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  • Lindström, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Animation of humanoid characters using reinforcement learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Procedural animations are still in its infancy, and one of the techniques to create such is using Reinforcement Learning. In this project, swimming animations are created using UnityML version 0.6 with their Reinforcement Learning training agents, using the policy PPO, created by OpenAI. A humanoid character is placed in a simulated water environment and propels itself forward by rotating its joints. The force created depends on the joints mass and the scale of the rotation. The animation is then compared to a swimming animation created using movement capture data. It is concluded that the movement capture data animation is significantly more realistic than the one created in this project. The procedurally created animations displays many of the typical issues with reinforcement learning such as jittering and non-smooth motions. While the model is relatively simple, it is not possible to avoid these issues completely with more computational power in the form of a more complex model with more Degrees of Freedom. It is however possible to finetune the animations with the improvements listed at the end of the discussion.

  • Lönn, Caroline
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Augmented Reality Smartphone Applications as a Tool to Raise Awareness of Circular Economy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems are increasingly jeopardizing the earth's life-support systems. By shifting from a take-make-dispose industrial model to a circular one, resources will last longer, and the environmental impact will be significantly lower.

    People’s choices, behaviours and lifestyles will play a vital role in achieving sustainable development. A way to influence this is to use an educational tool that is accessible, interesting and fun. By superimposing computer generated objects to the real world, Augmented Reality (AR) adds a layer of interactivity and engagement. As there are 3 billion active smartphone users worldwide, an AR smartphone application is also very accessible.

    This thesis investigates how marker-based AR can be used as a means to educate a user in circular economy. This was done by using research through design and applied research to create a design for a prototype which worked as a proof of concept. The prototype was evaluated through a heuristic evaluation. Data was gathered through a form and semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed using the framework method and box plots.

    The prototype used marker-based AR and was built using the game engine Unity with the Vuforia SDK. The results indicated that an AR application could be a good tool to use in combination with other sources of information such as seminars.

  • Olofsson, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Detecting Unsynchronized Audio and Subtitles using Machine Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unsynchronized audio and subtitle files are common within streaming media. As subtitles often are an essential part of the viewing experience, this can have large consequences, possibly making the content inaccessible. Detecting the unsynchronization manually is a time consuming task, as entire media files have to be viewed and evaluated by a person.

    In this thesis an investigation on how to detect unsynchronized audio and subtitles automatically using machine learning is performed. The process is divided into two parts. The first part consists of training the models Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptron to classify whether subtitles should be present given features extracted from audio. As a part of this process the algorithms are compared and evaluated based on their accuracy and time-efficiency. The second part is composed of using the best model to detect unsynchronization. It is done through a similarity measurement between the predicted subtitle distribution and the distribution of the actual subtitles. If a better similarity can be found through shifting the subtitles, the files are classified as unsynchronized.

    The project shows that Random Forest has the highest accuracy and is thus best suited for the purpose. Of ten file pairs tested for unsynchronization the method successfully categorized nine of them. The conclusion is that the approach is working, yet future work includes increasing the accuracy through testing other algorithms and audio feature extraction techniques.

  • Skeppstedt, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Identification and Exploitation of Vulnerabilities in a Large-Scale ITSystem2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the results of a vulnerability assessment and exploit development targeting a large-scale IT-system. Penetration testing and threat modelling was used to identify vulnerabilities in the system. This resulted in identification of five vulnerabilities and the development of a reliable denial of service exploit using an authentication bypass and a stack-based buffer overflow. The consequences of the vulnerabilities and the exploit is discussed and set into a broader perspective. The conclusion is that the results from this thesis can help improve the security of the IT-system. However, the identification of additional vulnerabilities could lead to a more potent exploit.

  • Jefford-Baker, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    ALCOL: Probabilistic Threat Modelling of the Amazon Elastic Container Service Domain2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is becoming an increasingly popular computation model for IT-infrastructures which has changed the notion of computing resources. Another concept that has become popular is containers which provides the capability to run applications isolated from each other while sharing the host’s operating system kernel. These two concepts have been combined to run containerised environments in the cloud, a cloud service type which has become popular among customers. The increased deployment of IT-infrastructures built on cloud environments running containers results in an increased exposure to cyber attacks within this domain which requires that proper security measures are taken.

    Assessing the security of a system can, however, be difficult. Attack simulations can be used to provide an overview of how an adversary can attack the system to simplify this task. This thesis proposes a probabilistic threat modelling language which can be used to simulate attacks against infrastructures based on Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS), a cloud service provided by Amazon Web Services which allow customers to run containerised applications in the cloud. The language, called ALCOL (Amazon eLastic COntainer Language), is based on the Meta Attack Language and the domain-specific language AWSLang.

    The language was developed using multiple literature studies to discover the different components in Amazon ECS that should be modelled in the language, as well as the different attacks possible to perform against Amazon ECS infrastructures. The language was evaluated using test cases representing different attack scenarios and also through an interview with a domain expert.

    The developed language is able to accurately simulate cyber attacks against Amazon ECS infrastructures, although with some limitations, which lead to propositions for future research.

  • Ringh, Matilda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gnesta Community Center2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gnesta community center is located at the main square, right next to the railway station. As the city grows, a new center block is planned where the community center would be located on the eastern end of the block. My ambition was to create a building that reflects the small-town character found in Gnestaby working with materials from the site, intimate rooms and meetings with the citizen. By making use of the material from the old station house across the street, the buildings create a portico to the city. The meeting between the railway, the station building, the main square and the community center becomes a clear centerpiece in the city and a representative place for Gnesta.

  • Cata Villa, Marcel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    3D Bounding Box Detection from Monocular Images2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Object detection is particularly important in robotic applications that require interaction with the environment. Although 2D object detection methods obtain accurate results, these are not enough to provide a complete description of the 3D scenario. Therefore, many models have recently showed promising progress in this challenging field.

    In this work, the goal is to predict 3D bounding boxes from single images without using temporal data or any explicit depth estimation. We propose an approach for 3D monocular object detection based on Deep3DBox. We replace the geometric constraints taken into account to predict the 3D location of objects by a deep learning module. Moreover, we undertake a study on the different parameters for the modules that are used to predict dimensions and orientation of objects.

    We conduct experiments in order to search for the best hyperparameters of our model for KITTI cars and we report and compare our results on KITTI and the challenging NuScenes benchmarks for cars and pedestrians with other state of the art methods. Therefore, we conclude that our approach performs on par with similar methods and improves Deep3DBox results.

  • Arendal Rundbom, Vera
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Town hall in Nynäshamn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stadshusplatsen in Nynäshamn is a square with good prerequisites to become an oasis for the citys inhabitants. Though today the current town hall, a low-rise building, closes the square towards the south. The old town hall has lost its function as a uniting building and together with Folkets Hus, they form a wall that blocks the sun and the view towards the sea.

    The assignment was to draw a proposal for a new town hall where the current town hall is situated and to explore how the new structure can relate to an adjacent high-rise building and create new dimensions and prerequisites to the square.

    First of all, I chose to create a passage between Folkets Hus and the new town hall. This to let the sun shine in on the square and create a connection between the square and what is today the back of the town hall but has potential of becoming a sunny meeting point for the citizens of Nynäshamn.

    To find ways to create a connection in terms of design between the high-rise building and my proposal I looked at the base floor of the high-rise building, which consists of a pillar arcade. Based on this arcade two grids, one primary and one secondary, arise and creates the conditions of the building both spatially and structurally. In the intersections of the two grids I’ve placed pillars, one larger and one smaller type, to define spatialities both outside and inside the building.

    The two different pillar types also help to define in which zone of the building you are located. The smaller pillars represent a more intimate zone and the larger ones the public zones. In the more intimate zone, two cores of service have been placed. Furthermore, no fixed walls are used but the rooms are defined by columns and three different wall types: a light wall, a flexible sliding wall and a movable fabric wall.

  • Freimanis, Davis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Vulnerability Assessment of Authentication Methods in a Large-Scale Computer System2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vulnerabilities exist in almost all software programs. Some software is more vulnerable than others. A method that can be used to mitigate the vulnerabilities is penetration testing. In this thesis, a penetration test was conducted on a large scale computer system provided by a company. The goal of the thesis was to see if vulnerabilities could be found, with a focus on the field of authentication. After conduction a thorough penetration test there were vulnerabilities found that threaten the confidentiality and integrity of the system. Authentication vulnerabilities were found by leaking password hashes and by performing pass-the-hash and pass-the-ticket exploits.

  • Matsoukas, Christos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Model Distillation for Deep-Learning-Based Gaze Estimation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent advances in deep learning, the gaze estimation models reached new levels, in terms of predictive accuracy, that could not be achieved with older techniques. Nevertheless, deep learning consists of computationally and memory expensive algorithms that do not allow their integration for embedded systems. This work aims to tackle this problem by boosting the predictive power of small networks using a model compression method called "distillation". Under the concept of distillation, we introduce an additional term to the compressed model’s total loss which is a bounding term between the compressed model (the student) and a powerful one (the teacher). We show that the distillation method introduces to the compressed model something more than noise. That is, the teacher’s inductive bias which helps the student to reach a better optimum due to the adaptive error deduction. Furthermore, we show that the MobileNet family exhibits unstable training phases and we report that the distilled MobileNet25 slightly outperformed the MobileNet50. Moreover, we try newly proposed training schemes to increase the predictive power of small and thin networks and we infer that extremely thin architectures are hard to train. Finally, we propose a new training scheme based on the hintlearning method and we show that this technique helps the thin MobileNets to gain stability and predictive power.

  • Xiang, Ziyi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    A comparison of genetic algorithm and reinforcement learning for autonomous driving2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two different methods, reinforcement learning and genetic algorithm for designing autonomous cars’ control system in a dynamic environment.

    The research problem could be formulated as such: How is the learning efficiency compared between reinforcement learning and genetic algorithm on autonomous navigation through a dynamic environment?

    In conclusion, the genetic algorithm outperforms the reinforcement learning on mean learning time, despite the fact that the prior shows a large variance, i.e. genetic algorithm provide a better learning efficiency.

  • Welin-Berger, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Return barriers and their application to stack tracing on modern VMs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual machines are today at the core of a very large portion of the code that runs our everyday lives. Their relative performance and characteristics are of high significance for society indirectly and few other are as impactful as the JVM. In this thesis, we examine the possibility to speed up stack tracing on HotSpot and OpenJDK by implementing a return barrier. The barrier is implemented by overwriting the return program counter on the top frame with a function that re-installs itself on the frame below every time it’s executed. Because of this, the barrier acts as a “low water mark” and we then leverage that fact to enable Java Flight Recorder to cache the section of the stack that has already been traversed before. While the first implementation of such a cache did not prove successful in terms of performance improvement we look at costs and benefits of different steps in the implementation and highlight where future use the barrier might be attempted.

  • Wiklund, Hannes
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gnesta Community Center2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A fictional proposal for a community center in Gnesta.The building site is based on a draft for the planned development of Gnesta citycenter. The objective for me was to create a living and breathing center for the community, that would communicate the function within through its transparent facade.

  • Brink, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Dissection of a Generative Network for Music Composition2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling what a neural network generates has had great success when applied in the image domain. This thesis explores the performance of similar methods but instead applied in music generation. WaveNET, a state of the art neural network in audio synthesis and generation is trained using Generative Adversarial Networks to produce piano music. Two different methods for controlling the generation are presented, named HARD and SOFT. The HARD method fails to produce music of the same quality as without control. The SOFT method generates music of the same perceptual quality as without control but fails to control the output of the network. Finally, a discussion why this might be, and ideas regarding other methods for controlling the generation of music, and sequences in general are presented.

  • Östblom, Linnea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Proposal for a new townhouse in Nynäshamn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal for a new townhouse in Nynäshamn

  • Public defence: 2019-10-28 14:00 F3, Stockholm
    Pechsiri, Joseph
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nutrient Recovery as an Added Benefit to Harvests of Photosynthetic Marine Biomass: A Holistic Systems Perspective on Harvesting Marine Microalgae, Cyanobacteria, and Macroalgae2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of increasing environmental burdens from anthropogenic activities andresource scarcity, interest for the development of solutions utilizing photosyntheticmarine biomass has also been increasing in both academia and industries. Medium tolarge scale production and harvest of photosynthetic marine biomass have beenpracticed to achieve numerous services, including improving tourism industries,production of biofuels, and production of food/feed. However, few studies haveevaluated the potential for nutrient recovery as an added benefit to the aforementionedservices and the potential environmental burdens of such solutions from a holisticsystems perspective. This thesis, therefore, sought to determine the nutrient recoverypotential of harvesting photosynthetic marine biomass at industrial scales whileassessing the environmental burdens from a holistic systems perspective. Techniquesinvolving life cycle inventory and analysis, input-output analysis, growth modellingand experimentation, energy analysis, and assessment of greenhouse gas emissionsfrom a life cycle perspective were used to assess the potential environmental burdensof large scale harvest of photosynthetic marine biomass.This study employed five real world case studies of five different photosynthetic marinebiomass species at various geographical locations across the globe. Each case wasassessed to determine the potential to recover nutrients while evaluating the potentialenvironmental burdens from an energy and greenhouse gas perspective. Each casecontains unique specific details and therefore methods applied were case specific.Results showed that nutrient recovery potential existed in most cases with the exceptionof one case. Cases evaluated for their potential environmental burdens showed thatlarge scale harvest of photosynthetic marine biomass is resource intensive regardless ofspecies but showed mixed results from an energy perspective. The key findings of thisthesis were that a) the potential for nutrient recovery was estimated in both large scalecultivation and large scale wild harvest of photosynthetic marine biomass, b) from anenergy and biomass harvesting perspective, the viability of industrial harvests ofphotosynthetic marine biomass were found for both large scale cultivations and wildharvesting of biomass blooms, and c) scale of operations is an important factor towardsevaluating the environmental performance of photosynthetic marine biomassproduction systems.

  • Coronado Pons, Mar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Modelling the performance of heat pump systems for single-family house applications2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) extracting the heat through borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) are an extremely efficient way to provide heating. Their performance is affected by the temperature of the thermal source: the ground; the higher it is the temperature of the ground, the higher their performance. As the demand of this heating technology increases, the amount of GSHP in densely populated areas is at risk of escalating notably. Consequently the study of thermal influence between neighbouring GSHPs is of paramount importance to properly design these systems in such areas.

    A comparison is made between the performance of an isolated house, and the same house as part of an area with high density of houses using identical GSHPs. The aim of the project is to study the long term consequences of exploiting the ground thermal source in an extensive manner, to analyse how the GSHP operation is affected in this specific case study, and present a methodology general enough to be implemented for different conditions.

    It is presented a methodology based on a parameter calibration model for the HP to analyse the performance along the years of a ground source heat pump system located in an area where there is a high density of identical installations. The model was tested to verify its accuracy when simulating the performance of the HP and was implemented for two case studies that emulate the conditions found in Sweden for residential heating. For the first case study, where a 6kW HP unit is simulated, the COP of the system decreased around 15% for the 25 studied years. In good agreement with this decline of the COP, an electricity consumption increase above 10% is faced. For the second case study, a heat pump unit double the size of the one employed for the first case is modelled. In this case, the drop for the COP is 16% and the electricity consumption growth is above 20%.

  • Markström, Ingemar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Comparing normal estimation methods for the rendering of unorganized point clouds2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Surface normals are fundamental in computer graphics applications such as computer vision, object recognition, and lighting calculations. When working with unorganized point clouds of surfaces, there exists a need for fast and accurate normal estimation methods.

    This thesis presents the investigation and implementation of two different methods of normal estimation on fixed-size local neighborhoods in unorganized pointclouds.

    Two main categories of tests were conducted. The first type was visual inspection and the second consisted of numeric analysis of the normal estimation process and results. Point cloud data used in the study included numerically exact representations of spheres, cubes, cones, as well as both uniformly sampled or laser-scanned real-world point clouds with millions of points.

    Complete triangle averaging was found to be the method of choice on small neighborhoods, justified by faster running-time while still estimating high-quality normals. When larger neighborhood sizes were needed, a size breakpoint was found above which principal component analysis should be used instead, which estimates normals of similar quality as the complete triangle averaging but with the added benefit of near-constant running-time independent of neighborhood size.

  • Ala-Mutka, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Powering Africa by Empowering its People: An Action Research study at a Zambian microgrid company building local capacity to reach large scale viability2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recent advances in the global electrification rates, increasing from 76% in 1990 to 85% in 2012, the United Nations goal of universal access to electricity by 2030 is still far from achieved, with an estimated 1.1 billion people still without access to electricity. Over half of these live in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a majority in rural areas and extreme poverty. Major challenges are inert with the current electrification path of centralized grid extension, leaving these people without power in decades to come. Microgrids, a decentralized power system consisting of solar power generation, energy storage and distribution technology, has been hailed as the only option to provide life improving and productivity inducing power for rural communities in Africa.

    However, despite recent hype and development in the sector, the diffusion of microgrids is still incremental due to a lack of viable large-scale operation, required for profitability. This is explained by targeting customers in remote rural areas with low ability to pay, and the task of delivering expensive technology and complex operations needed to manage and operate the grids. No industry blueprint or research on how to operate microgrids at scale or profitably exists. This thesis explores one blueprint, with the promise to increase profitability and allow for a more sustainable scaling. Local Capacity building is a decentralized approach by developing capacity directly in the local communities, through recruiting, skills development and training of people to be employed to operate and manage their local microgrids.

    The results consist of a framework outlining what local capacity building is, through research propositions that define the key components capturing the complete system of local capacity building is for scaling a microgrid business, along with the challenges and opportunities associated with scaling a business using local capacity building. It has been developed iteratively by application of an action research approach conducted on a small-scale Zambian Microgrid company facing radical growth. The researcher was immersed in the context, at the heart of this change, and in a participatory and interventionist fashion turning every stone to explore what local capacity building is, resulting in a robust study anchored in the field. Because of the contextually embedded nature of the data, this also means that the results are local. It is up to the reader to assess the applicability of the results in another context.

    The extensive results span multiple areas of the business, capturing the complexity of local capacity building, and contribute to knowledge on a holistic level on what local capacity building is. This blueprint was deemed viable to further develop in the small-scale Zambian microgrid company, specifically because of its potential to lower operating expenses and offer a more sustainable way to scale, and in extension diffuse microgrids in Africa.

  • Stiff, Harald
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Explainable AI as a Defence Mechanism for Adversarial Examples2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deep learning is the gold standard for image classification tasks. With its introduction came many impressive improvements in computer vision outperforming all of the earlier machine learning models. However, in contrast to the success it has been shown that deep neural networks are easily fooled by adversarial examples, data that have been modified slightly to cause the neural networks to make incorrect classifications. This significant disadvantage has caused an increased doubt in neural networks and it has been questioned whether or not they are safe to use in practice. In this thesis we propose a new defence mechanism against adversarial examples that utilizes the explainable AI metrics of neural network predictions to filter out adversarial examples prior to model interference. We evaluate the filters against various attacks and models targeted at the MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, and Cifar10 datasets. The results show that the filters can detect adversarial examples constructed with regular attacks but that they are not robust against adaptive attacks that specifically utilizes the architecture of the defence mechanism.

  • Jóhannsdóttir, Steinunn Kristín
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Evaluation of Head and Neck Injuries during Misuses of Child Restraint Systems: Simulations of Car Accidents Performed with the PIPER Child Model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Car collisions are, unfortunately, not uncommon and cause 1.35 million deaths each year worldwide. Children are often occupants in cars and to ensure their safety, child restraint systems (CRSs) have been developed. However, CRSs need to be used correctly to be efficient. Several studies, such as field investigations and Q-dummy tests, have shown that a misuse of a CRS can increase the risk of injuries.

    Typical misuses for a forward-facing CRS and a booster seat, with two real accident parameters, were constructed and simulated using the PIPER child human body model. The kinematics of each case were compared with injury parameters of the head, neck and abdomen. Comparing the parameters to existing injury criteria showed that most of the cases end in AIS3+ head injury, even cases with no misuse.

    When comparing the results of misuses to the cases where the CRS was correctly used, the dominant result was that misuse resulted in being less effective to protect the child. Moreover, results of chosen misuses compared to Q-dummy tests correlated with their results. Results from this thesis illustrate how important it is for parents to restrain children and route the belt correctly.

  • Bernhard, Isabelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my proposal of the new City Hall in Strängnäs there is several things I want to take advantage of in the project and for the estetics of the building;- The building represent some of old crafts of the city.- The silhuette of the building is accented with the crossing of the lines in the central staircase.- A clear connection of the visible floors of the City Hall to the next building (the neighbour bank).- Finding the driving components in the configuration of structural principles, the choosing of materials and the relations to the neighbourhood.- Binding the concept/design by different tests of rooms and program.

  • Blomberg, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A city hall is more than a building; it is a symbol that represents the ambitions of the city, a working democracy and civic interaction with politicians.

    The city hall must not only be welcoming for visitors and comfortable for workers, but also feel solid and durable to succesfully function as a symbol for the community for many years.

    Strong but welcoming, open but solid.

  • Bos, Anastasia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a proposal for a new city hall in the small town of Strängnäs, located by Lake Mälaren. The area is characterised by its historic background and varying landscape. The given site for the project lies next to a public square, by one of the bays in Strängnäs. On one side of the building site, small wooden houses run up a hill where an old windmill stands. On the opposite side, blocks of brick houses rise up with Strängnäs cathedral in the background. The intersection of the two very different building typologies is unusual and although this kind of contrast is common in Strängnäs, it is ever so evident on the site of the new city hall.

    The new Strängnäs city hall is inspired by the characteristics of Strängnäs, such as the varying topography and mix of building typologies. It explores the unique and different qualities in the contrasting surroundings. The idea of the project is to preserve the fragmented structure and intimacy of the wooden houses, whilst simultaneously maintaining the solidness of the brick houses and the cathedral. The result is a scattered brick building connected by the terrain it stands on. The relationship between the disembodied building units forms a series of openings and outdoor spaces, creating connectivity, activity and flow between and around the city hall.

  • Börgö, Arvid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Civic Hall "Passagen"2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strängnäs is a city dating a long way back in Swedish history, and which has a beautiful and varying cityscape. The task in my Bachelor project was to design a proposal for a civic hall, located in a central area of Strängnäs next to the plaza "Västervikstorget". Three important factors that have been important in the design process is the closeness to the water, the movement across the public space and the relationship between the intimate and more large-scale local architecture. The ambition of my proposed civic hall is to create a building that while providing new public space and social functions in Strängnäs, also binds together its close surroundings and initiates movement.

    By working with the different lines of sight and public pathways that emerge in the space between the bodies of the building, the project raises questions about how human curiosity and the sense of anticipation can be utilised in (public) architecture. The project also gives rise to discussion about how spatial intimacy can be combined with public architecture, the latter traditionally being more exposed. How can the contrasts between an open and a closed design get closer to each other?

  • Linde, Fredrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Kommunhuset - en plats för samling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose has been to create a welcoming, open and living municipal house next to Nynäshamn's main square. The building combines the two parallel uses - workplace and public space and allows these two to enrich each other. Visual connections between the floors in the building merge the public and private space together. 

  • Enegård, Lars-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strengnes Stadshall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About 50 miles west of Stockholm is Strängnäs located. A small town that has its roots in the Swedish Middle Ages. Since the city for many years did not have any actual public collection building, the idea of ​​creating a city hall down by the harbor area became a positive and exciting challenge. The essential factors that came to specifically form the basis for designing the "Strengnes City Hall" are therefore the following:

    - To challenge the northern position by letting the light / sun reach the "essential" parts of the building bodies, as well as the surroundings with accommodation that today has fully exposed sunlight from south and west. Therefore, the height of the building and ceiling angles are adapted to the sun's path.

    - Creating a physically "light" and compliant structure that at the same time docks minimally against the south-facing brick building, which at the same time creates a courtyard on the roof that opens to the harbor area in the west and evening sun.

    - Working according to an aesthetic formula with an exterior materiality that alloys itself with the "small" town and the square-like harbor area.

    The building therefore consists of two interconnected building bodies with two main functions where concepts such as "utility and pleasure" interact in the different spatialities. With regard to the property's exposure to the large open square area to the west, consideration has therefore been taken in both the interior as well as the exterior room, both in terms of visual and functional experience.

  • Förell, Lycke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Fire Works2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire Works is a cultural center that will seem durable, welcoming and useful. The Culture center will serve as an extension of the central fireplace in the building. Something that gives light and life to the city with the activity created by the presence of the citizens. The building remains within the framework of the environment that surrounds it, a million program area with material dominance of concrete, glass and steel.

  • Lu, Yu-Chiao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Design of Bridgman unidirectional solidification furnace2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis work consists of two parts. First, the development of two-dimensional numerical models of a Bridgman unidirectional solidification furnace, and second, the construction work of the furnace at KTH. The aim is to build a Bridgman furnace which is capable of close control over temperature gradient and growth rate such that the solidification structures of a duplex stainless steel (SAF2507) could be replicated at a laboratory scale for different cooling rates.Two numerical models of Bridgman furnace are created using COMSOL Multiphysics. The models are used as predictive tools to simulate the locations of solidification front and the temperature gradients at the solidification fronts, which are parameters difficult to access during experiments. Different hot zone temperatures of the furnace (1500~1550 °C) and different sample pulling rates (0.5~10 mm/s) are studied in simulations. The major finding from modeled results is that the temperature gradient of the sample at the solidification fronts range from 5 ~ 17 K/mm, which are lower than the furnace temperature gradient of ~50 K/mm. The corresponding steady-state cooling rates range between 5 ~ 85 K/s. The next step is to validate the models with experimental temperature profiles of the furnace, and decide whether the furnace design should be modified to achieve the cooling rates of interests.

  • Stavrou, Fotios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Optimization and Tracking of Scalar-Valued LQG Control Under Communication Link with Synchronized or Delayed CaSI at the Decoder2019Other (Other academic)
  • Söder, Isabelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Modelling Effects of Car Sharing on Travel Behaviour2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shared modes of transport, including car sharing, have been pointed out as one way of reducing private car use, contributing to an efficient transportation system that fulfills societal and environmental goals.Previous studies show that a share of car sharing users sells or refrains from acquire a new vehicle, when entering car sharing. Also, on average, car sharing has been shown to reduce Vehicle Kilometers Traveled (VKT) by car among the users.This study is conducted in three parts. First, a literature review of the effects of car sharing on travel behavior and car ownership is presented. Second, an implementation of car sharing in an existing transport model is described and the estimated effects are analyzed in relation to the findings in the literature study. In the final part, the car sharing module is reformulated to model a station-based car sharing system, where the distances to car sharing vehicles are used to distribute the effect of car sharing on car ownership spatially.This work contributes to the field by connecting the results from previous research about car sharing with practical transport modelling. The model of the station-based car sharing system is a useful tool for planners when considering the placement of car sharing stations. Also, this study provides an updated literature review covering findings of the effects of car sharing on travel behaviour and car ownership.Keywords: car sharing, station-based car sharing, travel demand modelling, vehicle ownership modelling, four-step model

  • Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Do crime hot spots affect housing prices2019In: Nordic Journal of CriminologyArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge about what happens to housing values when properties are close to places with high concentrations of crime, often called ‘hot spots’, is limited. Previous research suggests that crime depresses property prices overall, but crime hot spots affect house prices more than crime occurrence does and may affect prices of single-family houses more than prices of flats. Here we employ hedonic price modelling to estimate the impact of crime hot spots on housing sales, controlling for property, neighbourhood and city characteristics in the Stockholm metropolitan region, Sweden. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), we combine property sales by coordinates into a single database with locations of crime hot spots. The overall effect on house prices of crime (measured as crime rates) is relatively small, but if its impact is measured by distance to a crime hot spot, the effect is non-negligible. By moving a house 1 km further away from a crime hot spot, its value increases by more than SEK 30,000 (about EUR 2,797). Vandalism is the type of crime that most affects prices for both multi- and single-family housing, but that effect decreases with distance from a crime hot spot.

  • Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Vasquez, Lisandra
    Langefors, Linda
    KTH.
    Canabarro, Ana Paula
    Petersson, Robin
    KTH.
    Trygg stadsmiljö: Teori och praktik för brottsförebyggande & trygghetsskapande åtgärder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I februari år 2019 erhöll Avdelningen för Samhällsplanering och Miljö på KTH i uppdrag av Boverket att kartlägga aktuell teori och praktik för brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande fysiska åtgärder i Sverige. Målet med studien är inhämta och sammanställa kunskap om hur trygghetsskapande och brottsförebyggande perspektiv ser ut idag och vilka åtgärder som vidtas i utformningen av fysiska miljöer i de olika skedena av samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.

    Den här rapporten bidrar till byggandet av kunskap inom hållbar stadsplanering med fokus på säkerhet och trygghet. Rapporten är en kartläggning av aktuell nationell och internationell teori och praktik för brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande fysiska åtgärder.

  • Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Catherine, Sundling
    Langefors, Linda
    KTH.
    Trygghet i kollektivtrafiken i Stockholm i ett internationellt perspektiv: En handlingsplan mot sexuella trakasserier och brott i transitmiljöer2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety and security are human rights - to feel free from risk and fear of danger is crucial for all people and a prerequisite for modern society. Safety promotes and encourages mobility, which is basic for an individual’s quality of life. This report presents Stockholm students' responses to a survey of experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and sexual transit crimes in public transport conducted in May-June 2018 as part of an international study. The study contained 1,122 young people surveyed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm and 309 students from Södertörn University in Huddinge. We investigated the victimization of sexual harassment and sexual crimes in transit environments, feelings of perceived security or lack thereof, and necessary improvements to make travel safer.

  • Kann, Viggo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Programme Integrating Courses Making Engineering Students Reflect2019In: Theorizing STEM Education in the 21st Century, IntechOpen , 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A programme integrating course (PIC) is a special type of course, lasting for several academic years and aiming to strengthen programme coherence, by tying the students, instructors and programme director closer together. The first PIC was started at KTH in 2008. Since then, the concept has been polished and adopted by many engineering and masters of science programmes at KTH and at other universities. The course is built around regular (four times a year) reflection seminars in small cross-grade groups, mentored by a teacher. Each seminar has a topic, for example, study skills, procrastination, exchange studies, generic skills, minorities and equal treatment and ergonomics and mental health. Before the seminar, the students are presented with some material to read and view. Based on the texts and videos, each student should write a reflection document and read and comment some other students’ reflections. At the seminar, the students will further discuss the topic and discuss the courses that they are currently taking. PIC has been evaluated and found very valuable by both the students and the teachers acting as mentors. This chapter will review the existing literature on PICs, which is mostly in Swedish.

  • Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Ince, Bahar
    Anaerobic sulfamethoxazole degradation is driven by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed in two lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). One of the reactors was fed by synthetic pharmaceutical industry wastewater with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) as the test reactor and the other without sulfamethoxazole as the control reactor. DNA based DGGE results indicated that Clostiridum sp. became dominant in the SMX reactor while the inoculum was dominated with Firmicutes (61%) and Methanomicrobiales (28%). However their abundances in active community decreased through the last phase. Also the abundance of hydro-genotrophs was high in each phase, while acetoclastic methanogens disappeared in the last phase. Q-PCR analysis revealed that there is a significant reduction in the bacterial community approximately 84%, while methanogens increased to 97% through the operation. Additionally an increase in the expression level of bacterial and methanogenic 16S rRNA (60% and 20%, respectively) was detected. Significant correlation between microbial community and the reactor operation data was found. The study demonstrated that the microbial community maintains the system stability under high antibiotic concentration and long-term operation by homoacetogenesis coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis.

  • Beersing-Vasquez, Kiran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    Suturing in Surgical Simulations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project is to develop virtual surgical simulation software in order to simulate the suturing and knot tying processes associated with surgical thread. State equations are formulated using Lagrangian mechanics, which is useful for the conservation of energy. Solver methods are developed with theory based in Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs) which concern governing Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that are constraint with Algebraic Equations (AE). An implicit integration scheme and Newton's method is used to solve the system in each step. Furthermore, a collision response process based on the Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) is implemented to handle collisions and measure their forces. Models have been developed to represent the different types of objects. A spline model is used to represent the suture and mass-spring model for the tissue. They were both selected for their efficiency and base on real physical properties. The spline model was also chosen as it is continuous and can be evaluated at any point along the length. Other objects are also defined such as rigid bodies. The Lagrangian multiplier method is used to define the constraints in the model. This allows for the construction of complex models. An important constraint is the suturing constraint, which is created when a sufficient force is applied by the suture tip on to the tissue. This constraint allows only a sliding point along the suture to pass through a specific point on the tissue. This results in a virtual suturing model which can be built on for use in surgical simulations. Further investigations would be interesting to increase performance, accuracy and scope of the simulator.

  • Delphin, Aurélien
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
    MRI Signals Simulation for Validation of a New Microvascular Characterization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional MRI techniques are not convenient when it comes to study cerebral microvascularization due to the length of the scans needed. A technique called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is an excellent candidate to solve this problem as it requires much shorter scan durations. It relies on the ability to simulate a large amount of MR signals coming from virtual voxels of controlled parameters. This thesis addresses this simulation aspect. Coding implements were made on a simulation tool called MRVox2D to improve its realism and flexibility. In particular, the voxel geometry generation algorithm was reworked to allow simulations in line with what can be obtained from a scanner. Having a variable vessel size within a simulated voxel is now possible and the Vessel Size Index can be computed accordingly. MRF applications were made on mice data using these implementations, showing encouraging but perfectible results.

  • Sverrisdóttir, Kristín
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Improvements and Validation of THUMS Upper Extremity: Refinements of the Elbow Joint for Improved Biofidelity2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction One out of five reported motor vehicle collision injuries occur to the upper extremities. Certain parts of The Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) lack validation against experimental data, including the elbow. The aim of this project is to refine and validate the elbow joint of THUMS, with focus on anatomical response of the elbow during axial impact applied to the wrist.

    Methods Internal contacts in the elbow were modified and new contacts assigned between bones and ligaments of the elbow. The posterior part of the radial- and ulnar collateral ligaments, and joint capsule was implemented to the model. Elasticmodulus of the cortical bones of the elbow was increased as well as the shell thickness of the humeral cortical bone. The updated model was validated against an experiment where an axial load was applied to the wrist of a female cadaver. The experimental resultant force in the wrist was then compared with the wrist force obtained from the simulations.

    Results The correlation between the experimental and simulation resultant wrist force for the updated model resulted in a CORA score of 0.882. This gave a 6.7% higher CORA score compared with the original model. Hourglass energy was reduced from 63.52% of internal energy to 0.78%. Energy ratio and contact energies indicated that the simulation was stable.

    Discussion Movement of elbow bones was assessed to be more anatomically correct, by accounting for the posterior ligament and elbow capsule support. The contact peak force in the humerus was lower and occurred earlier in the simulation in the updated model compared to the original. This is believed to be due to the reduced gap between the elbow bones after increasing the shell thickness of the humeral cortical bone. The model setup resembled the experiment in a good manner.

    Conclusion The upper extremity of THUMS was refined for improved biofidelity, with focus on the anatomical response of the elbow joint under an axial impact. However, further model improvements are suggested as well as extended validated against other experimental impact results.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-05 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical evaluation of new materials in polymer electrolyte fuel cells2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electrical energy and heat, with the only exhaust being water. Fuel cells are considered key in achieving a sustainable energy sector. The main obstacles to wide scale commercialization are cost and durability. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate new materials for PEFC to potentially lower cost and increase durability. To lower the amount of expensive platinum catalyst in the fuel cell, the activities of Pt-rare earth metal (REM) alloy catalysts have been tested. To improve the lifetime of the carbon support, the carbon corrosion properties of multi walled carbon nanotubes have been evaluated. To reduce the overall cost of fuel cell stacks, carbon coated and metal coated bipolar plates have been tested. To increase the performance and lifetime of anion exchange membranes, the water transport has been studied.

    The results show that the Pt-REM catalysts had at least two times higher specific activity than pure platinum, and even higher activities should be obtainable if the surface structures are further refined.

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes had lower carbon corrosion than conventional carbon Vulcan XC-72. However, once severely corroded their porous structure collapsed, causing major performance losses.

    The carbon coated metallic bipolar plates showed no significant increase of internal contact resistance (ICR) by cycling, suggesting that these coatings are stable in fuel cells. The NiMo- and NiMoP coated bipolar plates showed low ICR, however, presence of the coated bipolar plates caused secondary harmful effects on the polymer membrane and ionomer.

    Considering the water transport through anion exchange membranes it was found that most membranes showed very similar water transport properties, with more water detected at both the anode and cathode when a current was applied. The most significant factor governing the water transport properties was the membrane thickness, with thicker membranes reducing the backflow of water from anode to cathode.

    The results indicate that all of the new tested materials have the capability to improve the lifetime and reduce cost and thereby improve the overall performance of PEFC.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 10:00 Ångdomen, Stockholm
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mid-infrared photonic devices for on-chip optical gas sensing2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas detection is crucial in a wide range of fields and applications, such as safety and process control in the industry, atmospheric sciences, and breath diagnostics. Optical gas sensing offers some key advantages, compared to other sensing methods such as electrochemical and semiconductor sensing: high specificity, fast response, and minimal drift.

    Wavelengths between 3 and 10 μm are of particular interest for gas sensing. This spectral range, called the mid-infrared (mid-IR), is also known as the fingerprint region, because several gas species can be identified by their sharp absorption lines in this region. The most relevant mid-IR-active gases are the trace gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O). They are greenhouse gases, contributing to global warming. They are waste products of human activities and widely used in agriculture and industry. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately and extensively monitor them. However, traditional optical gas sensors with a free-space optical path configuration, are too bulky, power-hungry, and expensive to be widely adopted.

    This thesis presents mid-IR integrated photonic devices that enable the on-chip integration of optical gas sensors, with a focus on CO2 sensing. The reported technologies address the fundamental sensor functionalities: light-gas interaction, infrared light generation, and infrared light detection. The thesis introduces a novel mid-IR silicon photonic waveguide that allows a light path as long as tens of centimeters to fit in a volume smaller than a few cubic millimeters. Mid-IR CO2 spectroscopy demonstrates the high sensing performance of the waveguide. The thesis also explores the refractive index sensing of CO2 with a mid-IR silicon photonic micro-ring resonator.

    Furthermore, the thesis proposes platinum nanowires as low-cost infrared light sources and detectors that can be easily integrated on photonic waveguides. Finally, the thesis presents a large-area infrared emitter fabricated by highs-peed wire bonding and integrated in a non-dispersive infrared sensor for the detection of alcohol in breath.

    The technologies presented in this thesis are suited for cost-effective mass production and large-scale adoption. Miniaturized integrated optical gas sensors have the potential to become the main choice for an increasingly broad range of existing and new applications, such as portable, distributed, and networked environmental monitoring, and high-volume medical and consumer applications.

  • Marsilla, Maria
    et al.
    Stadler Rail Valencia.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Krishna, Visakh V
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jobstfinke, Daniel
    Technische Universität Berlin (TUB).
    Melzi, Stefano
    Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI).
    Gisbert, Rafael
    Stadler Rail Valencia.
    D3.2 – Safety precautions in train configuration and brake application2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For extensive rail freight transportation, one action to improve its capacity and efficiencyis to run long trains. From an European perspective this typically means running freight trains longer than 800-900 m. However, there are technical challenges associated with long-train operation.During traction (acceleration) the longitudinal tensile coupler forces can be significant, in particular if all locomotives are positioned in the front of the train. This might cause coupler breakage and thus loss of train integrity and safety risks.During braking (retardation) the longitudinal compressive coupler forces can become very large, especially when the braking is applied only from the front and when the braking signal is propagating slowly by the pneumatics through the main braking pipe. This issue is further emphasized when payload-dependent braking devices of the wagons do not fully match the payloads in question and when the brake blocks are of different materials. The large compressive forces may cause derailment when the train negotiates curves, in particular tight S-curves with radii such as 150 m, 170 m, etc.DYNAFREIGHT WP3 is devoted to different aspects of operation of long freight trains. In particular Task 3.1 and the present task, Task 3.2, are closely related assuming that the locomotives of the trains are not physically connected but use radio communication. It is also assumed that the traditional (P) UIC braking pneumatic system is used, thus electrically controlled pneumatic (ECP) braking is not introduced. Moreover, all couplers are assumed to consist of side buffers and central screw couplers.The work in these two DYNAFREIGHT tasks is carried out in collaboration with that of WP5 in the Shift2Rail member project Future Freight Locomotive for Europe (FFL4E). This joint work can be seen as a continuation of the work in the European project MARATHON in which some of the DYNAFREIGHT WP3 partners participated.Given the specifications defined in Task 3.1 of radio communication and traction&braking scenarios of long-train operation, the objective of Task 3.2 is to address the challenges indicated above and provide safety precautions when operating long freight trains. The Task 3.2 work rests on simulations, verified by measurements, and are split in three parts: braking pneumatics, 1D longitudinal dynamics and 3D derailment risk analysis. The pneumatics result is an important input to the 1D simulations, whose result in terms of longitudinal compressive forces (LCFs) is compared with tolerable LCFs found in the 3D analysis.In this D3.2 report Chapter 2 describes in more detail the simulation methodology adopted, the simulation tools that have been further devloped and some verifications against measurements. The first application, suggested by the FFL4E WP5 partners and consisting of an existing coal train operation with two locomotives (front+rear), is thensimulated in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 longer and more heterogeneous freight trains are 

    studied with the second locomotive at different positions. Some simulations have alsobeen carried out with three locomotives assuming that the second and third locomotives give identical traction/braking commands, see Chapter 4.Last but not least, Chapter 5 gives guidelines for long-train operation with respect to safety precautions in train configurations (locomotive positions, wagon types, coupler performance, brake block material, payloads), traction and braking scenarios, and tracklayout (gradients, horizontal curves).

  • Andersson, Jim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Strängnäs är en småstad inte helt lik vad som helst, man kan fortfarande se hur de historiska lagren påverkat och än idag påverkar stadens bebyggelse. Hur Domkyrkan, stadens allra tydligaste urbana artefakt bidragit till en våg av byggnader i det kanske självklara materialet tegel, men även i det minst lika vackra ”fattigmansteglet”, falu rödfärg. Det torg där stadshallen placerats består av bägge, dels har vi den strikta huvudgatan med nationalromantiska samt klassicistiska inslag, sedan det mer bråkiga villaområdet norr om, där slamfärger dominerar fasaderna.

    För mig har projektet gått och blivit väldigt personligt, jag är själv uppvuxen i en mälarstad med historiska anor och förstår vikten av att som invånare kunna identifiera sig med staden och dess stadsväv. Mitt huvudfokus har därför varit att representera samt inkorporera de materiella samt typologiska kvalitéer jag menar att staden samt den mer specifika platsen tillgodoser.

    Av just denna anleding menar inte mitt projekt att sticka ut, hamnen fungerar redan idag som en port in till staden, där dess silhuetten täcks av den medeltida domkyrkan. Jag har istället med hjälp av materialitet samt proportionsanpassning haft en vilja att smälta in i det redan existerande kvarteret utan att inskränka eller ta fokus från dess redan existerande arkitektoniska kvalitéer.

  • Aleksic, Uros
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nynäshamn City Hall

    Nynäshamn is a small archipelago city south of Stockholm with around 15,000 inhabitants. Our task was to design a new City Hall that would represent an expansive and progressive community like Nynäshamn. The municipality has an explicit goal of approaching citizens and making them feel included. A building that represents a municipality where its political representatives work is a building that belongs to the citizens as much as it belongs to its employees.

    I entered the project by trying to find a way to integrate the public activities into activities that a closed state building has. The goal was to achieve a functioning entirety of two entirely different functions one building can have. The collaboration between these two functional extremes made it possible for large parts of the building to be available for visitors, which gave the City Hall an open character.

    The facade is intense. That's how I want to express inner life. The collision between two extremes forms an entirety. The centre of the building is an atrium that represents the people of Nynäshamn. It is the buildings largest public area. The atrium reaches out and penetrates through the facade of a state building and symbolically explains the character of the building.

  • Ahmad, Rayan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gottsunda Culture center2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The district Gottsunda has a wide variety of buildings, both in size and in style. The larger southern part consists largely of the 1960s million program. The district has a very rich culture that should be enlightened and taken care of. My first entry to this project was to, with the help of architecture, highlight some of the strong and positive sides of Gottsunda, its culture, activities and knowledge. I started by puncturing rules for myself which I will try to follow through the project process, these rules are that the cultural center should have as a focus to contribute to increased understanding and knowledge within the different cultures, there should be opportunity to learn how to use various technical tools to be able to share their culture and there should be opportunity for large collections.

  • Wahlgren, Felix
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn´s City hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nynäshamn is a city with a rich industrial history, its municipal arms consist of partly an achor, and partly three gears. The identity of the city has been greatly impacted by the industry which today consist mainly of the harbour and the oil refinery. I strive in my project to bring together the forms of industrial Nynäshamn with the urban fabric of the inhabited parts of the city. A city is the sum of its parts although these parts tend to be conflicting within many cities causing the city to become an alien to its inhabitants. The city hall in my proposal is an attempt to overbridge the conflicts within the city´s narrative and a place for its inhabitants to meet.  

  • Thysell, Hampus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Two faces of Nynäshamn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new municipal building for the city of Nynäshamn, located in the most southern part of Greater Stockholm, including acitivity based offices, an art gallery, café and council chamber. The building lies inbetween two different but complementary public spaces which it adresses with two different "faces" while still being read as one and the same building. This idea, reminiscent of the image of the roman god Janus, has been my main focus through this project.

    Outwards, the faces both reflect and take an active roll in forming the character of these public spaces while the interweaving takes places inside the building where they sometimes are visually, although not physically connected, and sometimes closer to fade into one another.

  • Söderqvist, Ludwig
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Kommunhus Nynäshamn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal for a new city hall in Nynäshamn. The building is characterized by a coherent, rectangular volume with cantilevering floor plans. The volume is separated from surrounding buildings, forming passages for pedestrians to and from the plaza in front of the building.

    The facade is characterized by load bearing laminas, partly arranged at a 45 degree angle to reflect sunlight into the building. During the hottest hours of the day, the laminas instead have a blocking effect on the sunlight. The laminas are rhythmically deployed throughout the façade.

    The supporting frame is made of glulam with an oversized beam which forms a weave structure. Two load bearing interior walls run through the whole building which provides structure.

    The floor plan is function separated. Entrance floor accommodates entrance and reception with double ceiling height, located at the center of the building. Towards the west there is a café and to the east there are meeting rooms and internal service. Plan 1 contains an art gallery and a plenary hall linked together by a gathering foyer. Plan 2 holds dining room and plan 3 holds an activity office. Changing rooms, server rooms and store rooms are located in the basement.

  • Strandberg, Evelina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gnesta Civic Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is a civic hall in the center of Gnesta, a small municipality connected to Stockholm by the commuter rail.It treats the question of whether the civic hall is built for – or by the inhabitants.

  • Sjöberg, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    City hall in Strängnäs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project deals with the positioning a building in a complex context. The site for the new city hall is located in between: between high and low, between brick and wood, between two different directions of the street network. How can the new building mediate between these different elements?