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  • Charalampidis, Vasileios
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Real-Time Monitoring System of Sedentary Behavior with Android Wear and Cloud Computing: An office case study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, prolonged sitting among office workers is a widespread problem, which is highly related to several health problems. Many proposals have been reported and evaluated to address this issue. However, motivating and engaging workers to change health behavior to a healthier working life is still a challenge.

    In this project, a specific application has been deployed for real-time monitoring and alerting office workers for prolonged sitting. The proposed system consists of three distinct parts: The first one is an android smartwatch, which was used to collect sensor data e.g., accelerometer and gyro data, with a custom android wear app. The second one is an android application, which was developed to act as a gateway for receiving the smartwatch’s data and sending them to IBM Bluemix cloud with MQTT protocol. The final part is a Node-Red cloud application, which was deployed for storing, analyzing and processing of the sensor data for activity detection i.e., sitting or walking/standing. The main purpose of the last one was to return relevant feedback to the user, while combining elements from gaming contexts (gamification methods), for motivating and engaging office workers to a healthier behavior.

    The system was firstly tested for defining appropriate accelerometer thresholds to five participants (control group), and then evaluated with five different participants (treatment group), in order to analyze its reliability for prolonged sitting detection. The results showed a good precession for the detection. No confusing between sitting and walking/standing was noticed. Communication, storage and analysis of the data was successfully done, while the push notifications to the participants, for alerting or rewarding them, were always accurate and delivered on time. Every useful information was presented to the user to a web-based dashboard accessed through a smartphone, tablet or a PC.    

    The proposed system can easily be implemented at a real-life scenario with office workers. Certainly, there is a lot space for improvement, considering mostly the type of data registered at the system, the method for sitting detection, and the user interface for presenting relevant information.

  • Sebbfolk, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Larsson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Skyfall över städer: Från en reaktiv till en proaktiv samhällsplaneringsprocess2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lööf, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Netz, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Framgångsfaktorer för certifiering av Akademiska Hus byggnader enligt Miljöbyggnad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis was carried out on behalf of the state-owned company Akademiska Hus in order to provide basis for a hopefully better and more common way of working with new buildings that have been certified according to “Miljöbyggnad”, which is a Swedish certification system for buildings.

    The purpose of this study was to highlight good practice as well as to learn from mistakes at both indicator level and for the overall certification process. The study was based on a qualitative, in-depth and semi-structured interview study including interviews with five project managers, four “miljöbyggsamordnare” (Environmental Building coordinators) and the director of “Miljöbyggnad” at SGBC (Sweden Green Building Council). The interviewed project managers and “miljöbyggssamordnarna” have each worked with one of four buildings which have been certified with “Miljöbyggnad”. The four buildings exist in four earlier regions for the company and were selected in this study as building cases.

    This study identified lessons that have been learned, success factors and suggested measures. Objectives should be clear and implemented early during the building process. Routines should be clear which could be improved through the development of a guide. Margins at indicator level should be ensured and the indicator “Energy use” should be prioritized. The involvement of actors, who are important for achieving the objectives of “Miljöbyggnad”, could be increased through education and information. A “miljöbyggsamordnare” could attend a large part of the building process. In addition, a regional “miljösamordnare” (Environmental coordinator) could return knowledge about success factors and problems in each project and “miljösamordnare” for different regions could return knowledge between regions.

  • Molin, Elvira
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Saken är biff: En granskning av samförstånd och motsättningar vid införandet av en minskad nötköttskonsumtion2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About one third out of the greenhouse gases produced by the Swedish households come from food consumption, with Sswedes being among the worlds’ larbiggest consumers of beef; consuming roughly, 26 kg per person and year. Beef consumption accounts for approximately 7 % of the Swedish greenhouse gas emissions which is not negligible.

    While the consumption of beef has been identified in many previous studies to impact the environment negatively,G grazing animals can contribute to a healthy environment by keeping landscapes open, thereby supporting biodiversity. , and there is land more suitable for grazing than for growing crops. However, if the number of animals is too large it will lead to environmental damage., and ruminants contribute to greenhouse gas emissions by producing methane whilst digesting. The magnitude of the environmental impact from agriculture depends on what methods are used, but the cultivation of feed has been identified as the greatest cause of environmental damage in the production system of livestock.

    New technology could be used to reduce the environmental impacts from agriculture and the consumption of beef. Food security will be a challenge for the future, with the rising global population and changing conditions for agricultural practices in many areas. Several studies have concluded that adapting our diets is necessary to complement other climate mitigation measures. Yet, not much is done to reduce the beef consumption.

    Thise study was performed by interviewing different stakeholders regarding their views on beef consumption, where the interviewees respondents were a sample of politicians and relevant organization representatives. They were asked about the importance of reducing beef consumption in order to reach environmental targets, and methods ofor doing so; how great the reduction ought to be, as well as within what time perspective we ought to see changes in consumption.

    The results showed a willingness to change and reduce the beef consumption due to its environmental impacts. The climate effects from livestock were recognised and other environmental aspects were also highlighted. Most respondents were able to quantifypresent a number of how much they believed meat consumption ought to be reduced, with suggestions ranging from 20 to 50 per cent. Furthermore, all the respondents agreed upon using informational policy instruments and continued scientific work to achieve the suggested aims. A few were additionally in favour of implementing economic policy instruments, but none advised administrative policy instruments as an appropriate measure.

    It is clearDespite the knowledge that the beef consumption has an extensively negative environmental impact and needs to be addressed, and though most respondents expressed willingness to work for a reduction of the consumption they were still hesitant to introduce any vast measures. This could be due to concerns of losing members or votes. Environmental as well as consuming issues are political matters and the risk of losing votes might be greater if not acting as the young adults, millennials, have already initiated a change toward a more plant based diet.

  • Boman, Trotte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Jangenstål, Samuel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Beating the MSCI USA Index by Using Other Weighting Techniques2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis various portfolio weighting strategies are tested. Their performance is determined by their average annual return, Sharpe ratio, tracking error, information ratio and annual standard deviation. The data used is provided by Öhman from Bloomberg and consists of monthly data between 1996-2016 of all stocks that were in the MSCI USA Index at any time between 2002-2016.For any given month we use the last five years of data as a basis for the analysis. Each time the MSCI USA Index changes portfolio constituents we update which constituents are in our portfolio.

    The traditional weighting strategies used in this thesis are market capitalization, equal, risk-adjusted alpha, fundamental and minimum variance weighting. On top of that, the weighting strategies are used in a cluster framework where the clusters are constructed by using K-means clustering on the stocks each month. The clusters are assigned equal weight and then the traditional weighting strategies are applied within each cluster. Additionally, a GARCH-estimated covariance matrix of the clusters is used to determine the minimum variance optimized weights of the clusters where the constituents within each cluster are equally weighted.

    We conclude in this thesis that the market capitalization weighting strategy is the one that earns the least of all traditional strategies. From the results we can conclude that there are weighting strategies with higher Sharpe ratio and lower standard deviation. The risk-adjusted alpha in a traditional framework performed best out of all strategies. All cluster weighting strategies with the exception of risk-adjusted alpha outperform their traditional counterpart in terms of return.

  • Waltré, Pontus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematical Statistics.
    Premium influencing factors in life assurance: Study of an income parameter in mortality analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The expected lifetime is steadily increasing in Sweden and the World. As the increase will eventually level out the question is: at what level will the expected lifetime be then? The outlook for or searching after factors and assumptions that can influence mortality in life insurance, are principally missing. This despite the awareness that lifestyle and sickness greatly affects the lifespan. There were two aims for this thesis. The first aim was to look into the hypothesis that there were more parameters than just gender and age that could be important to consider when doing mortality studies. The second goal was to analyse the spread of mortality to get a better understanding within a group how the mortality behaves and how low it could get. For realize these goals I’ve analysed the deaths within a certain population during three year, 2010-2012, depending on an income parameter. The least square approach was used to calculate estimated parameters of the Makeham mortality model. The non-parametric bootstrap model was then further used to estimate the accuracy. The results show that with a confidence level of 1 %, there is a lower expected lifetime at the age of 30 for the first income quantile than the fourth.

  • Chamoun, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Trabulsi, Marwan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Modal analysis of pedestrian-induced torsional vibrations based on validated FE models2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element (FE) models serve as the base of many different types of analysis as e.g. dynamic analysis. Hence, obtaining FE models that represent the actual behaviour of real structures with great accuracy is of great importance. However, more often than not, there are differences between FE models and the structures being modelled, which can depend on numerous factors. These factors can consist of uncertainties in material behaviour, geometrical properties and boundary- and continuity conditions. Model validation is therefore an important aspect in obtaining FE models that represents reality to some degree. Furthermore, model verification is also important in terms of verifying theoretical models, other than FE models, in fields such as fatigue-, fracture- and dynamic analysis.

    In this thesis, two pedestrian steel bridges, the Kallhäll bridge and the Smista bridge, have been modelled in a FE software based on engineering drawings and validated against experimental results with regard to their natural frequencies. Furthermore, in this thesis, a model has been developed in MATLAB based on modal analysis that accounts for pedestrian-induced torsional vibrations, the 3D SDOF model. This model has been verified against the previously mentioned FE models.

    The aim of this thesis is hence two parted where the first part is to develop three-dimensional FE models of two pedestrian bridges and validate them against measured data regarding the natural frequencies. The second part is to further develop a model for analysing the effect of pedestrian-induced torsional vibrations and to investigate whether the model captures the actual dynamic response of such loading.

    The results showed that the natural frequencies for the first bending- and torsional mode from the FE models corresponded well to the measured ones with the largest difference of 5 \% obtained for the natural frequency of the first bending mode for the Smista bridge. Furthermore, the 3D SDOF model was able to capture the dynamic response of torsional vibrations with an overall difference of less than 2 \% in comparison to the FE models. The model can be improved by further studying the pedestrian-structure interaction as well as studying the effect of using approximative functions describing the mode shapes.

  • Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Duong, Julia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Food Waste, Date Labelling and Technology: A Survey Study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates what an united voice of the society thinks of their part in food waste, if it correlates with reality and what the attitude is to reducing it with intelligent technology.

    In developed countries, like Sweden, food waste is one component that affect the environment a great amount. By reducing food waste in the house- holds a major difference can be made. Earlier studies has shown that one problem is that people do not know the difference between best before date and use by date and therefore tend to throw away food that is still good to eat. The margins when it comes to food with best before date are often big and one important factor of a products durability is how it has been treated when it comes to temperature changes.

    Intelligent packaging can be defined as "Packaging that contains an exter- nal or internal indicator to provide information about aspects of the history of the package and/or the quality of the food". One function such packaging can have is dynamic date labelling. By implementing sensors in the food container the temperature over time can be measured and the predicted growth of microor- ganisms can be calculated. This would make the date labelling more precise. These sensors, for example Radio Frequency Identification tags or nanosen- sors, can send information to computers and applications that the consumer can use to get more accurate information regarding the quality of a product. This could help reducing food waste.

    A survey was conducted and spread on social media and two people were interviewed as experts since they are working with questions related to sustainable development and food waste in Sweden.

    The result shows that people think much about not throwing away food but earlier researches show that people do, which is a contradiction. In gen- eral people are positive to new technology and using it but they are not will- ing to pay for it. It can be argued that intelligent technology will be a part of reducing food waste in the future. 

  • Balbastre Camarena, Borja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Fatigue Analysis of Mooring Lines in Floating Bridges: Influence of Line Configuration and Water Depth in a Case Study in Bjørnafjorden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Norwegian Public Roads Administration plans to replace the ferry connections along the western coast of Norway with fixed road connections through the coastal highway E39 project. Due to the necessity of bridging long distances with considerable depths, non-conventional engineering solutions are being developed. To date, the first fjord planned to be cross is Bjørnafjord, located just in the middle of Trondheim and Kristiansand. In order to bridge the fjord distance, three innovative solutions have been developed: a submerged floating tube bridge, a floating pontoon bridge, and finally, a multi-span suspension bridge. It is known that these structures are affected by periodic environmental forces which may cause significant fatigue problems in some structural components, disturbing their service behaviour.

    The aim of this master thesis is to deeply analyse the cumulative fatigue damage produced in the mooring lines of a proposed solution for crossing Bjørnafjorden as well as to investigate the influence of the implementation of different mooring line scenarios on the damage. A 3D finite element model of the chosen alternative was conducted and verified. The model provided the stress variations in each mooring line which were processed through Excel software using macros performed as well as Matlab scripts in order to obtain the results. Then, a deep fatigue damage assessment was carried out discussing how different tension-history time period calculations affect to the damage, as well as which fatigue evaluation methodology is adequate for the chosen solution. Moreover, the fatigue damage produced on the initial mooring line system configuration was analysed. It was investigated the repercussions of each direction and the contribution of each environmental load on the total damage. Last but not least, it was researched the influence of different water depths and line configurations on the fatigue damage.

    The results show that the fatigue damage obtained for the adopted solution remains far from the failure threshold with the worst damage produced in the mooring line chain components. The previous results have been computed employing a 1-hour analysis duration through the rainflow counting method. Also, the worst fatigue damage is produced by environmental states propagating in a westerly direction, corresponding to the maximum fetch. Regarding the load contribution in the fatigue damage, it is proved in this case that the current loads stabilise the mooring lines, reducing the fatigue damage. Finally, investigating the effect of various mooring line scenarios on the damage it has been proved that the fatigue damage is increased as the water depth is decreased and as the lateral mooring lines are separated from the initial configuration.

  • Rigoni, Isotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    FE-Modelling and Material Characterization of Ice-Hockey Helmet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to produce a reliable finite element model of a helmet, that could be used to simulate approval tests as well as impacts to investigate the safety offered. A 2D and 3D mesh was generated from the CAD file of an Easton Synergy 380 with HyperWorks, and then checked referring to standard parameter values. A few specimens cut from the liner were tested with the Instron Electropuls E3000 (Instron, High Wycombe, Great Britain) machine to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the density of the EPP. The numerical model was characterised with appropriate materials with Ls-PrePost, such as ABS for the shell, EPP for the liner and steel for the impact anvil. The foam was implemented both with the *063_CRUSHABLE_FOAM and the *126_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB card, in two different configurations. The helmet model was coupled with a finite element model of a HIII head form and three impact scenarios were set up. Backward, lateral and pitched impact were simulated and results were compared with those obtained from the experimental tests carried on at the MIPS. The two configurations were tested in all the three scenarios. The correlation between numerical and experimental results was evaluated by analysing the linear and rotational acceleration, and the rotational velocity, recorded by the accelerometer positioned inside the HIII headform. The parameters used were the Pearson correlation coefficient, the peak linear acceleration score, the shape of the curves, the time occurrence of peaks and the percentage of the difference between them. The first configuration showed good correlation scores (>85%) for the backward and lateral impact, for the rotational velocity and acceleration, while lower values were recorded for the pitched impact simulation. Lower values (70.88% and 77.76%) were obtained for the peak linear acceleration score, which stress the need for modifications of the contact definition in Ls-PrePost or a more detailed material testing. Worse results were recorded for the second configuration, but the smaller computational time required suggests that more attempts should be done in this direction. 

  • Pezzutti, Silvia
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Age–Related Perspectives on the Biomechanics of Traumatic Injury2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finite element models have the potential to accurately represent the pediatric body, both from the anatomical and topological point of view. They can describe changes in size and shape as well as changes in the biomechanical properties. Starting from the PIPER human body model, whose baseline represents the anatomy of a 6 years old child, a family of five models between the age of 2 and 6 was created with the purpose of investigating how the body reacts to a traumatic impact. To create these models, a detailed knowledge of pediatric biomechanics was needed, so a deep literature research was performed to characterize all the human body tissues with age-related material properties. Then, an environment model was chosen to investigate how injuries are related to the age of the subject. Since car crashes are a leading cause of death among children, a car accident was simulated to reach the aim of the project. The anatomical and biomechanical scaling process, as well as the positioning of the child in the environment model, were performed with the PIPER tools, while simulations were run with Ls-Dyna.

    From the literature, age-dependent material properties were found for almost all the tissues of the human body, allowing the development of a detailed pediatric FE model. Then, biomechanical injury predictors, such as the brain strain, the skull acceleration, the chest displacement, the lung pressure and the Von Mises stress in the limbs, were extracted from the simulations to evaluate how injuries changes with the age. The head showed to be the body segment most affected by the age, with an increasing injury severity with the decreasing of the age. Moreover, it was observed that the probability of bone fractures increases for higher bone stiffness.

  • Persson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Cableharness selection for gearboxes using mathematical optimization2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Scania modular product system enables the production of thousands of different versions of gearboxes. If each version use a unique cable harness, this leads to large costs for storage and production. It is desired to find a smaller set of cable harnesses to fit the needs of all gearboxes. In this report we present two mathematical programming models to accomplish this while minimizing cost for production and storage. We propose a procedure for partitioning the data into smaller subsets without loosing model accuracy. We also show how the solution to the first model may be used as a warm start solution for the second model. The report focuses on cables for gearbox control systems used in heavy trucks manufactured by Scania. Results from testing the models against data provided by Scania is presented. These results suggest that substantial reduction in production cost can be achieved. Findings from this project can be used in similar situations, for example engine control system cables and general vehicle electric wiring.

  • Müller, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ride Pooling in Free Floating Car Sharing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Even though car sharing is already a widespread business concept and part of the shared mobility approach shaping the future of the automotive industry to some extent, the incorporation of ride pooling within the car sharing framework is not yet a fixed component of the existing models. Hence, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the potential of including the possibility of ride sharing in terms of fleet size, cost and profit optimization for a free floating car sharing model. This is done by building three different mathematical models and extending them by certain cost parameters. One of the three mentioned models is the Ride Share Matching approach, which focuses more on the actual ride sharing process than on a real business case with respect to a company. The latter is then covered by the other two approaches, namely the Dial-a-Ride-Problem and a modification of it with better running time called the Task Graph model. Test runs on those three models with randomly generated instances show that the potential of ride sharing is undoubtedly existent.

  • Mathay, Margaux
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Virtual planning of Total Knee Arthroplasty surgery: Assessment of implant positioning of different implanting types2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased workload on our healthcare system calls for more automation, this too in the pre-operative planning of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. This should keep in mind however that success in TKA is measured through having proper limb alignment. This thesis project implemented a virtual positioning assessment software that provides an initial position based on its bone and implant inputs with their specific landmarks. Positions can be furtherly adapted and evaluated based on flexion facets, obtaining decreased pre-operative workloads. The software was validated through an analysis comparison of the femur positioning of nine cases with the former used analysis tool of the university Hospital of Ghent. The newly implemented software was concluded to approximate the patients’ pre-operative alignment better for all translational and rotational parameters, except anteroposterior translation and internal/external rotation of the femur.

  • Bradaric, Matea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Desimons, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Design and Analysis of a Slanted Cable-stayed Building2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Tubed Mega Frame (TMF) is a structural system for high-rise building developed by Tyréns AB. Compared to conventional structural systems, the TMF is a coreless system that transfers the loads through the perimeter of the building instead and in turn enables ability to support new architectural shapes and forms of buildings. This thesis covers an initial study of a high-rise building with an unconventional shape implementing the TMF system, the Cable-stayed Building, which consists of a slanted tower with a cable-supported cantilever.

    The study of the building was divided in to a geometrical study and a cable study. The geometrical study was carried out to gain an initial understanding of the global structural behavior by altering specific geometrical parameters. The cable efficiency in terms of total vertical forces was investigated in the cable study by comparing different cable arrangements, cable diameters and prestressing forces for a fixed global geometry. The studies were performed under linear and nonlinear static conditions using the finite element software SAP2000 and ETABS.

    The results from the geometrical study showed that the cable efficiency increases in terms of larger vertical cable forces with a less inclined building and longer cantilever length. In addition, the results showed significant effects of geometric nonlinearities considering P-delta for different geometric cases. Furthermore, a study of the axial forces in the mega columns indicated that the most inclined building in which no uplifting forces and barely any tension occur along the mega columns, is the 7° incline with cantilever length 73.4 m.

    As abovementioned, the efficiency of the cables was compared for different arrangements, cable diameter and prestressing forces. The results indicated that as the prestressing force increases, the efficiency of cables rises more for smaller cable diameter than for larger. Furthermore, the comparison of fan- and harp-shape cable arrangements showed that the latter, including three pairs of cables, gives the highest cable efficiency relative to the amount of steel required of the cantilever bracing system. Nevertheless, the study indicates that the cable forces are inherently dependent on many parameters, such as the sag effect considered in the modulus of elasticity and the stress inducing temperature, which in turn depends on cable diameter, prestressing force and cable arrangement.

    To conclude the study, a modal analysis showed that the Cable-stayed Building is classified as a stiff building according to the guidelines from Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

    Further research on the structure could be carried out within different areas, as this thesis is only an initial study of the structure. For instance, material nonlinearities, dynamic responses of the building as well as soil structure interaction, should be investigated further. 

  • FASCÌ, MARIA LETIZIA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Feasibility study of battery storage installed with solar PV in an energy efficient house2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to nd the optimal size battery for an already installed PV system in a family house in Southern Sweden. First, the existing system is modelled and validated. Then a new model including a battery is built. In this model it is assumed that the aim of the battery is to maximize the self-consumption of the house. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to study the inuence of the battery capacity on the electricity uxes between the house and the grid. The protability of the project is then investigated, considering the current tari schemes for thehouse and for the "average" Swedish house. Eventually the possibility of applying price-dependent control strategies to the battery is investigated.

    The primary conclusion is that a battery installation is not protable for the studied house whether the incentives provided by the Swedish government are considered or not. Yet a subsidized installation would be protable for a house subject to the average Swedish electricity price. Another conclusion is that the current hourly volatility in the electricity price is not high enough to make reasonable the use of price dependent battery control strategies. Their use would lead to better economical performance, with respect to the simplest battery control strategy, in case of increased volatility.

  • Yassin, Zakiya
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Characterization of OSTE-based polymers for acoustofluidic applications2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Samulesson, Filip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Derivation of neutrino uxes in Gamma-ray bursts using the multi-shell internal shock model2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Mallmin, Emil
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Construction of equilibrium distributions from simulation of nonequilibrium processes with   feedback control2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Edberg, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Vortex Currents near the Boundary of a Two-Component Superconductor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Shah, Syed Arif Ullah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    The impacts of series compensated EHV lines on distance protection, and a proposed new mitigation solution2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Series compensation is extensively applied to the transmission lines to increase the power transfer capability of transmission lines, reduce transmission losses, improve voltage profiles, and improve power oscillation damping and transient stability of power systems. But it modifies the apparent impedance of the transmission lines during fault conditions and might cause the distance protection of transmission lines to encounter directional discrimination issues and reach problems. The non-linear characteristic of metal oxide varistor in series compensation model creates further complexity to the fault analysis and might affects the performance of conventional distance protection scheme. The distance protection issues in the series compensated lines need to be addressed for the reliable and sustainable operation of power system.The directional discrimination issues related to current inversion and voltage inversion phenomenon, and reach problems related to sub-synchronous oscillation phenomenon are addressed in this thesis report. This report aims to analyse the impacts of series compensation on the performance of conventional distance relays, and proposes a new protection solution to mitigate the shortcomings of distance relays in the series compensated lines. The proposed new protection solution includes: new tripping characteristic of quadrilateral distance relays to cope with the steady-state reach problems due to current or voltage inversion, and a new high-pass filtering technique to handle the transient reach problems due to SSO.The proposed new protection algorithm is developed in MATLAB. The performance of new protection algorithm is evaluated by simulating a 500 kV two-source power system with a 200 km series compensated line in EMTDC/ PSCAD (Manitoba Hydro). The proposed new protection solution is found to be beneficial.

  • Kreicbergs, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Carlsson Stiernspetz, Elin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Value Creation in IoT: - A Case Study at Telenor Connexion2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis work, we explore how the theoretical foundations of value creation in offline markets and e-businesses apply to the context of Internet of Things. Specifically, we present the results from a multiple case study together with Telenor Connexion and five multinational companies in its network interested in implementing IoT in their own businesses. The analysis of collected data in this study and our literature review of strategic management and value creation indicate that the previous theories of value creation cannot fully explain the value creating potential of IoT. Furthermore, based on the rich database obtained from interviews at the case companies, together with data obtained through personal observations at events and conferences regarding IoT, we propose a new model for value creation in IoT. The model focuses on the perspective of Mobile Network Operators from a customer-centric approach, which contains global coverage, partner networks, proof of concept and best practice as the primary value creation drivers in IoT. These primary value creation drivers are tightly coupled with the customer needs identified during the analysis of the data gathered from interviews at the case companies as well as to the interpreted problems organizations wishing to implement IoT are facing. Furthermore, we identify the managerial implications this study presents to Mobile Network Operators striving to maximize value creation in the field of IoT, as well as businesses interested in implementing IoT. We offer the Value Creation Model in IoT for Mobile Network Operators as a unit of analysis for future research on value creation in IoT.

  • Belaieff, Vera
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Uttran station: En studie om hur en ny pendeltågsstation påverkar resenärerna och restiden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling is a big part of people’s everyday life. In the urban area of Stockholm, the public transport of mostly busses and various types of trains are popular and the traffic is driven by AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, SL. The choice between SL and other traveling types is determining by factors such as available stations and reasonable traveling time.

    SL has a method to analyse the generalised travel cost called KRESU. In this thesis, the KRESU-method and methods to analyse the availability are used and applied on the area Uttran. Uttran is located between Stockholm and Södertälje and the rail where the commuter trains passes extends right through the area. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects on the availability and travelling times from the area of Uttran to Stockholm and Södertälje.

    The result includes the impact of the traveling time in the different directions and also how many passengers that are affected. The conclusion involves a discussion of the result and submit suggestions for further studies.

  • Enström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Kerrén, Thed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cykeln tar plats: En studie om cyklisters omkörningsbeteende och utrymmesbehov i stadsmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s traffic planning, there is a lack of knowledge concerning how cyclists behave during overtakings and what space this requires. The purpose of this report is to collect information and knowledge about cyclist behavior in different traffic situations, to increase the chance of bicycle infrastructure being designed in a way that best suits the cyclists themselves.

    The main topic of this report is how cyclist speed is distributed in bicycle paths of different standards, and how this can be used to determine the performance of a certain bicycle path. It will also be examined how lack of space affects the number of overtakings. Furthermore, the report will inquire how much space an overtaking demands, as well as if the difference in speed can be related to the width and length of an overtaking.

    The above questions are answered through a literature study where results from existing studies are presented, as well as through a case study where two bicycle paths of different standards and widths are compared. The method for collecting data is video recording, paired with manual video analysis.

    The most important conclusions of this study are that bicycle paths with more limited width have a larger proportion of bound vehicles, and that this proportion increases with the flow in the opposite direction, at least where width is limited. It was not possible to show any relationship between the width of an overtaking and the speed difference between two cyclists. However, overtaking width was found to be greater on wider bicycle paths than on narrower paths. Results also show that cyclists with greater speed tend to place their vehicle further away from the lane edge than slower cyclists do. Furthermore, it was observed that on bicycle paths with good space standard, there was a linear relationship between flow and the overtaking frequency. Finally, a model to compute the length of an overtaking was developed, but unfortunately this model could not be validated due to lack of measuring resources.

  • Raouz, Khalid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Environmental Impact Assessment of aPhotovoltaic Power Station in Stockholm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper at hand presents the environmental impact analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) power station sited in Stockholm, Sweden, using life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA considers the primary energy return on investment and global warming potential of the PV-station, including; resource extraction, manufacturing, transportation, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning. Other environmental impact indicators are also presented, such as; the eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and ozone depletion potentials. The results show that the most critical phase of the lifecycle is the upgrade from metallurgical to solar grade silicon due to the high consumption of energy. The emissions results are compared to the emissions factors used for calculations in Sweden in accordance with the Swedish Energy agency and the European Commission’s directive for emissions calculations. The results for the other environmental indicators showed inconsistencies compared to existing studies, something that is according to the IEA’s guideline for PV-systems LCA caused by data scarcity and the indicators lacking consensus within the PV LCA-community. The studied PV-station is expected to reach energy neutrality after 2,4 years and offset annual GHG emissions of up to18 ton of CO 2 equivalents.

  • Cronvall, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nilsson, Sofie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Delningsekonomi från vision till verklighet: Kan stadsutveckling möjliggöra för mer hållbara ekonomier?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the individualised consumption culture that prevails in our part of the world, emerging alterna­tive economies are focusing on more responsible forms of consumption and resource utilisation. Concepts aimed at sharing have recently received great attention in media, also related to various urban development trends. The aim of this study is to explore how planning can enable more sustainable economies in society. By studying sharing economy in an urban development context, an increased understanding can be created for how different actors frame the concept and what planning for sharing economics means in practice. To investigate the conditions that contribute to the development of sharing economy in an urban development project, these conditions will be explored more closely. The case Täby park has been used as an illustrative example of how sharing economy is discussed in urban development as part of the sustainability work. The empirical material is based on interviews with actors who have represented different stages in a process between vision and reality. Most actors argue that sharing economy refers to activities that promote increased sharing, but there is no common view that sharing economy represents a paradigm shift. The conclusions of this study concern that aspirations for sharing activities that such a new urban area should attract primarily are framed by political ambitions and private interests. As place marketing has become central to urban developments, there is also a question about the substance of visions and hence the sharing economy. The study has helped to reinforce the arguments that allow sharing activities to take place in the discussion about sustainable urban development. Self-organised groups are attributed to a major responsibility, something that questions which actors should be included in the planning. Finally, the study has shown that current planning ideals have difficulties in responding to alternative ideas that do not fit in prevailing structures of society.

  • Jegenberg, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Lundström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Fotgängares gånghastigheter i bytespunkter för kollektivtrafik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Walking speeds are an important parameter in the process of designing for example arenas, malls

    and station environments, to be able to make them safe and comfortable for the users. Previous

    studies have mainly focused on pedestrian walking speeds at zebra crossings and the results of these

    are the basis for traffic signal timing. The studies have also investigated the relationship between

    walking speed and gender, age and density of pedestrians. From the results of these studies,

    conclusions have been drawn that these three factors have an impact on pedestrian walking speeds.

    To make microsimulations of pedestrians reflect reality as well as possible, pedestrian walking speeds

    should be investigated at regular intervals, as walking speeds change with the ongoing change of the

    composition of the population. In the simulation of station environments, pedestrian speeds should

    also be used that have been measured in these types of environments. Alternatively, the speeds

    should be measured at locations near stations, rather than using speeds from zebra crossings.

    As a step in improving the above-mentioned microsimulations, the aim of this work is to study

    walking speeds at a public transport hub during rush hour. The work also focuses on connecting

    walking speeds to each sex and level of crowding. To achieve this goal, video recordings were

    performed at the exchange point between Stockholms östra and Tekniska högskolan in Stockholm,

    Sweden, where public transport passengers change between light rail and subway.

    Analysis of the video films resulted in walking speeds which were higher than those previously

    measured at zebra crossings. The most obvious factors explaining this are the differences in the

    environment where the studies were conducted and that the walking speeds in this thesis were

    measured during rush hour. The results show that simulations of stations and locations nearby

    should not be based on walking speeds measured at zebra crossings. Analysis of the video films also

    resulted in the calculated mean walking speed of women being marginally lower than for men.

    Regarding the link between density of pedestrians and their walking speeds a conclusion can be

    drawn that at low densities pedestrians have good opportunities to freely select their own walking

    speed. The freely chosen walking speed which can thus be maintained at low densities can vary

    widely between different individuals. At higher, unlike at lower densities, it is difficult for pedestrians

    to maintain a freely chosen speed due to interactions with other pedestrians. The calculated average

    walking speed at higher densities therefor decreases as the density increases. Interactions with other

    pedestrians can either mean that a pedestrian is forced to lower the speed or that he or she must

    walk faster to keep up with the current pace.

    When analyzing the video films, several other factors effecting the walking speed could be noted. Of

    these factors, grouping of pedestrians and if the pedestrian is using a phone or carrying luggage

    could be seen to decrease the pedestrian speed.

    These factors’ impact on walking speeds was only

    superficially studied in this thesis, and no reliable conclusions can therefore be drawn.

    Keywords:

    Pedestrian walking speed, public transport traffic hub, density of pedestrians, Level of

  • Wijesinghe, D.W.N
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Optimization of bio-methane production process for combined treatment of sewage & municipal solid waste2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Handling solid waste such as municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a booming problem in highly populated urban areas. Even though it has a high potential of biogas generation in anaerobic digestion, it is not that successful as a single substrate. The early researches proved that it can be treated combined with sewage sludge as a co-digestion process. This study was done to find the best performing mixing ratio of MSW and sewage sludge (SS) which gives maximum bio methane output. In this study three mixing ratios for MSW to SS were used as 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The retention time was selected as 20 days and the process was continued for 11 days. The highest cumulative methane production was observed at 80:20 (MSW: SS) mixing ratio as 2957.8 ml of methane. The methane and carbon dioxide content in gas was measured by using gas chromatograph. Highest Total Volatile Solids reduction also recorded at 80: 20 (MSW: SS) ratio as 57.32% after 11 days. The best soluble COD reduction, 95.19% and COD reduction, 36.85% also recorded at 80:20 mixing ratio.

  • Meyruey, Etienne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    A new method for weekly adequacy studies: Feasibility study of a Monte-Carlo approach in order to estimate adequacy risk a week ahead2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    RTE, as the French TSO, should estimate the adequacy risk from several year ahead to real-time. In particular, weekly studies are the first ones to use actual weather forecasts.

    The current approach faces several limitations. Indeed, possible electricity exchanges with neighboring are not modeled. Moreover the error on the forecast of the demand and of the available power is inaccurately modeled. Finally the analysis of trough is very limited. Therefore, a need for a new approach to determine the weekly markings arises. With the objective of meeting such need, this work introduces a new probabilistic approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations, consistent with already established longer term studies. It is made to respond to the limitations of the current method and to be applied possibly with a transnational point of view. The model is described then the analysis methodology is detailed. This methodology process applies with a European point of view:

    - First whether there is a risk in Europe is discussed and, if there are, which country would be concerned.

    - The time and the magnitude of the risks is then analyzed.

    - The causes are also considered in order to finally study some solutions.

  • HUSSAIN KAMALY, MAHBUB
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Bayesian belief networks for guidedremote diagnostics and troubleshootingof heavy vehicles2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intuitive troubleshooting and fault repair without the need of prior expert knowledge of automobiles has become essential in an aim for cost-minimization and eectiveness of repairs, it has been a focus in troubleshooting research for the past decade or two[  1]. This calls for an automated diagnosis system that is simple to understand and operate whilst at the same time provides the operator with the expert knowledge required for competent assistance. Thismaster thesis conducted at Scania CV AB will investigate how such a system would function and perform, providing a ground work for further development.

    The result will incorporate three aspects of analysis. First, the observations from the vehicle indicating that something is wrong or faulty. Second, the use of a Bayesian network, a model structure that describes probabilistic relationships and dependencies among system variables, for diagnostic purposes and to examine its haul on intuitive understanding of the system faults. Third, an implementation and study of a troubleshooting algorithm that will minimize the cost of repair based on an easy calculated metric that takes into consideration the probability of fault, cost of observation and the cost of repair (and indirectly also the mean repair time). Given a particular diagnosis, an optimized action plan and repair sequence is given. A thorough review of the underlying theory will be provided for the reader in the rst part of the report, where a slight deviation will be made to further investigate the use of  Bayesian lters and its eect on the  a priori probabilities used in the Bayesian model. In the nal part the reader will be guided through the implementation of the given theory and emersion of a working prototype.

  • Bjarnholt, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Electric Propulsion in Passenger Jet Airplanes: Requirements to realize all-electric propulsion  2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Passenger jet airplane propulsion systems are today dominated by turbo-jet engines that burn fossil fuels. The unsustainability of this is a concern both from an economic and environmental point of view. This research identifies the limiting factors in achieving to build a compelling battery-electric passenger jet airplane, and predict the range that can be achieved today and in the foreseeable future.

    literature study was performed to find the necessary performance data for all technical components. To analyze the performance of an electric propulsion system, the Boeing 787-8 was chosen as a reference and comparison. Piano-X, a program used for simulating the performance of different aircrafts under different conditions was then used to get data for fuel consumption and performance data for the airplane.

    The gravimetric energy density of the batteries was found to be the greatest limiting factor. Electric motors and power electronics were found to have about the same performance as a modern turbo-fan engine in terms of gravimetric power density. The results also showed that with today’s batteries, that present an energy density of 250 Wh/kg, the range is limited to about 600 km, assuming a 40% cell-mass-fraction and 25% improvement in flight efficiency.

    In conclusion, the challenge in creating a compelling all-electric passenger jet airplane is a big one, but not impossible. Assuming battery technology continues to improve at current rate, and design optimizations are done to the airplanes, a range over 1400 km seems to be possible within the next decade.

  • Enzell, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Tollsten, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Thermal cracking of a concrete arch dam due to seasonal temperature variations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete dams located in northern regions are exposed to large seasonal temperature variations. These seasonal temperature variations have resulted in cracking in thin concrete dams. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of existing dams are important to increase the knowledge about massive concrete structures and to ensure dam safety. 

    The aim of this degree project is to increase the knowledge about how cracking occurs in concrete dams and how it affects the dam safety. This was achieved by simulating the development of cracks in a concrete arch dam exposed to seasonal temperature variations using finite element analysis (FEA). The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the results with measurements from a Swedish concrete arch dam. Finally, effect of cracks and temperature on the dam safety was investigated. 

    FEA was used to predict the crack pattern and displacements in the arch dam. The analyses were performed both with linear elastic and nonlinear material behavior. Two models were analyzed, in one model the dam was considered to be a homogeneous arch, the other model included contraction joints. The cracking was simulated using temperature envelopes from the location of the Swedish arch dam. To evaluate the displacements in the arch, further analyses were carried out, where the cracked arch dam was exposed to the actual temperature variations at the location. The results were compared to the crack pattern and measurements of displacements of the Swedish arch dam. To investigate the effects from the cracking on the safety of the dam, a progressive failure analyses performed. 

    The results show that the downstream face of the arch cracked under hydrostatic pressure. The cracks propagated further during winter when the temperature load was applied. The resulting crack pattern corresponded well with the survey of the cracks from the Swedish arch dam. The FE-models with nonlinear material developed a horizontal plastic hinge due to excessive cracking in a region halfway down from the crest. The plastic hinge affected the shape of the deflected arch. The magnitude of the displacements and the shape of the deflected arch was captured with the nonlinear models. A safety factor of 3 for internal structural failure in the arch was found in the failure analyses. The safety factor of the arch only decreased slightly due to the cracking. During a cold winter, the safety factor decreased to 2.5.

  • MULLER, DENIS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    How to justify theimplementation of smart gridsfor a new neighborhood?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Grids technologies cover a wide range of applications, from energy efficiency to load adjustments. However, they still rise interrogations and doubts around their economic benefits and environmental improvements. Therefore, this thesis aims to understand and highlight the benefits of smart grids technologies applied to an urban development project of new neighborhood. For such a perimeter, it is first necessary to clearly define the smart grids considered, the stakeholders involved and the new tools that smart grids technologies bring. Therefore, this thesis highlights how, for an urban development project, the economic value of smart grids mainly lies in the reduction of infrastructure and tools to monitor and maintain energy performance of a neighborhood in its operational phase. Furthermore, the introduction of intermittent and decentralized production, facilitated by smart grids technologies, aims to extent the considered scale to tackle energy questions, from the building scale to the district scale. Therefore, new actors and governance practices may need to emerge in order to support Smart Grids technologies.

  • Martinssson, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Liljeqvist, Ivan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Short-Term Stock Market Prediction Based on Candlestick Pattern Analysis2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study performs a comparative analysis and evaluates the impact of different Relative Strenght Index (RSI) and stop loss configurations on a trading algorithm based on candlesticks patterns. It is tested on both the Swedish OMXS30 market and the UK FTSE100 market. By tweaking the configurations, RSI and stop loss was found to have a substantial impact on the performance of the algorithm. On both OMXS30 and FTSE100 markets the difference between configurations was shown to be significant

  • Johan, Nilsson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Energiuppföljning och brukarbeteende i samband med miljöcertifiering av byggnader2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental certification is a method to assess and rate buildings according to how environmentally sustainable they are. The four most common environmental certification systems on the Swedish market are Miljöbyggnad, GreenBuilding, BREEAM SE and LEED. Energy calculation of the building is one of many requirements to achieve certification from these systems. The calculation must fulfill the requirements defined in Boverkets byggregler (BBR) of a building's energy performance, except for LEED that requires that the energy calculation has to be structured according to a model described by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Miljöbyggnad and GreenBuilding require follow up of the buildings’ energy use, which BREEAM SE and LEED do not require.

    The purpose of this report is to examine possible improvements for monitoring of energy use in future environmental certification projects. The aim is also to examine which types of user-related changes that have been performed in earlier projects. The report also examines what needs to be done to advance the energy calculation in future projects.

    A comparison between the measured values to the stated calculations was carried out for 21 buildings. Only three calculations were within a range of ± 10 percent when compared to the measured energy use. Of the buildings with reliable statistical data a clear majority of the calculations underestimates the energy performance of the building.

    There are clear differences in the construction of the energy calculation depending on if it is based on the definition in BBR or in ASHRAE. The method of calculation for LEED is based on ASHRAE, and it shows significant differences between the actual building and the building's energy calculation. Those differences make the calculation unsuitable for following-up on the building energy performance. There are two major differences in the LEED methodology that for some buildings contribute to an unreliable energy calculation. Firstly, piping losses for hot and chilled water in the building installations are neglected in the calculation. Secondly, all spaces used by people, including zones only used limited periods, must be simulated with both heating- and cooling systems, even when no such system is installed in the building.

    The influence of the differences in follow-up requirements in the different environmental certification systems was investigated by a comparison of the differences between the calculated and measured energy performance between the buildings certified with different environmental certification systems. There seems to be no connection between different requirements on follow-up of the buildings’ energy use and how the difference between the buildings calculated and measured energy performance varies. This is based on the fact that out of the buildings who are certified with a system that require follow-up there are not more calculations that fall within the ± 10 percent margin compared to the buildings that are certified in systems without follow-up requirements.

    A survey with responses from 21 property owners were conducted. The majority of them said that current strategies for energy metering in environmental certification system are not sufficient for following-up on energy use. Among the property owners who felt that the current measurement strategies not are sufficient, the general perception was that it is not enough adapted for their business. Increased requirements for energy measurement in environmental certification systems, especially in the GreenBuilding, BREEAM SE, LEED and Svanen, would lead to better opportunities for following-up on the buildings’ energy use. This should be combined with a plan for measurement and requisite of following-up of the buildings’ energy use to ensure that the measurements are done correctly and that the requirements are fulfilled.

    Adaption of building user input data for calculations do not appear to be common in projects. There are no indications that there are some specific parameters that are corrected more often than others. Adaption of input data seem to be inhibited by the acceptance within the industry of using Sveby as a source for input data. This may result in less precise calculations, but it improves the opportunities for accurate comparison between different buildings hence the user of the building will have a less crucial role in the result.

    By a literature study it was shown that by performing the energy calculation earlier in the projects the calculation can be used to improve the building before the design parameters are determined. This may induce that the building will be better in an energy performance perspective. However, by performing the energy calculation in an earlier stage the accuracy of reliable input data will be decreased, thus lowering the precision of the calculation. If calculations instead were performed in a more ongoing methodology were the calculation is updated continuously when parameters are changed could the advantages from both the ordinary way and the early stage calculation be utilized. In this methodology the calculation could combine high accuracy in the result and still be used for compiling material for decision-making. To make this possible, the projects need to allocate resources for this methodology.

  • GONZÁLEZ-CONDE PÉREZ, JOSÉ LUIS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Analysis of task scheduling for multi-coreembedded systems2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis performs a research on scheduling algorithms for parallel applications. The main focus is their usage on multi-core embedded systems’ applications. A parallel application can be described by a directed acyclic graph. A directed acyclic graph is a mathematical model that represents the parallel application as a set of nodes or tasks and a set of edges or communication messages between nodes.

    In this thesis scheduling is limited to the management of multiple cores on a multi-core platform for the execution of application tasks. Tasks are mapped onto the cores and their start times are determined afterwards. A toolchain is implemented to develop and schedule parallel applications on a Epiphany E16 developing board, which is a low-cost board with a 16 core chip called Epiphany. The toolchain is limited to the usage of offline scheduling algorithms which compute a schedule before running the application.

    The programmer has to draw a directed acyclic graph with the main attributes of the application. The toolchain then generates the code for the target which automatically handles the inter-task communication. Some metrics are established to help evaluate the performance of applications on the target platform, such as the execution time and the energy consumption. Measurements on the Epiphany E16 developing board are performed to estimate the energy consumption of the multi-core chip as a function of the number of idle cores.

    A set of 12 directed acyclic graphs are used to verify that the toolchain works correctly. They cover different aspects: join nodes, fork nodes, more than one entry node, more than one exit node, different tasks weights and different communication costs.

    A use case is given, the development of a brake-by-wire demonstration platform. The platform aims to use the Epiphany board. Three experiments are performed to analyze the performance of parallel computing for the use case. Three brake-by-wire applications are implemented, one for a single core system and two for a multi-core system. The parallel application scheduled with a list-based algorithm requires 266% more time and 1346% more energy than the serial application. The parallel application scheduled with a task duplication algorithm requires 46% less time and 134% more energy than the serial application.

    The toolchain system has proven to be a useful tool for developing parallel applications since it automatically handles the inter-task communication. However, future work can be done to automatize the decomposition of serial applications from the source code. The conclusion is that this communication system is suitable for coarse granularity, where the communication overhead does not affect so much. Task duplication is better to use for fine granularity since inter-core communication is avoided by doing extra computations.

  • Törnqvist, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Markkanaler för förvärmning och kylning av ventilationsluft2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earth tubes utilize the fact that the temperature in the ground is relatively constant during the year. By letting the air travel through an earth tube before reaching the house’s air intake the air gets preheated by acquire the heat of the soil in the winter. In the summer the air releases its heat to the ground and gets precooled. There are few studies showing how large the energy saving would be by using earth tubes. The existing studies and models are adapted to a warm climate like India and Southern Europe. Few studies are made for a Nordic climate.

    This report is a Master of Science thesis given by the company Incoord and it investigate the potential of earth tubes in a Swedish climate.

    There are a few problems linked to the usage of earth tubes. The biggest problem is that condensate can accumulate inside the pipes which can encourage the growth of mold and bacteria. The pipes should therefore be placed in a slope to allow drainage of the water. It is also important to clean the earth tube regularly. Another problem that occurs is that during certain periods of the year the earth tube will cool the air instead of heating it and vice versa. This can be avoided by using a bypass-system during these periods.

    To be able to use the earth tube efficient different parameters need to be optimized. The parameters that have the largest effect are length, depth, air velocity and diameter of the pipe. To analyze the influence that these parameters have over the efficiency of the earth tube a model has been created in the simulation program Comsol Multiphysics 4.0a. Weather data was adapted for Stockholm. The soil type was chosen to be clay and the material of the pipe was polyethylene. The parameters were varied one at a time and compared to a base case. The base case consists of a 10 m long pipe placed at a depth of 2 m and with a diameter of 20 cm. The air velocity in the pipe is 2 m/s and the volume flow is 60 l/s.

    The result showed that longer pipes with a smaller diameter, lower air velocity and buried at a deeper depth gives a higher energy saving. The increase in efficiency that comes from a deeper placed earth tube levels out at depth over 3.5 m. The decrease in efficiency that comes from an increase of the diameter of the pipe levels out at diameters of 60 cm. The total energy saving for one year increased by 70 % for a 20 m long earth tube compared to a 10 m long earth tube. When two pipes were simulated the average temperature difference between the inlet and outlet increase by 0.06 °C when the distance between the pipes increased by 0.5 m for both cooling and heating.

    The energy saving for the base case is 525 kWh/year for the heating season and 300 kWh/year for the cooling season. This corresponds to an energy saving of 5 % for heating and 50 % for cooling compared to if no earth tube is used.

    The condensation calculations showed that there will be condensation in a 20 m long earth tube during most of the summer. The relative humidity at the outlet is then between 80 – 100 %.

  • Rönn, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Design.
    Urban Design in the City of Helsingborg: The Conflicting Interests of Mobility and Cultural Heritage in a Contemporary Project2017In: Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space / [ed] Anne Elisabeth Toft and Magnus Rönn, Trondheim: Nordic Academic Press of Architectural Research , 2017, Proceedings Series 2017-1, 127-156 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study in Helsingborg. The case began with a developer competition in 2009 and covered the acceptance of the detail plan in 2013 by politicians on the Board of City Planning Department (Stadsbyggsnämnden). The developer competition was organized by the Property Development Administration in the city of Helsingborg (Mark- och exploateringsenheten). When the jury chose a first-prize winner, the City Planning Department (Stadsbyggnadsförvaltningen) was given the task of drawing up a detail plan to implement the winning design proposal. This became a complicated assignment. A cultural heritage building, Ångfärjestation (Steam Ferry Station) from 1898, had to be moved to free up ground for the development. The relation between mobility and heritage values became a key issue in the urban design project.

     

    The County Administrative Board (Länsstyrelsen) has a supervisory role for areas which have been pointed out as important for national cultural heritage, such as the city centre of Helsingborg. If the County Administrative Board finds that the detail plan risks causing significant damage to national interests, it may annul the municipality’s decision. This is the fate of the first detail plan in Helsingborg. Part of the dispute concerns the relocation of the Ferry and Train Station, which may be assumed to cause considerable damage. This is a complex of problems. Assessments are founded on both descriptions of national interests and design, as well as on how the cultural heritage value is dealt with in the detail plan.

     

    The overall purpose of the study is to present a case that demonstrates the role that cultural heritage plays in the detail planning process regarding aspects of mobility. More specifically, the paper deals with mobility and values at a specific site in the centre of Helsingborg. The methods for collecting and processing the data in the case study are the close reading of documents found in archives and interviews with key actors. Documentation from the detail planning procedure was provided by the City Planning Department and the County Administrative Board. This documentation made it possible to identify the key actors and have them complete the interview guide. Viewpoints were thus obtained from eleven key actors who influenced the way development interests were weighed against cultural environment interests.

     

    The case study finishes with conclusions and discussion. Here the negative consequences of development are balanced by weighing them against the value of the cultural environment. Ten summing-up conclusions are made, which describe types of compensation, decisions, roles, power relations, organization, and steering of planning work. The final discussion takes up the preconditions for a systematic reunification of cultural environment experiences in the detail planning processes.

  • Ibáñez Sánchez, Marta
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    New Topology for STATCOM2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Static compensators (STATCOM) based on high-power converters are widely used for utilitiesand industrial applications in order to enhance the power system reliability. Nowadays,the Chain-Link Modular Multilevel Converter is the best solution for such applications,providing high eciency and reliability, and good harmonic performance. However, thecurrent delta and wye congurations present diculties in controlling negative sequencein unbalanced networks, as well as high capacitance requirements, which results in bulkySTATCOMs.This thesis aims to analyse a new Chain-Link Modular Multilevel Converter for STATCOMapplications. The main feature of the proposed topology is the presence of a commondc-link that will allow the exchange of energy between phases, facilitating the compensationof negative sequence components. Consequently, the required zero sequence componentinjection for the current Chain-Link congurations are avoided, and thus, also theconsequent over-sizing of the converter. Moreover, it is expected to have lower capacitancerequirements, because of the elimination of the second order harmonic (100 Hz)component in most of the capacitors, as they are charged and discharged by a bi-phasecurrent instead of a single-phase one. Additionally, lower conduction losses are expectedby reducing the number of devices in the conduction path.The layout and operation of the new converter have been analysed in this thesis.A STATCOM Simulink model provided by ABB has been modied to satisfy the newtopology. The theoretical benets of the proposed converter are supported by dierentsimulations carried out in Matlab-Simulink. In particular, it is shown a 50 % of negativesequence capability without any zero sequence component injection. The total capacitanceof the converter can be reduced a 30 % in comparison with the delta Chain-LinkModular Multilevel Converter, which is the preferable topology in the market nowadays.Furthermore, the losses are kept quite low if SiC semiconductors are used.On the other hand, the proposed topology requires the usage of bi-directional switchesto do the commutation and allow the exchange of energy between phases. An in-depthanalysis of the commutation process is shown at the end of this thesis, concluding that BidirectionalControlled Thyristors would be a promising solution for this converter topology.

  • Gelotte, Lovisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lundevall Nilsson, Alexandra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Optimal Placement of FloatingTwo-Turbine Foundations in Offshore Wind Farms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is conducted in cooperation with Hexicon AB, which is a Swedish design and engineering company developing floating two-turbine platforms for offshore wind power.The study aims to investigate the optimal placement of Hexicon AB’s platforms in an offshore wind farm with respect to the Annual Energy Production (AEP). Wind farm layout optimization is a complex problem and it has been approached by the development of calculation and optimization programs in Matlab. The analytical Jensen wake model has been utilized for calculation of AEP and important inputs to the program have been turbine parameters and site specific conditions. The optimization strategy used is a multi-stage algorithm where the gradient-based local search algorithm Fmincon has been used in combination with a version of the heuristic genetic algorithm. The developed programs have been tested and evaluated through a case study. Included in the case study is also a brief financial evaluation regarding how different scenarios in electricity export price and costs for cabling could affect the feasibility of the optimized layouts.

    Concluded from the project is that the developed programs can be used to investigate the optimal placement of floating two-turbine platforms with respect to AEP. In the case study it was found that the optimized layout obtained a wind farm efficiency of around 4% more than for the conventional staggered layout that was tested. What is also emphasized is that the feasibility of the optimized layouts obtained from the program is quite sensitive toward changes in future electricity export price and costs for cabling and installation. Hence, it is important to perform a careful financial analysis in order to draw conclusions regarding what layout is the better option for a specific situation.

  • SHAHROOZ, MINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Re-inventing Core Body Temperature Measurement2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are considered an integral part of future energy systems. In this context, constant awareness of human body status is critical for building responsive and intelligent environment that take energy efficiency and human comfort to the highest limits.

    Core body temperature is one of human body vital signs for body’s proper functioning and comfortability. Continuous non-invasive Core Body Temperature (CBT) measurements is important for patient monitoring and health status tracking in sports, sleep studying and other clinical and care procedures. Currently, there is a lack of precise and versatile methods to capture core body temperature under varying ambient conditions and through practical wearable solutions. Meanwhile, greenTEG AG, Zurich Switzerland, has developed a batch production method enabling the production of small, sensitive and very robust heat flux sensors. The main aim of this project was to develop a commercial product which for the first time measured core body temperature by placement inside a light, affordable wearable hold.

    This report presents a comprehensive review on heat transfer in human body and thermoregulation concepts in the first chapter followed by the state of the art methods. Then in chapter 2, according to the project design, full description and result discussions of the numerical model of human body developed by the author, was used as a prelude to the experimental tests. The model developed for this study was a Finite Difference model of different tissue layers combined with appropriate convection and radiation heat loss formulations. Tests were conducted through rigorous considerations of real body conditions including variable core body temperature and changing environmental conditions. Numerical tests were

    also validated by comparing with experimental results. Numerical results provided a precise preview of experimental models’ measurements and were used in the development of experimental setups. One of unique aspects of this study was the fact that the numerical model was used along with the sensor output to capture CBT and was considered a part of final product.

    In chapter 3, experimental tests on both skin phantom and human trials are discussed together with the sensor design and configuration. Results show that our CBT monitoring system is capable of measuring stable core body temperature under changing environmental conditions. It could also track circadian rhythm of core temperature during sleep, which for the first time, makes it possible for non-invasive miniaturized CBT tracking systems to measure accurate core temperature. These calculations are based on novel algorithms by greenTEG that could compensate for varying environmental conditions.

  • Gremalm, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Lindau, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Utmaningar för regional cykelplanering i Stockholm: En jämförande studie av regional cykelplanering genom mellankommunal samverkan i Köpenhamn och Stockholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to meet the growing needs of the future regarding traffic jams and sustainability in

    the traffic sector, the bike must be prioritized in the region. An investigation of the

    Stockholm and Copenhagen region will be made with the purpose to look at good regional

    planning for the bicycle grid through cooperation of the municipalities. The report will look

    more closely at proposed actions in planning documents and how the cooperation looks in

    reality.

    The plans for the making of the Stockholm regional bicycle grid is quite similar to the ones in

    Copenhagen, which has been seen as a great example for the regional plans in Stockholm.

    The regional och municipality plans contains standards of shape, maintenance, and finance of

    the regional bicycle lanes. In additional to the plans is experiences of the cooperation

    processes in real life. Cooperation between the municipalities in the region is made via the

    the regional bicycle council in Stockholm and Copenhagen. In Copenhagen, the

    municipalities work together through the whole process of making a regional bicycle lane,

    they apply for state financing together and write a contract of cooperation which states that

    they must keep to the agreed standards. I the region of Stockholm the municipalities work

    more independently, they apply for state financing themselves and only cooperates regarding

    maintenance and signage.

    The municipalities of Copenhagen were involved from the start in the process of making the

    regional bicycle plan. The municipalities of Stockholm had a more marginalized role. It is

    important to let the municipalities be a part of the process regarding integrating the thinking

    about the regional bicycle lanes in the municipalities. Actions which could be implemented in

    Stockholm with Copenhagen as an inspiration includes making more space for the bicycle on

    the streets while decreasing space for the car, that all the involved municipalities of regional

    bicycle lane cooperates closely to make safe a great standard and to also increase the size of

    the regional bicycle council. The council could contain a group which is responsible to see to

    that all the regional lanes has the same standard. The council can also grow in personnel to

    make sure that all the municipalities have the conditions which is needed to make the bicycle

    more prioritized. Stockholm could also like Copenhagen work to create routes for the bicycle

    which work more as a shortcut through green belts, over water and over highways without

    having to consider the routes of cars.

  • Karlsson, Frida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hemstaden - tur & retur: En undersökning gällande hur studenter som flyttat för att studera tänker kring att återvända eller inte återvända till sin hemstad och vad som påverkar detta val.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Brunzell, Sarah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Barnperspektiv i fysisk planering: En kartläggning av metoder för systematiskt arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to see how the child perspective is taken into account in the physical planning at the municipal level and to map methods that can help planners in their work. This is a literature study that examines children's rights, how children's health is influenced by the built environment and how they can be involved in planning. Methods that can be used in the work on children's perspective in spatial planning are also mapped. The study is based on reports from government agencies, municipalities, researchers and networks involved in community planning.

    The wellbeing and health of children are affected by the built environment they live in. Their ability to physical activity, play and recovery in an outdoor environment is limited as the city is densified. The open spaces and schools are usually not prioritized when building new areas, affecting the health of the children both physically and mentally. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the children have the rights to be heard and to express their opinion on matters concerning them. Communicating with children about physical planning provides, among other things, broader knowledge about the area's use. There are methods that planners can use to assess whether children are affected by the project as well as methods for dialogue with children. With the consequence assessment, there are good opportunities to adapt the project according to the children's needs and rights.

    In order to meet the children's needs and rights in physical planning, planners need to get more knowledge about how the work on childhood perspectives is to be implemented and why it is important.

  • Wäng, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Mannens Medborgardialog: En studie om hur jämställda medborgardialoger skapas2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hjort, Adam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Samverkan, helhetssyn, och cykeln: Aktörsperspektiv och planering för cykeln i Södra Solvallastaden, Stockholm.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm as a city, at this moment, is experiencing a massive, and extensive, change, which is most of all recognizable from the large construction of housing. What once was considered as the city limit, has now changed. Along with this development the bicycle, as a mode of transportation, has gained more attention, since approximately the late 1990s, within the municipal politics and planning. A mode of transportation which the city once rather disregarded and built away, is on its way back. The vision is for Stockholm in the future to be able to profile itself, as a bicycle city. In the city’s strategic governing documents, is demonstrated clearly, how an important part of the future city is a transportation system which has a great, long-term, focus towards sustainability. A transportation system which will prioritize bicycles, instead of cars.

    This paper aims at investigating the importance, and part, bicycling play in the city’s urban development. The relationship between the visions, aims, and strategies, set for the future traffic, and how it’s proved in actual planning. The paper investigates the comprehensive state of the bicycle, generally, of how Stockholm is planning, and then comparing with a specific project called Södra Solvallastaden. Which is a new development, in the Bromma area of Stockholm, were its stated how the area is being developed as a ‘bicycle city’.

    The theory focuses on the two concepts ‘helhetssyn’ (comprehensive view) and ‘samverkan’ (collaboration), common in the strategic documents, and important for what is known as a ‘samordnad planering’, meaning a more collaborative planning, which focus on how a more sustainable urban development is possible when a more inclusive planning of traffic and housing development is practiced. The differences between the perspectives are highlighted, and the aim here is to reveal which the preconditions for planning are. Decision making, and the decision-making process, within in planning is centred. Additionally, two complementing theories are used, which also focus on the process from a power, and organizational, perspective.

    The empirical part consists of qualitative data from both interviews with planers at Exploateringskontoret, Stadsbyggnadskontoret, Trafikkontoret, and the private developer in Solvallastaden, and the strategic governing documents for Stockholm, and earlier research within traffic and bicycle planning, sustainable development and sustainable transportation systems. The empirical material has then been analysed with help of the theory of how decisions happen in organizations, active participation and democratic processes, and as well collaborative planning – comprehensive perspective, collaboration and preconditions for planning.

    This study show that even if the strategic governing documents advocate how bicycling should be prioritized, and have a significant part of a long-term sustainable urban development, the bicycle, in projects, hasn’t always an inclusive part of the planning process. Planning for bicyclist is foremost thought of on a larger, regional, commuting level, outside of development and more through green park grounds. In the more local, urban space, there’s a very weak focus towards bicycling. This depends on the planning preconditions bicycling has, which is affected by how the city is organization itself, traffic planers involvement in decision-making and planning processes, the local politics, separated interests and conflicts between administrations, the historical inheritance, the separated levels of collaboration, and whom are given the opportunity to take an active part and shape the comprehensive view of projects.  

  • Wikenståhl, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Kommunen, byggherrarna och klimatet: Implementering och förhandling av klimatanpassning som mål2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av att anpassa samhällen till ett blötare, varmare och mer oförutsägbart klimat uppmärksammas allt mer. I Sverige har kommunerna fått huvudansvaret för detta, och många har antagit mål och strategier. Det är dock oftast inte kommuner utan byggherrar som faktiskt utformar och bygger boendemiljöer; en aktör som nästan helt saknas i litteraturen om klimatanpassning. Jag har i denna studie undersökt hur en kommun har gått tillväga för att se till att byggherrar implementerar klimat- anpassningsåtgärder vid nybyggnation av flerbostadshus i stadsmiljö. Genom intervjuer med projektledare på byggherrar samt med kommunala tjänstemän har jag undersökt vad som påverkat implementeringen av de kommunala riktlinjerna gällande klimatanpassning i ett planområde i Gustavsberg, Värmdö kommun, och hur kommuntjänstemännen har gått tillväga för att se till att byggherrarna implementerar dessa riktlinjer.

    Studien visar att implementeringen har påverkats av ett stort antal så kallade barriärer, som är relaterade till bland annat planområdet i sig, till aktörernas kunskaper och resurser, och till de tillgängliga regelverken. Planområdet som jag har undersökt har utformats som en tät kvartersstad, med innergårdar på bjälklag för att på plats med parkering under. Bristen på ytor samt markföroreningar från tidigare verksamheter har gjort det svårt för byggherrarna att nå kommunens högt satta mål gällande dagvatten och grönska. Den främsta förklaringsfaktorn gällande implementering är dock aktörernas motiv och intressen. Byggherrar är vinstdrivande företag, och deras ekonomiska utrymme i projekten har varit avgörande. Åtgärder som ger positiva effekter för både byggherrar och kommun, såsom energibesparing och grönskande boendemiljöer, har i regel varit lättare att implementera. Åtgärder som byggherrarna främst ser som kostnader har däremot varit svårare att implementera, såsom fördröjningsmagasin för dagvatten. Trots att ett miljöprogram kopplats till detaljplanen och kommunen angett att programmet ska vara en bedömningsgrund för bygglovgivning så har kommunens tjänstemän behövt aktivt genomdriva dess riktlinjer gentemot byggherrarna inför varje bygglov. Genom att försöka träffa byggherrarna så tidigt i processen som möjligt och på så sätt påverka utformningen av kvarteren har kommuntjänstemännen föhandlat fram klimatanpassningen av området kvarter för kvarter. 

  • Bracic, Blanka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    “Here it is, you can experience it, you can ride around”: Bicycle study tours as experiential education2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time of growing awareness of the climate change crisis, cities are revisiting their policies and practices to align with sustainability aspirations.   Transportation and cycling policies offer a way forward. On visits to best practice cities, policymakers, practitioners and decision-makers learn from local experts in an effort to take ideas home and implement them. The activity of finding out about policies, known as policy transfer, can be explored as a type of experiential learning when it takes place as a bicycle study tour. The policy transfer framework provided by Dolowitz & Marsh (1996, 2000, 2012) and the experiential learning theory of Kolb (2015) can serve as starting points in exploring how policies are transferred during learning activities and interpersonal interactions that involve hosts and visitors during bicycle study tours. The case study of Amsterdam, which has over 500km of separate cycle lanes and 53% of all daily trips made by bicycle (van der Horst, 2014), offers a working, observable example of an alternative future for cities wanting to change their transportation situation. More than 150 groups visit the city annually to find out about its bicycle culture and underlying policies (Sargentini, 2017).  While policy transfer and learning in Amsterdam may be initiated by visitors that take steps to travel to the city, the local hosting situation is made up of different institutions and actors that interact in various ways. Some attention to the governance of urban cycling in Amsterdam to understand the role of the private sector and the responsibilities of different organizations and actors can partially respond to Oldenziel’s (2016) call for research on this topic throughout Europe. Interviews and document research about the hosting situation in Amsterdam reveal several players with varied backgrounds, a rich variety of learning activities, and a loosely governed hosting landscape. Recommendations are made for Amsterdam institutions, hosts, visitors and future research.

  • Bergdahl, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    CPTED för en trygg park: En studie om betydelsen av den fysiska miljöns utformning i en park ur ett trygghetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Grönlund, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Jefford-Baker, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Measuring correlation between commit frequency and popularity on GitHub2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the correlation between the commit frequency and popularity of Github projects. Over 12 000 projects were retrieved using the Github API, resulting in a dataset containing 85 projects after filtering out projects that were deemed unfit. The analysis of the projects consisted of calculating the Pearson Correlation Coefficient using the frequency of commits and popularity as variables. Different time intervals were studied along with several metrics of popularity based upon the project’s metadata retrieved from Github. The results varied for the different time intervals and metrics of popularity but none of the measurements resulted in a correlation coefficient which indicated a strong or moderate correlation. Therefore this study reached the conclusion of no existing correlation between commit frequency and popularity. Although no correlation was found, several potential measures of improvement for further research were discovered.