och resultatet av detta arbete öppnar möjligheten för en klinisk valideringsstudie.

  • Corné, Josefine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Ullvin, Amanda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Prediktiv analys i vården: Hur kan maskininlärningstekniker användas för att prognostisera vårdflöden?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project was performed in cooperation with Siemens Healthineers. The project aimed to investigate possibilities to forecast healthcare processes by investigating how big data and machine learning can be used for predictive analytics. The project consisted of two separate case studies. Based on data from previous MRI examinations the aim was to investigate if it is possible to predict duration of MRI examinations and identify potential no show patients. The case studies were performed with the programming language R and three machine learning methods were used to develop predictive models for each case study. The results from the case studies indicate that with a greater amount of data of better quality it would be possible to predict duration of MRI examinations and potential no show patients. The conclusion is that these types of predictive models can be used to forecast healthcare processes. This could contribute to increased effectivity and reduced waiting time in healthcare.

  • Ahlin, Jesper
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Toward an Agent-Centered Theory of VoluntarinessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of voluntariness is central to informed consent and personal autonomy, yet it has been underexplored by bioethicists. There are various theories intended to explain voluntary choice and action. None is fully agent-centered, in the sense that the conceptualization of voluntariness takes into account the agent’s views of her decisions and actions. An agent-centered theory of voluntariness would promote analytical precision, and foster autonomy in healthcare and research practices. According to the most influential bioethical theory of voluntariness, here called the Voluntariness as Control theory, an action is non-voluntary if the agent is controlled by external influences. The theory is critically discussed from an agent-centered perspective, and a new conceptualization of voluntariness is proposed.

  • Millinger, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH.
    Soulard, Juliette
    Energy-Efficiency of Electrical Machine and Drive with SiC Transistors2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document presents the results of the project "Eciency of Motor and Drive with SiCtransistors" within SiC Power Center. The project was conducted between 2015-06-01 - 2016-06-30. The purpose of the study is to point out potential system benets of using SiC PowerMOSFET:s instead of conventional IGBT:s in nutrunner systems. The study can conclude thatthe total motor-drive system weight can be more than halved by using SiC technology. The studyalso shows that blanking time and motor inductance are important parameters for optimal useof SiC Power MOSFET:s in electrical nutrunner systems. The project was partly funded by theSwedish Energy Agency, Energimyndigheten and Sweden's innovation agency, Vinnova.

  • Berglin, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Short-term deformations in clay under a formwork during the construction of a bridge: A design study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the casting of a concrete bridge deck, the temporary formwork is causing the underlying ground to deform if a shallow foundation solution is used. There are often demands on the maximum deformation of the superstructure when designing the foundation for the formwork.  To keep the deformations within the desired limits, several ground improvement methods like deep mixing columns or deep foundation methods like piling can be used. Permanent ground improvement methods are however expensive, and far from always needed. To reduce the need for unnecessary ground improvements, it is crucial to calculate the predicted deformations accurately during the design phase.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how short-term deformations in clay under a formwork during bridge construction should be calculated more generally in future projects.

    Three different calculation models have here been used to calculate the ground deformations caused by the temporary formwork. A simple analytical calculation and two numerical calculations based on the Mohr Coulomb and Hardening Soil-Small constitutive models. The three calculation models were chosen based on their complexity. The analytical calculation model was the most idealised and the Hardening Soil-Small to be the most complex and most realistic model.

    Results show that the numerical calculation model Mohr Coulomb and the analytical calculation model gives the best results compared to the measured deformation. One of the most probable reasons for the result is that both of the models require a few input parameters that can easily be determined by well-known methods, such as triaxial-, routine- and CRS-tests. The more advanced Hardening soil small model requires many parameters to fully describe the behaviour of soil. Many of the parameters are hard to determine or seldom measured. Due to the larger uncertainties in the parameter selection compared with the other two models, the calculated deformation also contains larger uncertainties. 

  • Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Selén, Emma
    Stockholms läns landsting.
    The applicability of reliability-based inspection planning for steel bridges based on fatigue crack detection2017In: Safety, Reliability, Risk, Resilience and Sustainability of Structures and Infrastructure: 12th Int. Conf. on Structural Safety and Reliability / [ed] Christian Bucher, Bruce R. Ellingwood, Dan M. Frangopol, Vienna: TU Verlag an der Technischen Universität Wien , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A damage tolerance method for fatigue assessment opens the possibility of combining theoretical assessments with inspection results. This is widely accepted in the aerospace and offshore industries but is rarely implemented in the assessment of bridges. In this paper, an investigation on the applicability of a damage tolerance approach is presented for bridge specific conditions regarding geometry, loading and reliability level. A probabilistic model is defined and used for the reliability estimation. The result shows that conventional inspection methods can provide enough information to update the reliability resulting in an increased fatigue life.

  • Enström, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Långsiktiga leverantörsrelationer: En studie av en relation mellan två organisationer inom samma koncern.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purchasing of material in the construction industry is traditionally carried out with lowest price as main criteria. In addition, purchasing often occurs separately in each project, which usually ends up with short-term relationships with suppliers. However, research shows that that short-term relationships are not always the most advantageous. It is considered as more advantageous to obtain inspiration from diverse industries and establish long-term relationships with suppliers that lasts over numerous projects.  In 2014 one of Sweden’s largest construction companies acquired a manufacturer that produces prefabricated concrete elements. The acquisition was a vertical integration and a part of an industrialized house building concept. Hence, the acquisition did not only establish a long-term relationship, it also integrated a supplier in the company’s supply chain.  The purpose with this thesis is to clarify and understand how an intra-organizational long-term supplier relationship is managed in the construction industry. The purpose is also to contribute with knowledge in how to develop such a relationship.  The study is considered as qualitative and is based on literature studies, semi-structured interviews, internal documents, site visits, and personal impressions from meetings. An abductive research approach has been conducted since empirics and theory have been alternated during the study. The survey can also be identified as an explorative study since there was not a clear objective when the study was initiated.  The study reveals and confirms that an internal long-term relationship is complex but advantageous. The long-term focus enables an increased control and development of the product as well as the relationship. The study also illustrated that a combination of an external and internal approach to the relationship is most advantageous, even though the relationship is defined as intra-organizational. In inter-organizational relationships, concepts such as trust, commitment, expectations, and dependence seems to be important in intra-organizational relationships as well, but should be viewed in a different way. The strong project orientation and traditionalism in the construction industry is also considered to affect an internal long-term relationship. Furthermore, in contrast to inter-organizational short-term relationships, other kinds of meeting forums and socialization processes exists. Since the studied relationship is part of a larger concept, more than two parties seem to be involved in the relationship. This, among other things, affect the decision-making process in the relationship.  To develop the relationship, stated concepts such as trust, expectation, commitment, communication, decision-making and dependence should be kept in mind. Furthermore, buyer and supplier should try to adapt to each other’s processes and work structures. To develop a long-term internal relationship, the benefits of institutionalization should also be used, enabling buyer and suppliers to develop and familiarize roles, communication tools and contact routes. To engage and motivate individuals to participate in the relationship, new types of meeting forums are also recommended to complement the ones that already exist. 

  • Båth, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Köhler, Jakob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Innovation Management in Business-to-Business Software as a Service Startups:: Investigating the Lean Startup Methodology and its Shortcomings around Selecting Ideas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing innovations is a well studied success factor for companies and organizations. This research focuses on the recently established Lean Startup Methodology (LSM) and the obstacles of implementing it in early- and later-stage business-to-business (B2B) Software as as Service (SaaS) startups. The scarcity of academic research around this framework, in contrast to its popularity, motivated the researchers’ aim to provide a better understanding on how it could be adapted to better fit the needs of these companies.Following an interpretivist paradigm, this qualitative research uses a literature review and semi-structured interviews for its purposes. Interviews were conducted with six individuals at four different early- and late-stage startups. The focus was on understanding the realities of working with innovation management and the different approaches at early and later stage startups. Startups face an abundance of ideas regarding what to do next, a hypothesis confirmed with this study. It is the researchers’ belief that the LSM does not provide sufficient tools for organizations to make an idea selection decision without committing too many resources initially. Lastly, the importance of product ownership for an effective innovation management process was validated.In conclusion, we present the need for an updated Lean Startup Methodology with a dedicated selection step to validate an idea early in the process. This contributes to the theory of innovation management and its practical implementation. The identified gap in academic research around frameworks tailored towards these types of organizations provides a good starting point for future research.

  • BERLIN, DANIEL
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    DINGLE, MARCUS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Investment framework for large scale underground thermal energy storage: A qualitative study of district heating companies in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current environmental challenges that face the world put pressure on the heating market to move towards increased share of renewable energy sources as fuel. District heating (DH) is seen as an efficient solution to achieve this in dense urban areas. Thermal energy storage (TES) is seen as a solution to handle the increased amount of intermittent energy sources in the energy system. For the Swedish DH business a large-scale underground TES (UTES) is seen as an interesting solution partly for this reason and partly to utilise more residual heat and heat from under-utilised production facilities. However, the current complexity to invest in large-scale UTES is limiting the further development of DH. The purpose of this report is therefore to fill the current knowledge gap regarding factors needed to analyse an investment in large-scale UTES. An investment framework is presented to be used as decision support mainly for decision-makers in the DH business, but which can be interesting for other stakeholders in the district heating system (DHS).

    The main findings of the report are that there exists necessary circumstances for an investment in a large-scale UTES and that the criteria needed to evaluate an investment in large-scale UTES are either related to economy or environment. Further, the main function of a large-scale UTES is seasonal storage because this function creates the majority of the revenue. This revenue is created through storage of cheap heat during periods of low heat demand, which replaces expensive peak production during periods of high heat demand. Depending on the size of the created revenue, the large-scale UTES can be profitable as required by the DH companies. However, it is shown in the report that other factors also must be considered for the large-scale UTES to become profitable. Further, the uncertain future of DH poses a challenge for the evaluation of an investment in large-scale TES. The recommendations for further studies therefore focus on limiting these uncertainties through additional research and development.

  • Desmond, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hansson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The safety manager as a boundary spanner between communities of practice: The employment of a safety manager in a Swedish construction company2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Safety is an important concern within the construction industry.  Many different management strategies exist in the literature, but despite ambitious efforts to improve the safety and prevent accidents, the accident incidence is still unacceptably high. This paper examines the employment of a safety manager in the Swedish construction industry as a strategy to foster a better safety culture, and discusses how the safety manager should approach the project based organisation (PBO). The study uses an abductive approach with an iteration of interviews, observations and a literature study to gain deeper knowledge of the subject. The research comprises a cross sectional interview study of semi-structured interviews to narrate the role of the safety manager accompanied with a short survey. The study is limited to three projects of one Swedish construction company, and a new role not yet established in the company. Furthermore, the study uses a human resource management approach with focus on communities of practice and boundary spanning. The findings report that the safety managers take on a role as a boundary spanning link between well-established but unsynchronized communities of practice. The identified communities are the HR department and the PBOs. Furthermore, the safety manager functions as a “double-sided” boundary spanner, to broke knowledge and support employees to achieve a satisfactory safety culture.  However, the narratives express a present ambiguity and a need to clarify the role and its responsibilities regarding safety in the PBO. The thesis contributes with insights of the safety manager’s practice and discusses how safety knowledge should be transferred between communities of practice in the fragmented PBO and its high level of tacit knowledge.

  • Lime, Hugo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Cross-subframe channel estimation for low-complexity devices in LTE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most critical issues of wireless communication systems is the timevaryingand frequency-selective channel. Knowledge about the channel greatlyimproves communication performance. It enables coherent demodulation andmeasurements of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Channel Quality Indicators(CQI). Theses measurements are used to optimize the transmission schemes dependingon the channel conditions. Therefore, the channel estimation is one ofthe most important feature of modern wireless communication devices. In the3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) system,estimation of the channel is achieved using pilots called Reference Signals (RSs)which are scattered in time and frequency. The full estimation of the channel isdone by filtering and interpolation of the estimated pilots.The 3GPP Release 13 issued in June 2016 defines a new category of UserEquipment (UE) named category M1 (Cat-M1) which should support low SNRscenarios. At such low SNR, legacy channel estimation techniques based on persubframeestimation are not efficient enough. The standard thus enables crosssubframechannel estimation by insuring persistence of the channel conditionsduring a group of subframes.This thesis presents techniques for cross-subframe channel estimation. It showshow algorithms can be devised to obtain improved estimation accuracy comparedto single-subframe channel estimates while being resistant to Doppler effect andclock frequency offset. Three types of algorithms are studied: linear averaging,first-order Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters and Finite Impulse Response(FIR) Wiener filters. An analytic study of these algorithms is performed to findoptimal parameters in terms of channel estimation Mean Square Error (MSE).Algorithm validation is done with computer simulations to show that the BitError Rate (BER) performance of low-complexity algorithms (linear averagingand first-order IIR filtering) are very close to optimal Wiener filtering ones andthat they provide significant improvement over single-subframe techniques.

  • Langer, Jacob
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Investigation and Simulation of the Heating Effects in Sandwich Cores During Vibrational Loading2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems specializes in large load carrying static structuresfor aero engines and is, as part of a light weight strategy, developing design andmanufacturing technology to be able to complement the current metallic product offerwith composite fan guide vane structures. Fan vanes in modern engines are structuraland to meet the requirements for low weight in the aircraft industry, it is necessary todesign the vane as a sandwich structure. The objective with this thesis is to investigateand model the heating effect in the polymeric sandwich core during cyclic loadingand to assess the impact on fatigue life from heating both during structural testing aswell as in service.To model the heating in a FEM model, the damping in the material is measured withDynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) and is used together with the cyclicamplitude and frequency to calculate the heating term for each element in the FEmodel. In order to validate the thermal analysis and see the effect of heating on thefatigue properties of the core material, fatigue tests are done at normal testingfrequencies and elevated frequencies with temperature elevations monitored as afunction of time.The predicted heating effect is shown to correlate well with the experimental datawhereas the maximum loading frequency of 40 Hz that could be applied was too lowto give any effect on the fatigue life. It is also shown that the effect of loadingfrequencies in the order of 300 Hz requires the fatigue amplitude to be lower than thefatigue strength to avoid excessive heating effects. For in service loadings, the highcycle fatigue is intermittent and as the heating is slow enough, the conclusion is thatfatigue strength is not affected by heating effects

  • Balian, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Greenhouse gas Reduction in Infrastructure Projects: With a case study of California High-Speed Rail2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure projects are today major contributors to global warming. However, various strategies for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are available, as described in sustainability assessment schemes and performed in infrastructure projects.

    Beyond the choice of methodology, greenhouse gas reduction represents an important challenge, namely to engage involved actors. The establishment of a common sustainability policy, reflected in procurement requirements could be a solution. However, often in subject of complications such as misunderstandings or increased cost.

    Impres, a research project aiming to streamline the process of greenhouse gas reduction in the infrastructure sector, conducts case studies around the world in which useful methods and examples are assimilated. In cooperation with Impres, the present report includes the case study of California High-Speed Rail (CHSR).

    The aim of this report is to compare strategies for greenhouse gas reduction of sustainability assessment schemes for infrastructure projects, and evaluate the feasibility as procurement requirements. Furthermore, to identify corresponding processes of greenhouse gas reduction in the case study of CHSR, as well as revealing important factors towards realization.

    The course of work involves a study of the schemes Envision, BREEAM Infrastructure, CEEQUAL, IS Rating System as well as the standard PAS 2080. Regarding the case study, the sustainability policy, procurement requirements and project reports are the main used sources. Moreover, qualitative interviews with involved actors have been performed in California. Finally, to create a comparative matrix for greenhouse gas reduction processes, standards ISO and PAS 2080 have been reviewed.

    The results show that greenhouse gas criteria of the studied schemes not are mandatory to perform in anyone but PAS 2080. Which means that further requisites might be needed in order for the schemes to be useful as procurement requirements. Furthermore, the outlining of processes reveals a weakness in the setting of a greenhouse gas reference point, and while every scheme includes a greenhouse gas quantity assessment, there is a difference in the priority of reduction.

    Regarding CHSR, an exclaimed policy goal is to perform climate neutral construction. While procurement requirements are limited to quantification of emitted greenhouse gases and the use of effective construction machinery, which is insufficient to meet the goal. Nevertheless, the Authority in charge is performing CO2 compensating measures, such as planting trees.

    Finally, a variety of driving forces, success factors and challenges for realizing greenhouse gas reduction have been identified. For example, personal motivation and legislation as driving forces. Whereas, sustainability as a core mission, experience and communication are seen as success factors, and resistance to transfer sustainability goals to procurement is an exclaimed challenge.

    As a conclusion, sustainability assessment schemes do have certain processes for greenhouse gas reduction in common. However, they present criteria with different degrees of obligation, affecting feasibility as procurement requirements. In CHSR, similar processes are found, where further reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved, especially by an optimized choice of construction materials. In the end, personal motivation seems to be an important factor for introducing and realizing greenhouse gas reduction goals in infrastructure projects.

  • Jovelic, Jovica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Ringström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Omkonstruktion av 3D-skrivare till storformat2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 14:00 F3, Stockholm
    Lokatt, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    On Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Modeling for Aircraft Design2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis was performed with the aim of developing improved prediction methods for aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis to be used in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis concerns the development of a viscous-inviscid interaction model for steady aerodynamic predictions. Since an inviscid, potential flow, model already is available, the main focus is on the development of a viscous model consisting of a three-dimensional integral boundary layer model. The performance of the viscous-inviscid interaction model is evaluated and it is found that the accuracy of the predictions as well as the computational cost appear to be acceptable for the intended application. The presented work also includes an experimental study aimed at analyzing steady and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of a laminar flow wing model. An enhanced understanding of these characteristics is presumed to be useful for the development of improved aerodynamic prediction models. A combination of nearly linear as well as clearly nonlinear aerodynamic variations are observed in the steady as well as in the unsteady experimental results and it is discussed how these may relate to boundary layer properties as well as to aeroelastic stability characteristics. Aeroelastic considerations are receiving additional attention in the thesis, as a method for prediction of how flutter characteristics are affected by modeling uncertainties is part of the presented material. The analysis method provides an efficient alternative for obtaining increased information about, as well as enhanced understanding of, aeroelastic stability characteristics.

  • Schuetz, Carmen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Improving the alignment of the linear accelerator and the bending magnets in the Elekta Synergy: Förbättring av inriktningen av linjäracceleratorn och böjmagneterna i Elekta Synergy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Elekta Synergy is a linear accelerator used in radiation therapy. It is constructed fromvarious mechanical components, including a set of 112.5° bending magnets, which need tobe aligned correctly in order to produce an efficient treatment beam. The current alignmentprocess is outdated and results in inconsistencies, which leads to prolonged assembly timesand the need to correct alignment errors. This paper details the study, design andconstruction of a new bending magnet alignment approach and thereby serves to introducea replacement for the current system. The proposed solution consists of an optimizedmechanical jig in conjunction with image processing software.

  • Kunnas, Jan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Storytelling: From the early Anthropocene to the good or the bad Anthropocene2017In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, E-ISSN 2053-020X, Vol. 4, no 2, 136-150 p., 10.1177/2053019617725538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether the Anthropocene can be a helpful metaphor for holistic understandings of human impacts on the Earth. I argue that for this, splitting the Anthropocene into several consecutive stages would be helpful, and suggest a multistage Anthropocene: the early Anthropocene, the first acceleration phase, the post-1950 Great Acceleration, and finally the good or the bad anthropocene depending on whether humans take decisive action in time that ensures us staying within planetary boundaries. This reframing uses the power of storytelling by presenting a multifaceted picture of human agency in the Anthropocene, provides a deep framing that is positive and supports action, and provides clear signals on the direction in which we are moving. It puts humans back in their rightful place on Earth – as one of many species, although with large power for the good or the bad, and the responsibilities this brings.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-13 13:15 F3, Stockholm
    Li, Zuxing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Information Science and Engineering.
    Privacy-by-Design for Cyber-Physical Systems2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is envisioned that future cyber-physical systems will provide a more convenient living and working environment. However, such systems need inevitably to collect and process privacy-sensitive information. That means the benefits come with potential privacy leakage risks. Nowadays, this privacy issue receives more attention as a legal requirement of the EU General Data Protection Regulation. In this thesis, privacy-by-design approaches are studied where privacy enhancement is realized through taking privacy into account in the physical layer design. This work focuses in particular on cyber-physical systems namely sensor networks and smart grids. Physical-layer performance and privacy leakage risk are assessed by hypothesis testing measures.

    First, a sensor network in the presence of an informed eavesdropper is considered. Extended from the traditional hypothesis testing problems, novel privacy-preserving distributed hypothesis testing problems are formulated. The optimality of deterministic likelihood-based test is discussed. It is shown that the optimality of deterministic likelihood-based test does not always hold for an intercepted remote decision maker and an optimal randomized decision strategy is completely characterized by the privacy-preserving condition. These characteristics are helpful to simplify the person-by-person optimization algorithms to design optimal privacy-preserving hypothesis testing networks.

    Smart meter privacy becomes a significant issue in the development of smart grid technology. An innovative scheme is to exploit renewable energy supplies or an energy storage at a consumer to manipulate meter readings from actual energy demands to enhance the privacy. Based on proposed asymptotic hypothesis testing measures of privacy leakage, it is shown that the optimal privacy-preserving performance can be characterized by a Kullback-Leibler divergence rate or a Chernoff information rate in the presence of renewable energy supplies. When an energy storage is used, its finite capacity introduces memory in the smart meter system. It is shown that the design of an optimal energy management policy can be cast to a belief state Markov decision process framework.

  • Larnesjö, Lukas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Optimization of the Thermal Status of Steel Ladles: A study Performed at SSAB in Oxelösund2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze and understand the functions of the current temperature model used at the steel mill in at SSAB in Oxelösund. Furthermore, to try to optimize the model by creating a better description of the ladles thermal status. A copy of the current model was made using Matlab and its performance was compared to actual temperature measurements. Along with this, additional process data was used to find a correlation between these data and temperature alterations in the liquid steel. These correlations were then used to create a new description of the ladles thermal status in a modified temperature model.

    The results show that the thermal status of the ladle has a big influence on the steel temperature throughout the steel making process. Also, the thermal status is greatly affected by the how the ladles are handled when being empty. The results also show that a model using a unique thermal status calculated for each heat, based on correlations derived from stored process data, provides a better result than the current model which is based on pre-determined heat loss curves.    

  • Aldrin, Felicia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Automated Segmentation of the Meniscus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sundberg, Christel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Signal to Noise Optimization in Front-EndElectronics for X-ray Imaging2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Wessmark, Pehr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    An Exploratory Approach to Generate Ground Truths of NeuralFiber Bundles2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ekelin, Svea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Hagesjö, Louise
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Making ATLAS Data from CERN Accessible to the General Public: The Development and Evaluation of a Learning Resource in Experimental Particle Physics2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the ATLAS experiment at CERN released data from 100 trillion proton-proton

    collisions to the general public. In connection to this release the ATLAS Outreach group

    has developed several tools for visualizing and analyzing the data, one of which is a

    Histogram analyzer. The focus of this project is to bridge the gap between the general

    public's knowledge in physics and what is needed to use this Histogram analyzer.

    The project consists of both the development and an evaluation of a learning resource

    that explains experimental particle physics for a general public audience. The learning

    resource is a website making use of analogies and two perspectives on learning: Variation

    Theory and Cognitive Load Theory. The evaluation of the website was done using a

    survey with 10 respondents and it focused on whether analogies and the perspectives on

    learning helped their understanding. In general the respondents found the analogies to

    be helpful for their learning, and to some degree they found the explanations based on

    Variation Theory to be helpful. The implementations of Cognitive Load Theory were

    considered to be helpful by the respondents who noticed them, but the majority did not,

    implying that improvements of the design are needed. The results indicate that analogies

    and the two perspectives on learning can be helpful for explaining experimental particle

    physics, but there might be other learning theories more suitable for this purpose.

  • Herslöf, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Steninger, Jakob
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje).
    Uppdatering av automatisk materialprovningsmaskin2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    On Aesthetics and Spatial Configuration2017In: Proceedings: 11th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Teresa Heitor, Miguel Serra, João Pinelo Silva, Maria Bacharel, Luisa Cannas da Silva, INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO , 2017, 162.1-162.14 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as its point of departure that any question concerning architecture, in a broad sense, has cultural and aesthetic implications, whether directly concerned with them or focused on social, technical, functional or other concerns. From such an outset, so does spatial configuration. However, while questions of aesthetics have been addressed within syntax research, it has rarely been the central point. This article intends to address more specifically the question of spatial configuration as aesthetics, on the one hand, and the aesthetic implications of configurational analysis on the other. In doing so, it will discuss aesthetic implications of ostensibly non-aesthetic considerations by addressing aesthetics as cultural, social and formal values embedded in and expressed through architectural works, and mediated through engaged and distracted experience. Concretely, the discussion will revolve around a small selection of works to develop a reasoning around aesthetics and con guration. This includes Alexander Klein’s graphic methods to evaluate building plans and its relation to a selection of Mies van der Rohe’s works, to conclude with a discussion relating the ndings to habits and dispositions

  • Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    CHARACTERIZING URBAN CENTRES: Reading configuration as point, line, field2017In: Proceedings of the 11th Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Teresa Heitor, Miguel Serra, João Pinelo Silva, Maria Bacharel, Luisa Cannas da Silva, Instituto Superior Técnico , 2017, 78.1-78.16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities are growing the need for complementary sub centres increases, both in order to distribute amenities and to make resources more accessible for citizens, as well as to relieve the pressure on the city core. Such planning strategy, a kind of decentralized concentration, has been seen as a mean for holding back urban sprawl in Stockholm. Lately, urban centres are also argued to contribute to the development of more equal living conditions making opportunities, service, and urban life accessible also in more peripheral urban locations. The values of ‘suburban urbanities’ has also been highlighted in a way that reach far beyond the commercial activities (Vaughan 2015).The Regional planning authority in Stockholm as well as the City of Stockholm identifies a number of regional subcentres and ‘urban boulevards’ that should connect the city since and make it less fragmented. The social incentive for this strategy is prominent in both plans. However, these subcentres are dependent on urban centrality which needs to be taken into consideration.The strength, or the success, of a subcentre is partly influenced by urban design interventions and is argued to be related to 1) the configurative properties (distribution of space) and 2) land use parameters and density (distribution in and through space) (Koch 2016; Hillier 1999; Vaughan 2010). In order to increase the understanding for what urban design interventions that may be efficient, this paper will draw from the concepts developed by Stan Allen (1999) of point, line and field and John McMorrough (2001). The combination of the configurative perspective and the point-line-field perspective is argued to contribute with knowledge of how urban form generates and supports the emergence of urban centrality and the development of subcentres with implications not only for consumption and mobility, but also for social outcomes such as urban life and equal living conditions. The empirical application aims to illustrate how configurative analysis complement the point-line-field theory in describing the character of the centres and the findings are argued to contribute to the identification of more precise and efficient urban design interventions of how to develop the centres.

  • Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Perspectives on Culture: to witness, engage with, show, or do in cities2017In: Proceedings: 11th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Teresa Heitor, Miguel Serra, João Pinelo Silva, Maria Bacharel, Luisa Cannas da Silva, INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO , 2017, 130.1-130.15 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how ‘culture’ is or can be present in a city, where culture is understood in a wide sense as cultural activities and output of creative activity as well as partaking in or making use of the same. The main line of argument is that this requires consideration of how to work with configurational analysis, which has implications for a wider set of issues but made apparent in the specific focus.

    While this is anchored in empirical analysis, the main point is a theoretical-methodological discussion. In short, the paper proposes a model where culture needs to be understood from four perspectives—to witness, to engage with, to show, and to do—since these are differently related to the built environment in the conditions for how they appear, what effects they might have, and in what ways they are affected by and affect urban environments.

    Specifically, the empirical analyses point to how inequalities between areas can be understood. The conditions for making sculptures and how this affects and is affected by its surrounding, simply put, is different from the effects and conditions for the placing of public sculptures, as are their effects on public and private life.

    By use of specific and particular examples of activities or outputs, the article will also highlight qualitative aspects that need to be considered in relation to more precisely what kind of ‘culture’ that is intended to be supported, and how this relates to questions of democratic development and social equality.

  • Thilén, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Robust Model Predictive Control for Autonomous Driving2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous driving is becoming popular nowadays. In order for autonomouscars to be fully accepted, high demands are placed on the safety side. Onesafety critical issue is the robustness to disturbances. In this work, a robustmodel predictive controller is designed for an autonomous vehicle. More specifically,robust output feedback model predictive control (ROFMPC) is used, androbustness is guaranteed through the use of robust invariant sets. The vehicleis modeled using a discretized, and linearized, version of a simple kinematicbicycle model, expressed in road-aligned coordinates. It is investigated for howlarge uncertainties robustness, and stability, can be guaranteed. Both externaldisturbances and measurement noise are considered. A steady-state Kalmanfilter is used to estimate the state of the vehicle. Two cases have been studiedin simulation; straight line and curved line trajectory following. Results fromsimulations show that robustness can be ensured if the uncertainties in the systemare sufficiently small. Finally, the ROFMPC algorithm is implemented onan F1/10 RC car.

  • Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.