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  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 14:00 FP 41, Stockholm
    Xie, Zhen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    High Resolution Tip-Enhanced Raman Images of Single Molecules from First Principles Simulations2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the precise control of spatially confined plasmon (SCP), tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) has achieved sub-nanometer resolution, leading to the chemical and physical characterization of the single molecule by optical Raman images. In the high resolution TERS measurements, the SCP spatial distribution generates the position-dependent Raman images. The position dependence challenges the conventional response theory, because the assumption of interactions between the molecule and the uniform electromagnetic field does not hold anymore. Moreover, as an emerging technology, potential applications of high resolution TERS are required to be fully explored. In this thesis, the developed theory for modeling high resolution Raman images is presented. By taking a series of typical molecular systems as examples, we theoretically predict some fine applications of single-molecule TERS.

    The first part of the thesis introduces the development of Raman spectroscopy and images. To achieve the final target of single molecule characterization, high spatial resolution single-molecule TERS is established and improved. As a nondestructive measuring tool, Raman imaging technology offers the means to study single molecules with unprecedented spatial resolution.

    The high resolution Raman images theory with detailed derivations is given in the second part of the thesis. The key factor is to take the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of SCP field into account, when we construct the interaction Hamiltonian between the localized light field and the molecule. This makes the numerical simulations of Raman images feasible.

    Other parts of the thesis give some theoretical predictions for potential applications of the emerging Raman imaging technology. Specifically, resonance Raman images can visualize the geometric changes of a single molecule switch and the intramolecular structure in real space. Since the localized plasmonic field can affect the electron transition, the excited quantum states can thus be effectively manipulated. This breaks down the intrinsic spatial selection rule imposed in conventional spectra. In addition, an effective linear response algorithm is used to simulate nonresonance Raman images. The unique superiority of spatial vibration resolution from non-resonance cases provides rich information about the single molecule. By constructing images from different vibrational modes, the spatial chemical distribution within a single molecule can be visualized. All these findings will facilitate fine applications of the emerging TERS technology in the coming years.

  • Brännström, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A review on hydrological modelling tools for Nexus assessment: A comparative study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The natural movement of water is known as the hydrological cycle. Many different factors affect the hydrological cycle and the availability of freshwater. The availability of freshwater is essential for many human activities.

    Three of the UN SDG’s (Sustainable Development Goals), number 2, 6 and 7, directly or indirectly relate to freshwater supplies. SDG number 2, zero hunger; a part of fulfilling this goal is to have enough available freshwater to irrigate crops. SDG number 6 is about access to clean water and sanitation. It is possible to desalinate saline water, treat unclean water or transport water long distances, but these are often costly and energy demanding processes. Therefore, it is important to manage the freshwater supplies that are available wisely. Access to clean and affordable energy is SDG number 7. One source of clean and affordable energy is hydropower, in order to produce electricity in a hydropower plant, plenty of water and a change in potential energy is needed .

    To be able to fulfil all these goals, it is important to include all of the perspectives when making policies regarding agriculture, building hydropower plants or making big infrastructure changes. The complex relationships between the different areas of interest can make it complicated to analyse the effects of a change made in any area. The concept of connecting different perspectives is called Nexus.

    This aim of this thesis was to evaluate different computer-based hydrological modelling tools, and how they can be used for Nexus assessments. This was done by performing a market research, choosing two tools for further assessment, creating evaluation criteria and perform a case study on a watershed in Uganda. The case study results and the evaluation criteria were then compared to an existing model in WEAP.

    The two selected hydrological modelling tools were MIKE SHE and SWAT. These two modelling tools were evaluated based on specified evaluation criteria. In the case study they modelled the same area in Kamwenge, Uganda. The output of the models was compared and calibrated against observed flow in the river at the outlet of the watershed. The results of the case study were incomplete since the MIKE SHE model was not calibrated successfully.

    The different models have different strengths. The format of output data and flexibility of the program is superior in MIKE SHE, while SWAT is more intuitive and demands less computer power. Over all SWAT is easier to use and model in for a novice user, while MIKE SHE requires more expertise in order to run a successful model. SWAT is able to model more of the Nexus perspectives and are therefore the preferred model.

  • Nikmehr, Abbas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Different Approaches to Sustainability Assessment and Applying life cycle Assessment for a Building in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building industry has always been an attractive and influential topic in the energy consumption and using natural resources. This study is formed due to Sweden has program to increase energy efficiency in the building industries until 2020. And the energy consumption will be considered and assessed the life cycle of a building. The study is divided into two parts, rating labelling system and assesses the sustainability of a building, with the main focus on the second part. The building with the selected material according to Sweden construction standard and knowledge of skilled people are formed and assumed in Uppsala.As the result shows, energy consumption in the use of the building have the higher negative environmental impact compared to the construction of the building. Therefore, increasing the energy efficiency requires increased power generation efficiency and the increase buildings energy efficiency. Use of renewable energy like wind and solar energy can be an effective solution. Also, changing consumption pattern and using new technologies are considered as a means of reducing energy consumption.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 13:00 Lecture hall T1, Huddinge
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Ergonomic Risk Assessment and Intervention through Smart Workwear Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of wearable technology has provided opportunities to ergonomics research and practice with new ways for workload measurements, data analytics, risk assessment and intervention. This thesis aims at developing and evaluating methods using wearable technologies to assess physical risk factors at work, and further to give feedback to employees to improve their work techniques.

    One smartphone application (ErgoArmMeter) was developed for the assessment of upper arm postures and movements at work. The application uses integrated signals of the embedded accelerometer and gyroscope, and processes and presents the assessment results directly after a measurement. Laboratory validation with 10 participants was performed using an optical tracking system as standard measurement. The results showed that the application had similar accuracy compared to standard inclinometry for static postures and improved accuracy in dynamic conditions. With its convenience and low cost, the application may be used by researchers and practitioners in various scenarios for risk assessment.

    Three models for assessment of work metabolism (WM) using heart rate (HR) and accelerometers (ACCs) were evaluated during simulated work tasks with 12 participants against indirect calorimetry as standard measurement. The HR + arm-leg ACC model showed best accuracy in most work tasks. The HR-Flex model showed a small bias for the average of all tasks. For estimating WM in the field using wearable technologies, the HR-Flex model or the HR + arm-leg ACC model may be chosen depending on the need for accuracy level and resource availabilities. Further improvement of the classification algorithm in the HR + arm-leg ACC model is needed in order to suit various types of work.

    Two smart workwear systems were developed and evaluated. Smart workwear system 1.0 consisted of a sensorized vest, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an Android tablet application. It assessed risks of high physiological workload and prolonged occupational sitting/standing. The results were visualized by color-coded risk levels. The system was evaluated with 8 participants from four occupations in a field study. It was perceived as useful, comfortable and not disturbing by most participants. Further development is required for the system for automated risk assessment of various ergonomic risk factors in real work situations.

    Smart workwear system 2.0 consisted of an instrumented t-shirt with IMUs, vibration units and an Android smartphone application. It provided vibrotactile feedback to users’ upper arm and trunk when predefined angular thresholds were exceeded. The system was evaluated for work postures intervention in industrial order picking among 15 participants. It showed to be effective in improving the trunk and dominant upper arm postures. The system was perceived as comfortable and useful. The vibrotactile feedback was evaluated as supportive for learning regarding workplace and task design among the participants.

    In conclusion, the research in this thesis showed that wearable technologies can be used both in the laboratory and field for assessment of physical risk factors at work and intervention in work technique improvement. With further research and development, smart workwear systems may contribute to automated risk assessment, prevention of work-related ill health, and improvement of the design and overall quality of work.

  • Sin Tian Ho, Cynthia
    et al.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Accessibility of bank branches and new firm formation in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on location theory, the local relationships between new firm formation and its determinants are explored in 290 municipalities across Sweden. From the robust geographically weighted regression (GWR) models, mostly positive relationships with new firm formation are shown for firm density, human capital level, industry diversification level and percentage of immigrants living in the area. In contrast, mostly negative relationships are shown for weighted mean distance to the nearest bank branches, establishment size, unemployment rate, industry specialization. Spatially constrained multivariate clustering is also applied to group municipalities with similar conditions. Patterns in the industry composition and the location attributes are then analysed for each cluster.

  • Sin Tian Ho, Cynthia
    et al.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The influence of bank branch closure on entrepreneurship sustainabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the influence of bank branch closure on new firm formation in Sweden, with a panel database that captures the geographical locations of all the Swedish bank branches from 2000 to 2013. Using spatial econometric analysis at a municipal level, we show that bank proximity to firms is vital for entrepreneurship to thrive and sustain in Sweden. From the Fixed-Effects spatial models, the increase in distance to the banks due to bank branch closure is shown to affect new firm formation negatively. The further a firm is located away from the bank, the higher the monitoring cost is for the banks. The increase in distance also results in an increase in information asymmetries because of the banks’ eroded ability to collect soft information about the borrower firm. Due to high risks associated with the lack of information and uncertainty, banks might not be as willing to loan money to a distant firm compared to a nearby firm. Furthermore, the presence of neighbourhood spillover effects is evidenced through the Moran’s I statistics, which means that the omission of spatial effects in the analysis would have resulted in biased estimates.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 09:00 F3, Stockholm
    Schoug, Lukas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Mathematics (Div.).
    On two-dimensional conformal geometry related to the Schramm-Loewner evolution2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains three papers, one introductory chapter and one chapter with overviews of the papers and some additional results. The topic of this thesis is the geometry of models related to the Schramm-Loewner evolution.

    In Paper I, we derive a multifractal boundary spectrum for SLEκ(ρ) processes with κ<4 and ρ chosen so that the curves hit the boundary. That is, we study the sets of points where the curves hit the boundary with a prescribed ``angle'', and compute the Hausdorff dimension of those sets. We study the moments of the spatial derivatives of the conformal maps gt, use Girsanov's theorem to change to an appropriate measure, and use the imaginary geometry coupling to derive a correlation estimate.

    In Paper II, we study the two-valued sets of the Gaussian free field, that is, the local sets such the associated harmonic function only takes two values. It turns out that the real part of the imaginary chaos is large close to these sets. We use this to derive a correlation estimate which lets us compute the Hausdorff dimensions of the two-valued sets.

    Paper III is dedicated to studying quasislits, that is, images of the segment [0,i] under quasiconformal maps of the upper half-plane into itself, fixing ∞, generated by driving the Loewner equation with a Lip-1/2 function. We improve estimates on the cones containing the curves, and hence on the Hölder regularity of the curves, in terms of the Lip-1/2 seminorm of the driving function.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:15 Ångdomen (Rumsnr: 5209), Stockholm
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Kufa Univ, Coll Engn, Al Najaf, Iraq..
    Numerical study of particle suspensions in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid or deformable particles suspended in a viscous fluid are of scientific and technological interest in a broad range of applications. Pyroclastic flows from volcanoes, sedimentation flows in river bed, food industries, oil-well drilling, as well as blood flow in the human body and the motion of suspended micro-organisms in water (like plankton) are among the possible examples. Often, in these particulate flows, the carrier fluid might exhibit an inelastic or a visco-elastic non-Newtonian behavior. Understanding the behavior of these suspensions is a very difficult task. Indeed, the complexities and challenges of multiphase flows are mainly due to the large number of governing parameters such as the physical properties of the particles (e.g., shape, size, stiffness, density difference with suspended fluid, solid volume fraction), the large set of interactions among particles and the properties of the carrier fluid (Newtonian or non-Newtonian); variations of each of these parameters may provide substantial quantitative and qualitative changes in the behavior of the suspension and affect the overall dynamics in several and sometimes surprising ways. The aim of this work is therefore to provide a deeper understanding of the behavior of particle suspensions in laminar Newtonian and non-Newtonian (inelastic and/or visco-elastic) fluid flows for a wide range of different parameters. To this purpose, particle-resolved direct numerical simulations of spherical particles are performed, using an efficient and accurate numerical tool. The code is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for the fluid-solid interactions with lubrication, friction and collision models for the close range particle-particle (particle-wall) interactions. Both inelastic (Carreau and power-law), and visco-elastic models (Oldroyd-B and Giesekus) are employed to investigate separately the shear-thinning, shear-thickening, viscoelastic and combined shear-thinning visco-elastic features of the most commonly encountered non-Newtonian fluids. Moreover, a fully Eulerian numerical algorithm based on the one-continuum formulation is used to examine the case of an hyper-elastic neo-Hookean deformable particle suspended in a Newtonian flows.

    Firstly, we have investigated suspensions of solid spheres in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening fluids in the simple shear flow created by two walls moving in opposite directions, considering various solid volume fractions and particle Reynolds numbers, thus including inertial effects. The results show that that the non-dimensional relative viscosity of of the suspension and the mean value of the local shear-rate can be well predicted by homogenization theory, more accurately for lower particle concentrations. Moreover, we show that in the presence of inertia, the effective viscosity of these suspensions deviates from that of Stokesian suspensions.

    We also examine the role of fluid elasticity, shear-thinning and combined shear-thinning visco-elastic effects on the simple linear Couette shear flow of neutrally-buoyant rigid spherical particles. It is found that the effective viscosity grows monotonically with the solid volume fraction and that all the Non-Newtonian cases exhibit a lower effective viscosity than the Newtonian ones; in addition, we show that elastic effects dominate at low elasticity whereas shear thinning is predominant at high applied shear rates. These variations in the effective viscosity are mainly due to changes in the particle-induced shear stress component.

    We then study the settling of spherical particles in quiescent wall-bounded Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids at three different solid volume fractions. We find that the mean settling velocities decrease with the particle concentration as a consequence of the hindering effect and thatthe mean settling speed is always larger in the shear thinning fluid than in the Newtonian one, due to the reduction of the local fluid viscosity around the particles which leads to a lower drag force acting on the particles.

    Finally, the inertial migration of hyper-elastic deformable particle in laminar pipe flows is also investigated. We consider different flow rates and various levels of particle elasticity. We observe that the particle deforms and experiences a lateral movement while traveling downstream through the pipe, always finding a stable position at the pipe centerline.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-10 10:00 H1, Stockholm
    Zografos, Dimitrios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Power System Inertia Estimation and Frequency Response Assessment2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power plant emissions constitute a major source of environmental pollution. This renders the gradual replacement of such power plants by renewable energy sources imperative. Changes in the quota between conventional generation and renewable energy sources introduce challenges that the modern power systems have to encounter. For example, conventional power plants are replaced by wind turbines and photovoltaics, which do not contribute to system's inertia. As a result, power system inertia decreases and frequency stability becomes a concern. Frequency stability is affected by the amount of power system inertia, along with the response of controllable frequency reserves and the amount of power imbalance. Therefore, the estimation of power system inertia, as well as the frequency response assessment is necessitated, so that appropriate actions can be taken to ensure frequency stability.

    The first part of this thesis focuses on power system inertia estimation. Four disturbance based inertia estimation methods are proposed. The methods accommodate the frequency and/or voltage variations that arise after a disturbance and estimate both the total inertia constant and the total power imbalance of the system. This is achieved by considering suitable functions that can approximate the voltage and frequency dependency of the loads, as well as the response from the governors. The proposed methods are applied on frequency responses from simulations of a test system under several different scenarios. The performance of the methods under lack of certain data is investigated, in order to examine if they can be employed under realistic conditions. An extensive analysis is performed, which enables the selection of the most appropriate method, depending on the information that is available.

    The second part of the thesis deals with frequency response assessment. First, the use of simplified dynamic equivalent models is examined. The parameters of either governor or frequency response models of the system are identified and validated by employing historic events. Data are obtained from events from the power systems of Sweden and Texas. After the identification, the frequency response model of the system can be simulated to assess frequency stability. Secondly, the thesis examines methods that deal solely with the prediction of frequency nadir. The examined methods either use neural networks or linear regression. The accuracy of the methods, as well as the uncertainty that is introduced by system non-linearities, are assessed through simulations.

    By proposing methods for estimating power system inertia and frequency response, this thesis attempts to provide additional solutions to the challenges that modern power systems have to face. It offers supplementary tools to increase the system awareness, in order to take appropriate actions in case of frequency events.

  • Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Durability study of reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining under artificial aging conditionsIn: Cogent Engineering, E-ISSN 2331-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging of sewer infrastructure is an ongoing problem. As a result, different materials and methods are being used in alternative sewer rehabilitation approaches. This work was conducted to study one pipe lining, namely the reinforced polyester composite, under artificial aging; this was done to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions, where it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as heat and water. Aging of the material was monitored by means of several tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption and microscopy. The results showed that the combination of aging in water and at high temperatures resulted in greater effects on the material compared to aging at high temperatures in dry conditions. Although the measured properties were affected significantly when immersed in water at high temperatures, the material showed acceptable properties at lower exposure temperatures close to the expected temperature inside sewer systems.

  • Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    What is the impact of macroprudential regulations on the Swedish housing market?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Housing shortage and urbanization have led to higher housing prices and larger household debt. In order to control the growth of debts, Sweden's financial supervisory authority has introduced several borrower-based macroprudential tools in the last ten years. In 2010, a mortgage loan to value (LTV) ratio was introduced, and in 2016, amortization of 1 percent of the loan balance was mandated by the law if the mortgage was higher than 50 percent of the value of the property. Furthermore, in 2018, the amortization requirement was tightened as all households with a mortgage larger than 4.5 times the annual income was forced to amortize 1 percent of the loan balance. The question is whether the financial supervisory authority's use of macroprudential tools had the intended effect. We are combining a hedonic regression modeling approach with a regression discontinuity design in order to estimate the causal impact on house prices. The effect of the macroprudential tools is estimated on the single-family housing market as well as on the cooperative apartment market. We are using microdata of 1 million housing transactions over the period 2008 and 2019. Our estimates indicate that the amortization requirement in 2016 has a negative impact of around 7 percent on the Swedish housing market and a slightly lower impact of the 2018 amortization requirement. The 2010 LTV-ratio requirement did not have any impact on the prices of dwellings.

  • Bellander, Erika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Manolopoulos, Dimitrios
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Hållbar utveckling i teknikämnet: Analys av läroböcker i teknik förgrundskolans åk 7–9och teknik 1 för gymnasiet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is about examining how certain current textbooks in technology at the lower secondary school and technology 1 in the upper secondary school address sustainable development (SD). The textbooks have been compared with current curricula for both Lgr11and Gy2011 as well as some external sources, the UN's 17 Global Goals and the magazine Nyteknik.

    As a method, a thematic analysis has been chosen according to Brown and Clark (2008), fromthe contextual perspective. The different themes have been analyzed and counted with regard to occurrences in the various sources, which has resulted in both a quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    The analyses have been linked to literature on research in three main areas; technical subject and HU, teacher - student and knowledge and textbook perspective.

    It can be stated that the textbooks do not contain as much percentage (%) of SD text mass, paragraphs, which the course and subject plans contain. The textbooks do not adhere specifically to the direction of the curricula, but SD seems to have been added to the existing content of previous editions, rather than having been worked in from scratch in new editions.This means that SD is sometimes regarded as an optional complementary activity in the teaching.

    The curricula do not follow the 17 new global goals for SD. This is because they are at different levels and synchronization with the global goals is done with a great delay. First, synchronization is made to the national level, then to the institutional level and last to the course and subject level (curricula).

    As it is now, the technical subject in the curricula seems to emphasize the importance of thinking about SD, rather than highlighting technologies relating to sustainable development and sustainable products.

    The conclusion is that textbooks and curricula need to be updated and the technology topics would integrate SD in a more concrete and genuine way, not as today, at a generally educational level. This is to emphasize the importance of SD in society and to achieve a current and equivalent teaching and acquiring knowledge and skill.

  • Clerc, Anthony
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tracking of railroads for autonomous guidance of UAVs: using Vanishing Point detection2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UAVs have gained in popularity and the number of applications has soared over the past

    years, ranging from leisure to commercial activities. This thesis is discussing specifically

    railroad applications, which is a domain rarely explored. Two different aspects are analysed.

    While developing a new application or migrating a ground-based system to UAV platform,

    the different challenges encountered are often unknown. Therefore, this thesis highlights the

    most important ones to take into consideration during the development process.

    From a more technical aspect, the implementation of autonomous guidance for UAVs

    over railroads using vanishing point extraction is studied. Two different algorithms are

    presented and compared, the first one is using line extraction method whereas the second

    uses joint activities of Gabor filters. The results demonstrate that the applied methodologies

    provide good results and that a significant difference exists between both algorithms in terms

    of computation time.

    A second implementation tackling the detection of railway topologies to enable the

    use on multiple rail road configurations is discussed. A first technique is presented using

    exclusively vanishing points for the detection, however, the results for complex images are

    not satisfactory. Therefore, a second method is studied using line characteristics on top of

    the previous algorithm. This second implementation has proven to give good results.

  • Wu, Meixian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Brand management in SMEs in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs have been developing rapidly in Sweden since the last decade; many of them have developed a strong brand and went global. Brands can be utilized as a tool for people involved in the ecosystem to consistently communicate with the stakeholders. On the customers’ side, decisions on purchasing certain products are often made by symbolic attributes. According to studies, brand management can benefit an organization’s performance. Brand management is critical for the substantiality of SMEs. Many studies have been done on brand management in larger organizations. Only some research has been done on SMEs brand management, from which it was concluded that SMEs placed very little or no priority on brand management. In this thesis, the author studies brand management in SMEs in Sweden, by using Wong and Merrilees’s model (2005) on three archetypes of brand orientation. The aim of this study is to get insights on what brand-related activities can help with the goal of heightening brand awareness for customers. This research is done by a qualitative study based on three in-depth interviews undertaken with small-sized organizations and a supplementary desktop research with data from authority.

  • Baban, Darin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Askari, Pavell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Future Sustainable Energy Solutions for Sulaymaniyah: Minor Field Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to identify the reasons behind power shortages in the city Sulaymaniyah, located in northern Iraq or Iraqi Kurdistan, and to clarify how large the difference between power demand and supply is. Also, several interviews have been performed to give further insight to the issues and possibilities the region is facing. Nevertheless, a portion of the energy demand is met by local diesel generators supplying power in city districts. With the use of the software program ArcGIS, a mapping of all the diesel generators in the city districts is done in order to visualize the unsustainable conditions of the city. In addition, the energy output of the diesel generators is quantified, and the energy supplied to a household is estimated on an average. Later, calculations are performed to estimate the diesel generators price for electricity, their amount of annual CO 2 emissions and social costs.

    In order to bring light to renewable energy solutions, a solar PV configuration was chosen based on regulations and infrastructure issues in the region, suitable for households. Furthermore, with the use of intra-hour solar irradiance data from Meteonorm and the software Matlab, an optimal solar PV angle was calculated for Sulaymaniyah. Thereafter, the goal was to substitute diesel generated energy with solar PV energy and thus a solar PV system was estimated for a typical household based on; the average energy received from diesel generators, the solar PV system’s efficiency and the total solar irradiance striking the tilted panels. Furthermore, a Net Present Value was calculated to evaluate the economic profitability of the solar PV investment. Lastly, a sensitivity analysis was done with different scenarios to predict different outcomes of the NPV model.

    The study found that the energy system in Iraqi Kurdistan is unreliable and unsustainable, mostly due to infrastructure issues and political uncertainties. Due to these issues, power shortages occur on a daily basis and the difference between power supply and demand reached an average of 350 MW throughout 2018, and the largest difference reached 1304 MW.

    The number of diesel generators in the city was 525 and had a combined installed capacity of 176.6 MW, however they are usually working at 85 % operational efficiency resulting in a power supply of 150.1 MW. Additionally, it was estimated that a household receives an average of 920.07 W from the diesel generators. Furthermore, the calculated price for electricity was 207 IQD/kWh and all the generators combined pollutes approximately 319000 tons of CO 2 per year.

    The optimal angle for a solar panel in Sulaymaniyah was calculated to 21° and the recommended configuration

    for a solar PV system for households was a stand-alone battery storage system. In order for households to replace

    the diesel generators they need a capacity of 1.62 kW and a dimensioning of 9.66 m 2 . Finally, based on the NPV model it was found that it is economically profitable to invest in a solar PV system with today’s conditions. However, the investment is profitable with a relatively small margin and based on a scenario analysis, it showed that the investment might easily become unprofitable with the change of the discount rate.

    Lastly, it can be discussed that the actual demand in Sulaymaniyah is lower than the one presented, since it is artificial and very dependent on peoples consuming behaviors which might be different if they were to have access to electricity all the time. Also, one of the biggest obstacles that might hinder solar PVs to be integrated to the energy system is the net-metering, regulations and tariff issues. The KRG clearly does not give incentives to its people to invest in renewable energy, which also might be the reason why there is a very small market in Sulaymaniyah.

  • Kosaraju, Nikhil Maharshi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Dynamic Analysis of an Automotive Power Transfer unit: Towards prediction of TE and housing vibrations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the use of Multi-Body Simulation (MBS) to create a virtual prototype of a geared drive called Power transfer unit (PTU). PTU is a subsystem of the all-wheel drive driveline responsible for transfer of power between front and rear axles in an Automobile. The objective of the developing the prototype is to simulate the dynamic behavior of the PTU. Focus is on predicting the gear transmission error(TE) and gearbox housing vibration level. A Hypoid gear set, bearings, tubular shaft and housing are the major components in the PTU. This work is carried out at GKN Automotive which specializes in development of Automotive All wheel drive systems. When developing such geared systems one important characteristic analyzed is the noise and vibration it generates. And for companies like GKN it is desirable to predict these characteristics as early as possible for two reasons, to avoid late design changes and to speed up the product development cycle. To achieve this, a validated virtual model which is computationally efficient is desired. The methodology followed contains of two facets, development of the MBS model and validation of the developed model with physical testing. An integrated MBS-FEM approach is used, an FE modal reduction technique is used to create flexible components with which a virtual prototype is built and simulated in an MBS tool MSC ADAMS c . Gear contact and bearings are defined using an analytical approach which considers the nonlinear stiffness and damping. A dynamic analysis and system level modal analysis is performed to predict the TE, housing vibrations and PTU modal parameters. Experimental modal analysis and physical testing on test rig are performed to measure the actual values of the above predicted outputs. Parameters like damping, contact stiffness of the model are then tuned to achieve correlation. When comparing test and prediction, close correlation is seen in the TE and for housing vibration a similar trend is observed with some deviations. Predicted TE is heavily dependent on gear contact parameters. On the modal parameter comparison, a correlation of five modes and mode shapes below 2500Hz is seen which shows the validity of the MBS model. Parameter studies are performed to study the effect of bearing damping and preload on housing vibrations and TE. It is observed that an optimum value of preload and damping is essential to avoid unnecessary vibrations. In conclusion, the model with some fine tuning of damping parameters can be used for virtual noise and vibration analysis of the PTU.

  • Koosha, Amirmohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Understanding Adoption of Mobile Wallets: On Aged Population2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile wallet is a mobile application that is intended to replace leather wallets. With high mobile and Internet penetration and increased life expectancy in developed economies, adoption of mobile wallets by the older population is becoming more important due to new trends. Therefore, this thesis aims to understand and increase adoption of mobile wallets in developed economies by the citizens between the ages of 50 to 75. Based on the mobile payment technology acceptance model (MPTAM) and an extensive literature review, a simplified model is suggested. Three sub-questions (on 1 - social influence, 2 - perceived security, trust and risks, and 3 – perceived ease of use) are proposed for further study, which has been suggested in the literature to have more importance for the targeted demography. An exploratory qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews was conducted. The findings show that social influence can have direct or indirect effects. Moreover, several factors were identified that seems to have impacts on the degree to which a content can influence people. In addition, perceived trust, security, and risks seem to be the most important impediment for the adoption of mobile wallets, especially for risk-averse people. Furthermore, perceived ease of use can improve the values that mobile wallets may provide. Perceived ease of use is more important for the targeted age group since some of the potential users in this age group has reduced learning and physical abilities. Finally, many implications of the findings and methods to improve the adoption of mobile wallets for the selected demography, i.e. restriction and customization, use of familiar design, use of strong brands, etc. are suggested.

  • HOLMQVIST, MARTIN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Virtual Reality som ett integreratverktyg inom Produktutveckling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En liten del av alla företag som startas idag lyckas på marknaden och det finns behov av processer för produktutvecklingsföretag som fokuserar på test och utvärdering av produkter och koncept för att skapa en attraktiv slutprodukt. Produktutvecklingsföretag utforskar idag hur Virtual Reality (VR) kan användas inom designprocessen och vilka effekter det har på deras produkter, men det behövs forskning som ger stöd och påvisar nyttor åt företag som vill utnyttja denna teknik vilket leder till den här litteratur studiens frågeställning:

    RQ: Hur kan Virtual Reality användas som ett integrerat verktyg inom produktutveckling och hur påverkar detta designprocessen?

    Tre respondenter på tre olika företag i närheten av Stockholm med koppling till V Roch produktutveckling intervjuades och efter analys framställdes ett resultat som lyfter fram intressanta områden med koppling till designprocessen och hur delprocesser kan påverkas om VR integreras som ett verktyg. Studien diskuterar huranvändare blir immersed i VR-simulationer och hur denna upplevelse kan agera sommedlare för att underlätta kommunikation mellan exempelvis designer och kund.

    Viktiga slutsatser från studiens resultat är att VR som ett integrerat verktyg harpotential att effektivisera befintliga, eller skapa nya, arbetsprocesser förproduktutvecklingsföretag samt ge designers nya synvinklar på produkter ochdjupare insikt om användarbehov. Dagens avancerade utrustning kan skapaverklighetstrogna miljöer vilket möjliggör virtuella utrymmen för nyanserade testeroch valideringar av virtuella prototyper i samband med användare. Testmiljöer ochscenarion som inte kan sättas upp i verkligheten på grund av kostnad, risker ellerandra begränsningar kan byggas upp virtuellt vilket kan spara tid och pengar förföretag. För att fler företag ska vilja investera i VR behöver användarvänlighet och användarbarhet förbättras genom att bland annat integrera programvara för VR med befintliga design- och modelleringsprogram för att underlätta implementering av VR. För att skapa möjlighet till globalt kollaborativt arbete genom virtuella teamarbetande inne i VR-simulationer måste dagens hårdvara och utrustning förbättras.

    Företag som vill integrera VR som ett verktyg i interna arbetsprocesser bör hålla ett öppet förhållningssätt till hur tekniken kan förändra, förbättra eller omforma befintliga processer och utforska vilken nytta VR kan ha för de unika arbetssätt som definierar företaget idag.

    För fortsatt forskning inom området föreslås fokus på ledande biltillverkare som idag använder VR som ett integrerat verktyg inom produktutveckling och den praktiska erfarenhet som kommit av detta arbete kan vara en källa till data.

  • Vikström, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Training a Convolutional Neural Network to Evaluate Chess Positions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Convolutional neural networks are typically applied to image analysis problems. We investigate whether a simple convolutional neural network can be trained to evaluate chess positions by means of predicting Stockfish (an existing chess engine) evaluations. Publicly available data from lichess.org was used, and we obtained a final MSE of 863.48 and MAE of 12.18 on our test dataset (with labels ranging from -255 to +255). To accomplish better results, we conclude that a more capable model architecture must be used.

  • Lukkarinen, Matti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    How has the Housing Shortage in UK Developed and How Can it Be Solved?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose with the thesis is to describe the housing situation in the UK, identify challenges and key solutions to them. To meet the purpose three research questions have been formulated: How has the British housing market developed since world war 2? Which challenges does the British housing market face? Which are the possible solutions to the challenges on the housing market? The method used is literature sources, statistics databases well as interviews and surveys with professionals within the field. Most information was collected in the UK where were based for two months. The result and analyses are divided up in a chapter containing the housing history for UK as a whole to get a solid ground and to better understand the statistics, the main problems and potential solutions. After presenting the history I have identified the main problems in the housing market and their solutions. Problems which have their roots in the past and have developed during the years and solutions which are either new or something which worked in the past. To get a short summary of the history the most important decades are summarised in the following table. Summary 1946-1979 The era had both the Socialdemocratic Labour in power and the right wing Conservatives. The planning agenda was first oriented towards physical planning where the physical was in focus to solve the problems. During the 1960s and 1970s it was the planning which was more focused towards scientific and economic solutions to solve the problems in the cities. New houses were built mostly by the public sector which built more than 1.7 million new homes. Along with the new dwellings towns where also built and dimensioned for about 20000-60000 inhabitants. Prefabrication was introduced in order to build many houses fast and cheap. The overall building of new homes peaked in 1968 and then declined thereafter because of focus on reinvesting in the existing housing. 1980-1999 During the 1980s with the conservative Thatcher in power the view was that the state had too much power, they spent too much money and there was a limitation on free market. This showed in the urban policies which were more entrepreneurial than before. The state put a cap on the public spending which affected the building of new housing. They also sold out their share of the housing market through the “right to buy” act. During the 1990s there was a backlash to the 1980s models and it become more popular to focus on publicprivate partnerships. 2000-2019 The first half of this era had Labour in power and in the other half the Conservatives. What characterised this time was that the population as well as the economy grew but the housing building was stable and low. This meant the gap between dwellings and amount of inhabitants grew. During the first part of the era Labour focused on building and investing in existing areas in order to create better communities but this was abandoned by the Conservatives which focused more on economic growth. The challenges can be divided up in two categories; how we ensure there is more housing built and how we steer and maintain existing houses. On the UK market and specially in London there is a unbalance in the relationship between supply and demand, where the supply is not big enough compared to the demand. The reason to why supply is not enough is because there aren’t enough buildings built and the demand has increased at the same time. In the past the council built their own houses in order to ensure there was enough supply on the market, however the last 40 years the housing market has been left to private sector. The existing properties are sold out by the municipalities in order to fund other sectors within the community. The buyers of different properties are often wealthy people who later let out to the people for a high rent. The thesis present six different solutions, both market oriented and public sector oriented. The solutions are the following: 1. Lowering Construction Cost through prefabrication 2. More Effective and Smaller living 3. Temporary Housing and Temporary Permissions 4. Local Authorities builds new housing 5. Reinterpreting “Land Value” 6. CLT – community owned land trust I have come to the conclusion that since housing is a complex matter we need different sorts of solutions. We need both market oriented and public sector oriented solutions in order to find a solution and an end on the housing shortage. Therefore all six solutions which was presented is valid on different scale solving different angles of the problems with housing shortage.

  • Jitwattanasilp, Jirapatr
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Stockholm Courtyards: A study of form, function and economic relation of courtyards in Ladugårdsgärdet and Norra Djurgårdsstaden area2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Courtyard is an architectural element which has a rather paradoxical definition. It is an open space inside and/or surrounded by the buildings. Traditionally, courtyard is an outdoor element inside the enclosed building. In the urban context of European or Western cities, courtyards are part of the perimeter block. Courtyards in an urban context are meant to be space to retreat from the outside and only use among the residents. But the evolution of urban form in the 20th century had changed the form & appearance of courtyards from its originality as well. Stockholm has resembled a similar evolution of courtyards with the rest of Western cities. Therefore this research conducted a study of the relation between courtyards form, activities, and economic (wealth) status in Stockholm. This study focused on the development of the courtyard after the beginning of the 20th century in the North-Eastern part of Stockholm city, Ladugårdsgärdet and Norra Djurgårdsstaden. The site is one of the last largest Stockholm city urban developments between 20th Century up to the present time. The study identified 9 types of courtyards developed in an overlapped time period from the beginning of the 20th Century until the present year. The observation findings showed that size, form & appearance, neighbourhood park, weather, privacy, and regulation affect the use of courtyards. Block development seems to regain influenced of perimeter block approach after the 1970s. The economic relation between residents and courtyards did not reflect any significant pattern due to the complex and varies the financial structure of the housing association (Bostadrättsförening / Brf). The terminology of courtyards’ form remains ambiguous but the field of study in this specific open space between buildings are open up. What is the purpose of the courtyard? Do courtyards essential for housing? How can it contribute different or better to the urban society of Stockholm and in general?

  • Public defence: 2019-12-04 10:15 B26, Stockholm
    Högdahl, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    A Simulation-Optimization Approach for Improved Robustness of Railway Timetables2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timetable is an essential part for the operations of railway traffic, and its quality is considered to have large impact on capacity utilization and reliability of the transport mode. The process of generating a timetable is most often a manual task with limited computer aid, and is known to be a complex planning problem due to inter-train dependencies.

    These inter-train dependencies makes it hard to manually generate feasible timetables, and also makes it hard to improve a given timetable as new conflicts and surprising effects easily can occur.

    As the demand for railway traffic is expected to continue grow, higher frequencies and more saturated timetables are required. However, in many European countries there is also an on-going public debate on the punctuality of the railway, which may worsen by increased capacity utilization. It is therefore also a need to increase the robustness of the services. This calls for increased precision of both the planning and the operation, which can be achieved with a higher degree of automation.

    The research in this thesis is aimed at improving the robustness of railway timetables by combining micro-simulation with mathematical optimization, two methods that today are used frequently by practitioners and researchers but rarely in combination. In this research a sequential approach based on simulating a given timetable and re-optimizing it to reduce the weighted sum of scheduled travel time and predicted average delay is proposed. The approach has generated promising results in simulation studies, in which it has been possible to substantially improve the punctuality and reduce the average delays by only increasing the advertised travel times slightly. Further, the results have also indicated a positive socio-economic benefit. This demonstrates the methods potential usefulness and motivates further research.

  • Persson Thanapasya, Julian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Managerial Impacts of Requirements Development in Public Procurements: A Case Study at Trafikverket2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore how the formulation and representation of requirements affect the quality of public procurements in Sweden. The study was conducted at Trafikverket, the Swedish transport administration, which plans and sustains infrastructure in Sweden, mainly roads and railroads. Requirements engineering theory, project management principles and the Swedish law of public procurements (LOU) has been used in combination with a series of interviews with experienced individuals in public procurement to draw further analysis. The study indicates that the quality of public procurements is negatively affected by requirement categories which are difficult to quantify, in practice making price the most utilised supplier evaluation tool by public procurers. Furthermore, procurements of complex projects require more extensive utilisation of tendering methods which facilitate communication between the supplier and the procuring entity, in order to constructively develop an accurate requirement specification. Such methods exist in the frame of LOU but are currently underutilised. In order to learn and sustain knowledge of new procedures, public organisations need to invest resources into recruiting and sustaining these types of skills.

  • Persson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Karp, Stephanie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Financing choices in the first funding round: The case of swedish tech entrepreneurs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepremeurship and what impact entrepreneurs have on the development of a country's society is a well-discussed subject today. During the recent years, entrepreneurs have been characterized as a country's futrue growth since ther are of utmost importance in terms of both innovation, employment and competition. However, one of the main constraints for entrepreneurs today is to gain access to external capital in the initial phase of their business.Therefore, our thesis will highlight the various financing options the entrepreneurs have in the start-up phase and why they choose a particular funding method for their start-up in the first financing round. The focus will be on entrepreneurs within the technological industry and the Swedish market. Moreover, our thesis is based on a qualitative study which includes interviews with six different start-ups in order to analyse how they have financed the start-up of their business and which funding method they prefer and why. A conclusion has been drawn from our study that internal financing is preferred over external which is in line with one of our financing principles that we have used for this study. Our thesis is expected to contribute with a deeper understanding of the entrepreneur's perspective in matters of financing with focus on the tech industry, which we consider as an extra important industry for global development.

  • Englund, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Hådén, Evelina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Digital Inclusion on the Agenda: An analysis of the final stage of diffusion of electronic identification in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As digitalisation continues to spread, the impact technology has on society is evident. In Sweden, digitalisation has led to the end of analog options forcing individuals to rapidly adapt to new technologies. For this reason, the diffusion of electronic identification (eID) as a critical technology occurred at an accelerated rate. However, a segment of society remains without access to this innovation. In this study, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with influential eID actors in Sweden to identify factors that impact the diffusion process, with a focus on late adoption. The result of this study shows that collaborations, accountability, biases, compatible technologies, and infrastructure technologies influence the spread of eID. These factors can be identified at an actor level but interact and consolidate on a system level. The above-mentioned findings have implications for innovation diffusion and digital divide theories as well as policy decisions regarding infrastructure technology and the practical requirements for adopting to eID.

  • Öhlin, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Retail Business Model Change in the Era of Digital Transformation: A case study from the perspective of a business model canvas2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased level of digitization in the retail sector, retail incumbents need to adapt their business model to the new digital era. E-commerce business and other digital tools have transformed the retail industry and incumbent retailers have to react to the changes in order to remain competitive on the market. While previous research has examined the nature of the digital tools in retail or the general impact of digital transformation on the sector, the thesis aims to investigate the impact of digital transformation on the business model of a retail incumbent. To investigate the impact of digital transformation on the business model of a retail incumbent, a single case study has been conducted at Company X, an incumbent retailer operating in Sweden. The Business Model Canvas has been used as a tool to identify the current business model of the company, and to propose future business models for Company X. The findings have resulted in the creation of three different Business Model Canvas scenarios with different levels of change in the business model. The scenarios all implied an increased cooperation with external partners and the implementation of new customer channels.The findings of the thesis contribute to an increased knowledge of retail business model change. While earlier research findings regarding the impact of digital transformation on the retail sector were confirmed in the case study, the thesis proposes new research concerning the impact on a retail incumbent’s business model. The study also contributes to how the Business Model Canvas may be used as a unit of analysis when investigating business model change.

  • Mohamed, Rozann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Bill, Laila
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    The Act of Giving & Receiving: A study of the social context in collaborations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the past decade, organisations have been recognising that they can apply open innovation, by collaborating with external parties. Open innovation, however, entails challenges and complex networks for the organisations that have traditionally worked in a different manner. Acknowledging the arising challenges, and finding success factors to match these, could, therefore, be a way to prevent these from developing. Moreover, mapping the key networks and roles could help organisations become aware of potential restrictions in the flow of information. 

    The findings of the thesis were obtained through a study, which consisted of interviews with six experts of open innovation, as well as a case study conducted with eight companies. These findings suggest that ideas are easy to discover in either the internal or the external network. The challenges arise when the ideas are absorbed and developed into something tangible. This is because organisations can be unaware of their need for a network to absorb the collected ideas and knowledge. This network, called the absorbent network, is where the key roles, such as: broker, connector, supporter and challenger, exist.

    The study outlines some of the largest challenges that large companies can face when applying open innovation, and some success factors that are required to overcome them. It also summarises the key roles and networks that arise in companies that apply open innovation. 

  • Bedaso, Binyam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Volatile fatty acid production from co-fermentation of primary sludge and food waste without pH control2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from waste stream is gaining high attention because of their high market value and wide range of applications. In this study, the production of VFA from co-fermentation of primary sludge from wastewater treatment plant and food waste without pH control was evaluated using a pilot-scale reactor in a semi-continuous mode of operation. In addition, the influence of substrate and inoculum on VFA production and composition was assessed using a batch fermentation experiment. The pilot-scale reactor was operated at a retention time of 7 days and 10 days in phase 1 (126 days) and phase 2 (25 days) respectively. A maximum VFA production of (687 mg COD/g VS) was obtained when the pilot-scale reactor was operated at a retention time of 7 days on day 107. The change in retention time from 7 to 10 days led to a higher hydrolysis rate; however, no improvement in VFA production was observed. The most abundant VFA produced after the reactor stabilized was caproic acid (50 %), followed by acetic acid (23%) and butyric acid (20%). Higher amount ammonium nitrogen (1.3 to 14.32 mg/g VS) compared to soluble phosphorus (0.69 to 7 mg/g VS) was released during the co-fermentation process. Furthermore, the loss of the VFA due to the production of methane was highly reduced because the pH of the reactor adjusted by itself in the range of (5 – 5.7). The batch fermentation experiment revealed that VFA production without pH control is highly influenced by the type of substrate and inoculum used. While the distribution of VFAs, is highly influenced by the inoculum type compared to the substrate used. Finding from this study indicates that there is a potential to produce VFA from co-fermentation of primary sludge and food waste without pH control.

  • Mohanasundaram, Raj Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Krishnan, Kalaiselvan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Value dimensions of digital health that are changing healthcare in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Life expectancy has increased with improvement in healthcare and diseases have become expensive to treat, several actors in digital health are building solutions that can bring different types of business value and solve big problems in healthcare. With healthcare being one of the complex industries due to hard regulations surrounding it, several digital health companies and startups are still struggling to bring their solutions to the market. Even with many reliable technological innovations, several digital health solutions end up failing at the initial stage of execution. There are several factors that owe to the failure of these solutions such as bad market- fit, poor team, regulations and poor business models. This thesis, however, considers the three value dimensions such as value proposition, value creation and value appropriation that are linked to the different components of a business model. This is done through analysis of two case studies from Sweden that have implemented digital health to create and communicate value to their stakeholders. An interview with one of the personnel responsible for the case that has been performed to better understand the implementation of their case. The findings have shown that an innovation can reach a larger mass by identifying and collaborating with a powerful stakeholder with similar problems or needs. The results of this thesis also include recommendations based on the value dimensions for the companies or startups working with digital health. Researchers and practitioners in the field can use them along with other factors to understand value dimensions and their role in creating better business and value for the society.

  • Makadsi, Ivar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Makdisi-Somi, Maikel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    An Exploratory Study of Drones Used for Safety Purposes on Outdoor Construction Sites2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore, understand and elucidate the factors that influence the adoption of drones for safety purposes on outdoor construction sites, as well as to determine how these factors influence adoption. This contributes to the role of modern technologies in the construction industry as well as fill a gap in existing literature of drone adoption for safety purposes. In order to investigate this, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with people representing eight different companies of varying size, all active in the construction industry. The results indicate that the major factors influencing adoption are: 1) Awareness, 2) Organization, 3) Workers, 4) Feasibility and 5) External environment. All these factors could influence the adoption both positively and negatively. How the factors influence the adoption has been modelled in the proposed framework Drone Adoption Model (DAM). The adoption process starts with Interest being spread throughout the firm. Once an interest is established, a Feasibility assessment is conducted. Depending on the result from the feasibility assessment, the technology is Pilot tested, which then lays the foundation for the Diffusion. The different factors influence adoption in different phases. Awareness primarily influence adoption in the Interest phase, whereas the factors Feasibility and Organization influence adoption mainly in the Feasibility assessment. Lastly, the two factors external environment and workers influence the adoption throughout the whole process.

  • Penton, Sanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Pettersson, Felicia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Factors Affecting Managerial Willingness to Change: A Case Study on Change Management When Implementing New Digital Technology2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of technology development increases the need for incumbent organizations to digitally transform. Studies show that digitally mature organization have a 26% higher profitability than peers (Westerman et al., 2012), nonetheless, success is rarely obtained as it requires incumbents to radically change their working methods and participate in a very painful transition. To gain knowledge on how to increase the success rate of digital transformations, this thesis examines what critical factors that affect the willingness for change of first line managers. Furthermore, it shows how change management can be applied to improve this willingness. Using a qualitative and exploratory approach through a case study, this research shows that earlier experience of work-related change, perceived usefulness and digital maturity affect the first line managerial willingness to change. Except from applying general theories on change management as well as considering more specific research on technology implementations, this study suggest organizations should focus on leading digital change from transforming individuals based on the three critical factors found to affect managerial change willingness. In doing so, stakeholder management analysis is suggested being a helpful tool as well as moving focus from the technology to a new way of working.

  • Josefsson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Adoption of Automation in the Horticulture Industry: A Case Study at a Robotics Company in the U.S. and Canada2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to fill the previous research gap concerning automation in the horticulture industry by discovering the adoption of automation in the U.S. and Canada, exploring the possibilities of introducing autonomous solutions and provide recommendations as to how this could create opportunities for small robotics companies targeting the industry. A case company in the U.S. and Canada was used as an example of a small robotics company for the case study. Two research questions were formulated:

    RQ1: Which major tasks in the horticulture industry should a small robotics company aim to automate?

    RQ2: What are the barriers for companies in the horticulture industry to invest in automated solutions?

    A mixed methods research with a pragmatic, inductive and exploratory approach was employed. The primary source of data was gathered from surveys, due to the geographical diversity of the region studied. The surveys reveal that the average level of automation across all respondents averaged at 47%.

    Given the strategy of the case company, a small robotics company is argued to aim to automate the following tasks: placing plant liners, sticking cuttings and planting seed, spacing of plants and containers, plant pruning, harvesting and grading production, and pesticide application.

    The horticulture industry is showing low barriers to invest in automation. The relatively high levels of automation are leading to increased trust in automation and further investments in automation. This is shown in the technology being perceived as useful amongst 75-85% of respondents and perceived as easy to use amongst 94% of respondents.

  • El Sabea, Hassan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Field measurements evaluation and modeling of CO2 heat pump for residential building (Gamen 12)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide, as a natural refrigerant, is safe and environment-friendly. It is also an economic refrigerant which can be utilized in residential heat pumps. Analysis has been done to evaluate the performance of the CO2 heat pump in Gamen 12 (Skrapan) in the Sodermalm area, owned by Vasakronan; which is a real estate company. The building satisfies its heating needs through connecting to the district heating network.

    Furthermore, the CO2 heat pump was installed to recover the available high- potential- waste energy from the building. The evaluation starts with one year of field measurements of an existing system (May 2017 to May 2018). Additionally, quality control and a revision of the data are essential to have the most accurate values. The use of necessary equations is then followed to estimate and establish the critical parameters to the heat pump's performance. For instance, some of the essential parameters include temperature and pressure.

    In this study, a numerical model was used to present four different scenarios which handle the parameters that impact the performance of the heat pump. These scenarios also aim to improve the system for future installations. The results show that the performance of the heat pump can be improved by 16% and 14% respectively when the outlet gas-cooler temperature and the evaporation temperature are optimized. The best performance of the system is achieved when the outlet gas-cooler temperature decreased, and the evaporation temperature increased simultaneously. This change yielded to the best optimal value, which is up to 30% higher than the previous performance. Another scenario was created for future installations. In this scenario, it was assumed that the heat pump consists of three gas coolers, two of which were utilized for heating domestic water while the third one was used for space heating. Results showed that the new installed scenarios were economically promising and yielded in better performance of the system. Finally, an economic assessment was adopted in this study which showed cost-saving effect at a specific running capacity of the system; 8% of the total cost which equal to 168 000 SEK was saved annually when the heat pump runs at average capacity 54%. After applying the suggested improvements, the savings will be higher and would reach 218 000 SEK annually and the capacity of the heat pump reaches 70%, which is equal to 11% of the total cost of providing heating to the building.

  • Diamant, Micaela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Herlenius, Saga Rebecka
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Steel Industry Energy Recovery with Storage2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Svenskt Stål AB (SSAB) is a global steel company who aim to eliminate all of their CO2emissionsby 2045. Today, SSAB Borlänge releases 20 GWh of waste heat in the form of steam into theatmosphere annually. This steam could instead be stored in a thermal storage unit, and then usedagain to reduce fossil fuel burning that is currently running the steam boilers. This report willinvestigate if SSAB Borl ̈ange’s old oil tank of 1200m3can be redesigned into a thermal storageunit to store the steam that is being wasted.Results show that the tank can be designed as a 95◦C hot water storage with a two cm thick foampolyurethane insulation, and a full tank will be able to hold 107,2 MWh. This will lead to annualoil savings of 2,14 GWh, which will save the company around 800 000 SEK per year in oil costs.A theoretical analysis prove that the SSAB Borl ̈ange previous oil tank can be designed as a hotwater storage and be profitable both environmentally and economically.

  • Nembhard, Nicole
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Safe, Sustainable Discharge of Electric Vehicle Batteries as a Pre-treatment Step to Crushing in the Recycling Process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an increase in global temperature to above 1.5°C can be halted but would require immediate intervention to reach net zero emissions in the next 15 years. This intervention would have to make use of sustainable energy technologies such as net-zero carbon systems for automobiles. Electric vehicle (EV) use is set to increase 3000% between 2016 and 2030. Due to the inherent toxicity of the chemicals within Li-ion batteries, they must be recycled to be sustainable. Recycling using energy recovering, hydrometallurgical process reduces greenhouse gas emissions. However, due to the high energy and power density within EV batteries, discharging the batteries is an important safety step in the pre-treatment process.

    There is no industry standard for discharging EV batteries. Many processes are suggested in literature with little information as to the methods used. The aim of this thesis is to explore four processes that could be suitable for industrial use. A suitable process should be ‘safe’, meaning it reduces the risk to the facility by minimizing the fire or explosion hazard, minimizes or eliminates human interaction with the battery pack and limits voltage rebound of an individual cell to 0.5V. The process should also be ‘rapid’, meaning it ensures that discharging does not become a bottleneck in recycling, ‘sustainable’ meaning it has no polluting fluid waste streams and ‘feasible’ that is, is cost efficient.

    Three processes were found effective. The first, is a combination of salt-solution and metal powder discharge methods using sodium carbonate and steel. This method is intended for battery packs and modules of less than 500V at 0% SOC. The second, is energy recovering electronic load discharge for battery backs greater than 500V or at greater than 0% SOC.  Finally, inductive, wireless discharge with BMS ‘override’ is suggested. This method is suitable for future battery packs of all sizes equipped with wireless charging technology.

  • Lizcano Quintero, Maryori Girlesa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Mshothola, Angelina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Corporate Entrepreneurship - Transferring Innovations into the Main Organization: A Case Study in the Context of the Telecommunications Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the topic of Corporate Entrepreneurship in large organizations with regards to how innovations are transferred from an Innovation Department into a receiving Business Unit. It aims to understand this topic by identifying what challenges are common barriers to this transfer process. It also identifies the causes of these challenges. Finally, this thesis establishes what suitable approach can be adapted to address these challenges.

     

    To answer these concerns, this research takes a deductive research approach by conducting a qualitative, empirical research through semi-structured interviews within a large Nordic telecommunication company. It also includes, benchmarking against two examples of companies that have developed solutions to overcome similar challenges. This qualitative methodology involves analyzing the interview and benchmarking results in comparison with literature, to confirm or disprove previous research.

     

    From the findings, eight categories of common challenges are discovered which are rooted within the innovation strategy of incumbent companies. Based on this research, a framework is developed as an approach to address the challenges of transferring innovations from an Innovation Department into a receiving Business Unit. As contribution to this field of study, this thesis highlights how multiple academic theories such as Corporate Entrepreneurship, Innovation Management and Innovation Strategy can be synthesized to collectively address these challenges. This is done by proposing a solution that is adaptable for different incumbent organizations. The proposed framework uses a stage-gate process that progresses when certain criteria agreed between an Innovation Department and a receiving Business Unit, are fulfilled. This agreement is based on the extent to which the criteria for each stage-gate is achieved in order to transfer ownership of the innovation solution

  • Nilsson, Mathias Malik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    The Effect of Oil Prices on Patents in Renewable Energy: A DTC Approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although a majority of researchers and policymakers are aware of the need to transition towards renewable energy to tackle climate change, the world is still much dependent on fossil fuels. Using directed technical change (DTC) as a theoretical framework, this thesis aims at understanding how the oil price can direct innovations towards technologies related to renewable energy. The hypothesized relationship is investigated empirically using macro-level panel data for 21 OECD-countries overthe years 1990-2015. The main finding, which is robust to changes in the model specification, show that fluctuations in oil prices have had a significant impact onthe relative patenting in renewable energy. Since oil prices are difficult to model and decided exogenously, this result indicate that the direction of innovations might be difficult to manipulate and control. Also, using the oil price as a tool to transition towards renewable energy can be difficult from a policymakers point of view due to the tough political debate surrounding the pricing of energy. However, the results from this thesis can hopefully spur further research examining the determinants of oil price fluctuations more closely to understand how its link with the direction of innovations can be of greater practical importance. Also, more refined research can be conducted in line with this thesis to permit more precise predictions regarding the role of oil price in the transition towards renewable energy in electricity production.

  • Savolainen, Laura
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Marketing and Entrepreneurship.
    Do non-compete covenants affect entrepreneurship and incentives to innovate?: Findings from Europe2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-compete covenants are clauses in employment contracts that forbid employees from competing with their former employers during a given time period. Recent literature has identified non-compete covenants as a new type of entry barrier to entrepreneurship within high-tech industries, impeding regional innovation, growth and employment. In Europe, the legal regime is highly heterogeneous, suggesting that certain regions might gain a competitive advantage in innovation. This study uses Fixed Effects regression and Poisson Fixed Effects regression models to investigate the ways in which non-compete covenants effect how venture capital investments stimulate regional innovation and entrepreneurship. The data set was constructed using data from The European Patent Office, the Eurostat, the World Bank and the OECD Economic Outlook. Ius Laboris overview was used to assess the enforceability of non-compete covenants in sample countries. The results show that increased supply of venture capital increases innovative activity in all regions. Relative to countries that enforce non-compete covenants, countries that restrict the use of these contracts experience higher rates of patenting activity. The level of enforceability was not found to have significant effects on new firm formation. The results suggest that financial intermediates and the legal regime have an important role in promoting regional innovation.

  • Wågström, Greta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Meisner, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Innovation Management: Evaluation Criteria for Idea Selection2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation outside the company’s core business is essential for any company in a fast-changing environment. Companies that want to engage in strategic innovation in order to embrace emerging opportunities need ways of managing the innovation process. There is currently limited research on how to select among and evaluate innovation proposals for emerging opportunities in the context of intrapreneurship. This master thesis investigates how an incumbent high-tech company that promote intrapreneurship uses criteria in the selection process of innovation proposals. The study conducts an embedded single-case study of the case company, referred to as Company A, by collecting qualitative data through archival documents and 19 semi-structured interviews. The study uses Christensen’s theory of disruptive innovation to analyse the results. Findings show that an incumbent high-tech company uses a set of criteria that is a mix of the previous findings in the context of new product development and external investors. The criteria utilized in the selection process are within the dimensions market and value, product and technology, operations and financials, corporate alignment, and team. The conducted interviews exposed that personal considerations constitute additional informal criteria for the evaluators, and much emphasis is put on the intrapreneur’s characteristics and presentation. Findings from the interviews suggest that criteria should be utilized less strict in the beginning of the process, which is supported by previous researchers. Criteria also contribute with transparency to the innovation process and can be used as guidelines for the innovator. Christensen’s theory contradicts the use of the criteria market size, corporate alignment and to validate the innovation with a customer because of the nature of emerging markets and technologies.

  • Glennow, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Granström, Alexandra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Cashless society: Is there a relationship between innovation and cash circulation in economy?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around the globe, countries move away from banknotes and coins in the favor of digitized payments. A number of findings from academic research conclude various benefits associated with decreased cash usage, such as enhanced economic development, less costs for governments and banks, financial transparency as well as lower economic-related crime rates. In a light of various benefits moving towards cashless payments, it is hypothesized that there also could be a relationship between how innovative a country is and how much cash circulates in economy. The relationship could be both-sided like less cash circulation can trigger innovation and, at the same time, adoption of cashless payments could be driven by how innovative a country is. To be able to investigate a potential correlation, a correlation analysis is conducted between the two variables: an innovation level of a country and cash circulation in econom. The Global Innovation Index score will be used to summarize various factors that provide an overview of national innovation performance, and percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be used for currency in circulation. According to the findings, the hypothesis that there is a correlation between cash circulation and innovation performance in a country could not be rejected with a 5% significance level. 

  • Aleström, Fridtjof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Almgren, Emil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Metodik för utveckling av Proof of Concept inom Internet of Things: XPD (eXtreme PoC Development) en ny projektmetodik som säkrar affärsnyttan i utvecklingen av IoT-lösningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Internet of Things (IoT) is a phenomenon that involves providing things or objects with sensors and internet connection. The field of IoT is growing rapidly and there are strong incentives for companies to follow the trend to develop and create an IoT. However, the proportion of IoT initiatives considered to be successful has been shown to be low. This study therefore investigates how a project methodology can support a concept development and secure the business value for IoT initiatives. The project methodology developed in this study is named eXtreme PoC Development (XPD). XPD is based on existing project methodologies from literature and interviews from consulting companies within the field in the Stockholm region. It was evaluated by a case study where fault detection in street lighting was investigated and implemented. The evaluation of the methodology highlighted the importance of defining problems and solutions that are anchored in the business value, calculating a potential of an IoT initiative that determines the continuation of a project, involving stakeholders at an early stage and developing a PoC to validate and evaluate a concept with stakeholders.

  • Malmberg, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Zhou, Bobby
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Using Machine Learning to Detect Customer Acquisition Opportunities and Evaluating the Required Organizational Prerequisites2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate whether or not it is possible to identify users who are about change provider of service with machine learning. It is believed that the Consumer Decision Journey is a better model than traditional funnel models when it comes to depicting the processes which consumers go through, leading up to a purchase. Analytical and operational Customer Relationship Management are presented as possible fields where such implementations can be useful. Based on previous studies, Random Forest and XGBoost were chosen as algorithms to be further evaluated because of its general high performance. The final results were produced by an iterative process which began with data processing followed by feature selection, training of model and testing the model. Literature review and unstructured and semi-structured interviews with the employer Growth Hackers Sthlm were also used as methods in a complementary fashion, with the purpose of gaining a wider perspective of the state-of-the-art of ML-implementations. The final results showed that Random Forest could identify the sought-after users (positive) while XGBoost was inferior to Random Forest in terms of distinguishing between positive and negative classes. An implementation of such model could support and benefit an organization’s customer acquisition operations. However, organizational prerequisites regarding the data infrastructure and the level of AI and machine learning integration in the organization’s culture are the most important ones and need to be considered before such implementations.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 09:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Nikou, Alexandros
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Robust and Decentralized Control of Multi-agent Systems under High-level Tasks2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized control of multi-agent systems is an active topic of research, with many practical applications arising in multi-robot systems, autonomous driving, transportation systems and robotic manipulation. The contributions of this thesis lie in the scope of three topics: formation control, robust decentralized tube-based nonlinear Model Predictive Control and time-constrained cooperative planning of multi-agent systems.

    In the first part of the thesis, given a team of rigid bodies, we propose model-free and decentralized control protocols such that a desired distance and orientationbased formation between neighboring agents is achieved. Inter-agent collisions are guaranteed to be avoided by the proposed control scheme. Furthermore, the connectivity between agents that are initially connected is preserved. The transient and steady state responses are solely determined by certain designer-specified performance functions.

    In the second part of the thesis, the problem of robust navigation of a multi-agent system to predefined states of the workspace while using only local information is addressed, under certain distance and control input constraints. The agents are modeled by nonlinear continuous-time dynamics with additive and bounded disturbances. In order to address this problem, decentralized tube-based nonlinear Model Predictive Control protocols are proposed. In particular, the feedback control law contains a portion that is calculated offline and a portion which is the outcome of an online optimal control problem.

    In the third part of the thesis, a team of agents operating in a bounded workspace is considered. Each agent is assigned with high-level tasks given in Metric Interval Temporal Logic. First, by providing novel decentralized abstraction design techniques, the motion of each agent is captured through a weighted transition system. Then, we propose decentralized control methodologies and high-level algorithms that guarantee the satisfaction of the desired tasks of each agent. The proposed approach can handle couplings as well as transient constraints of each agent in a novel way.

  • Edberg, Alexandra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Monitoring Kraft Recovery Boiler Fouling by Multivariate Data Analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with fouling in the recovery boiler at Montes del Plata, Uruguay. Multivariate data analysis has been used to analyze the large amount of data that was available in order to investigate how different parameters affect the fouling problems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Projection (PLS) have in this work been used. PCA has been used to compare average values between time periods with high and low fouling problems while PLS has been used to study the correlation structures between the variables and consequently give an indication of which parameters that might be changed to improve the availability of the boiler. The results show that this recovery boiler tends to have problems with fouling that might depend on the distribution of air, the black liquor pressure or the dry solid content of the black liquor. The results also show that multivariate data analysis is a powerful tool for analyzing these types of fouling problems. 

  • Fendukly, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Remote Technical Support Needs for Hospital Personnel: Using Q-methodology to Examine Remote Support Solutions in Healthcare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Remote control and management functions are widely utilized in multiple industries.The remote control and management functions has allowed for peopleto connect and interact to solve technical problems more efficiently. However,the healthcare organizations have not utilized the remote controlling and managementfunctions to a degree similar to other industries. Telephoning ande-mailing are still two mainstream ways of work when it comes to solvingtechnical support issues in-house. In order to understand what the technicalpersonnel and the clinical users at a hospital desires in new solutions, thismaster thesis project aimed at finding the existing needs in terms of remotecontrolling and management functions. To find these needs, Q-methodologywas applied for collection of subjective data from healthcare personnel abouta software device that aims at providing remote controlling and managementfunctions. In addition to finding and defining the needs, this thesis also aimedat examining how well such systems can address these needs.

    Performing this methodology three factors where found representing three differentattitudes regarding the needs for remote functions. The three factorsare "Technical Communication is Significant", "Functionality Appreciativeand Experienced" and "Do if fast!". These factors and their interpretationhelps to be aware of and to evaluate remote support solutions in a systematicway.

  • Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Guoxin, Wang
    Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing, China.
    Xin, Tao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Jian, Wang
    University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 611731, Chengdu, China.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Domain-specific Modeling Approach Supporting Tool-chain Development with Bayesian Network Models2019In: Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, ISSN 1069-2509, E-ISSN 1875-8835Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Wadhwa, Rohan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Systems mapping ofwork-stress mental health inStockholm to inform policydecision making2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental disorders are now the most common disorders for sick

    leave benefit and the second most common for long periods of sick

    leave. They are also the most common reason for receiving disability

    pensions. Long term work-stress or burnout is a prevalent cause of

    mental disorders and since it’s causes could be clinical or societal,

    there is a need to systematically address it from different perspectives.

    The aim of this thesis is to construct an overarching model that encompasses

    more than the medical side to help local authorities develop

    a mental health strategy for work-stress mental health illnesses. The

    work-stress mental health situation in Stockholm is addressed using a

    systems mapping approach to visualize the effect of future strategies

    of relevant institutions. Literature is reviewed to understand the

    national context of mental health in Sweden, identify relevant actors

    which affect work stress mental health and highlight their roles. This

    is then presented in a systems map through which the impact of

    policies can be shown across sub-systems. It is presented to several

    experts for validation which results in agreement on the accuracy and

    relevance of the model, identification of more sub-systems, actors that

    can be added to the model and the limitations of important actors such

    as occupational health centres and primary care. The exercise also entailed

    insights on how national and local level mental health policies

    could factor in the individuals’ resources and support employers with

    wellness and rehabilitation to counteract stress at workplace.

  • Strömbom, Sandra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    Strengthening the safety culture by an innovative project: A change project in the mining industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening the safety culture with the aim to build safe and healthy workplaces is in focus for many organizations. Safety and health is affected by various factors as for example systematic safety management, management focus, an informed culture, participation, involvement, social processes and empowerment.

    The studied mining company Boliden have had an extensive safety culture project at one of the units, the concentrator in Garpenberg. The aim of this study was to find out what activities and methods the unit has implemented and which of these that seem to have the greatest influence on improving the safety culture. There are few studies giving managers and organizations more of practical guidance and previous studies of safety culture in the mining industry is also rare.

    This qualitative study was conducted through analysis of company documents, participative observation and interviews.

    The result showed employees perception of a strengthened safety culture with changed safety behaviours, ownership in the organization, confidence to give feedback and entrepreneurs on track with safety. The project was also perceived to have led to stress in the organization, with lack of resources partly affected by the time taken to participate. The accident rate has also been decreased, from several accidents with absence per year, to 490 days without accidents with absence. The result also showed that the most influential factors seems to be the safety and health management system that is fully integrated with production and quality, the visualization on whiteboards, the daily steering meetings and the communication coming from them, the management clear safety focus, the unit’s teamwork with behaviours and values and the broad and continuing participation. Improvement suggestions from the interviewees were both more standardization and instructions but also that too detailed instructions are perceived negative, the analyse is that it can hinder creativity. Other suggestions were stepwise implementation and a wish for more time to stabilize the result of the project.

    A conclusion from the study is that the safety culture project seems to have made a great effect at the unit, strengthening the safety culture. An overall conclusion is that the unit seems to have both a system and a cultural approach, with the somewhat unique and innovative health and safety management system that govern for a systematic and sustainable way of working, with integrated reminders of safety behaviours. This may be the core affecting factor of what seems to have been a very successful project.

  • Markovska, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Svensson, Ruben
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Evaluation of drift correction strategies for an inertial based dairy cow positioning system.: A study on tracking the position of dairy cows using a foot mounted IMU with drift correction from ZUPT or sparse RFID locations.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the feasibility and performance of an inertial based positioning system for dairy cows in a barn environment. The investigated positioning method is pedestrian dead reckoning using inertial navigation with MEMS sensors. While this method is well known for human positioning applications, there has not been a lot of studies of its use on terrestrial animals. Since inertial based positioning systems are dependent on drift correction, the focus of the research is drift correction methods. Two methods, zero velocity update (ZUPT) and sparse locations, are compared with regards to positioning accuracy, energy consumption and sensor placement. 

    The best positioning estimates are achieved by using ZUPT corrections at a sample rate of 10 Hz, resulting in a mean position drift of 0.2145 m=m. Using a proposed equidistant sample time based sleep mode scheme, this would require a theoretical supply current of 0.21 mA. It is also seen that better position estimates are obtained for sensors that are placed low and on the front legs. The sparse locations method suffers from severe position drift between the locations, resulting in unusable positioning data. A combination of ZUPT and sparse location yields less accurate positioning than ZUPT only.

  • Lundius, Amelie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Initial Assessment of Manufacturing Execution Systems: Development of a methodology to define business needs and functional requirements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A key component of the smart factories that industry 4.0 introduce is the MES (manufacturing execution system). The MES lies above the actual shop floor in the enterprise system hierarchy and is not in direct contact with the actual production, in the way PLC (programmable logic control) or SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems are. MES guide, initiate, respond to and reports on the production activities as well as distribute information to other company IT systems, bridging the gap between the control systems of the shop floor and the information systems on an enterprise level. MES is a class of information systems built to support shop floor processes and improve the integration to other departments of the enterprise by incorporating these systems into the overall IT-architecture. The main goal of an MES is to improve and optimize the production management functions and increase visibility into the manufacturing process.

    The role of the MES is defined by industry standards that identify what functionalities and dataflows an MES should include, and how it is intended to be integrated with other information systems. However, little research has been focused on adopting these standards in actual MES implementation projects. The MESA (manufacturing executions system association) is presenting a standardized definition of MES as well as 2 models of the, according to the standard, 11 key MES functionalities. The ISA-95 (IEC/ISO 62264) standard identifies sub-systems of an MES and defines the boundaries between the ERP, MES and other automation and IT systems. Company parameters such as manufacturing environment, production model and plant type all affect the business needs and what MES functionalities are of priority. Hence, for an MES implementation project, a business-specific evaluation must be performed. 

    Prior research in the area is presenting a high-level workflow and best-practices of an MES implementation project. By combining this workflow with the general software implementation standard ISO/IEC 12588 (ISO/IEC 15288: System engineering – System lifecycle process), a methodology for performing the initial assessment of a company’s MES needs and business requirements is built. In the methodology models from MESA and ISA-95 are applied to ensure an industry-accepted terminology and process. The objective of the methodology is to provide a standardized way to make an initial assessment of a company’s MES needs and specify system requirements. The methodology is validated through a study performed at discrete manufacturing line.

    The overall needs and specific functional requirements are identified through the methodology and are presented according to a URS (user requirements specification) for an MES. The requirements are prioritizing according to MoSCoW analysis. Additional validation of the methodology must be performed to further evaluate the suitability of using the methodology for initial assessments of businesses’ MES needs.