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  • Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Lübeck: En intervju av Lennart Björn 10 december 2013 och 7 januari 20142018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Lübeck’s experiences from space-related work within multiple organizations, most notably during the early Swedish sounding rockets experiment in Nausta and Kronogård; within the so-called Space Technology Group (Rymdtekniska gruppen) of the Swedish Research Councils 1963–69 and as CEO (1986–98) and chairman (1998–2006) of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC, Rymdbolaget). Even as he held positions within the Ministry of Industry (1969–78), as state secretary in the Ministry of Transport and Communications (1978–79), and as CEO for the Swedish Industrial Development Fund (1979–86), Lübeck continuously had contact with and took an interest in space-related issues—during his time in the latter position he was also board member of SSC. From the viewpoint of this unique carrier, Lübeck depicts key events and projects as well as the inner workings of parts of the state administration, in the event touching upon a great cast of characters involved in or influencing Swedish space-related policy and activities over the years, ranging from scientist to top-rank politicians and bureaucrats. The interview focuses on two issues in particular. Firstly, the character of SSC, and the tactics and strategies of the corporation vis-à-vis other actors in the Swedish space landscape. Lübeck describes SSC as a successful innovation hub but with a culture more resembling a public authority, which meant that they lacked—with some notable exceptions—the capacity to really commercialize and reach volume production. Without a viable domestic market for satellites, in 2011, the satellite-building section of SSC was sold to the German company OHB. Secondly, Lübeck traces how Swedish state policy with respect to space has changed over time. While there has hardly ever been any inherent interest in space or space-related research among policy makers, Lübeck asserts, space-related policy has rather been about achieving other political goals: industrial policy, regional policy, and European policy. In a situation of declining policy interest in Swedish space activities, the latter—that is, to show presence and solidarity in the European arena—has been the most prolific part of the three-tiered policy.

  • Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Conny Kullman: An interview with Martin Emanuel 15 November 2017 and 25 January 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Conny Kullman’s experiences from space-related work, first at Saab Space in Gothenburg and later from his career within Intelsat. Kullman describes the Gothenburg department of Saab Space—where he worked as a system design engineer, designing and testing on board computer models for the Ariane launcher and a number of European satellites—as relatively independent from the Linköping main office. Coming to Intelsat as a systems engineer in 1986, during the 1990s Kullman advanced within the organization and held management positions with responsibility for Systems Operation, Systems Planning, as Chief Information Officer, and as Vice President for all operation as well as Engineering. In 1998 he became CEO of Intelsat and embarked on a three-tiered program: to privatize Intelsat, to make an IPO, and to have Intelsat develop a ground infrastructure for satellite communication. In the interview, Kullman elaborates on the organizational structure of Intelsat, an “intergovernmental cooperative” as he calls it, and how this structure, having been a strength in the early days, in his view became a major weakness. As fibre optics began to provide a cheap alternative to satellite telecommunication, and with the development of competing satellite communication systems, the treaty-based regulations as well as the interests of the largest Signatories (owners) of Intelsat, not least American Comsat and British Telecom, impeded sound operation from a business point of view. The interview treats in detail Kullman’s role in and insights from the privatization process, the transition in ownership in 2005, when Intelsat was bought by private equity firms, as well as Intelsat’s acquisition of Loral (2003) and PanAmSat (2006).

  • Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Per Nobinder: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 12 april 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Per Nobinder’s experiences as industry policy officer at Rymdtekniska gruppen, Rymdbolaget, and later Rymdstyrelsen, which altogether lend him a key role in the distribution of Swedish funds – via European space organizations or not – to space technology projects. The interview elucidates the structure and practice of Sweden’s policy making related to European space activities within ESRO and later ESA. Not least it discusses the trade-offs between technical, political and economic considerations in the distribution of European funds, stressing the Juste Retour as the ultimate principal for the outcome. Among Swedish industry actors competing for Swedish and European funds, Saab was the largest, Ericsson substantially smaller, while Volvo had unique technical competence in a European perspective – in a way that Saab did not. Partly as a result of this, Nobinder describes the cooperation with Volvo as smoother than that with Saab. Attempts to press the Swedish industry actors to co-fund Swedish state funds for space technology projects were, however, ultimately unsuccessful. The interview also highlights the relationships, power struggles and tensions between the private industry actors and state-owned Rymdbolaget, on the one hand, and between Rymdbolaget and the authority Rymdstyrelsen on the other. Not least through its dynamic director, Rymdbolaget tried to, and often succeeded, to shape Swedish policies related to space activities.

  • Emanuel, Martin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lennart Nordh: En intervju av Martin Emanuel 22 oktober 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Lennart Nordh’s experiences as an astronomer at Stockholm University and the Stockholm Observatory in Saltsjöbaden, and as secretary of the Swedish National Space Board’s (SNSB) scientific committee, responsible for the distribution of funds for Swedish space-related research and development. As part of his role at SNSB, Nordh was also the Swedish delegate in ESA:s scientific committee, which he chaired for three years towards the end of his career. The interview treats, among other things, the entry, development, and special requirements of astronomy as a space-borne scientific field in a landscape that was initially dominated by space physics and aeronomy. Given Nordh’s involvement in infrared (IR) astronomy in particular, focus is on IR-related projects, from balloon and sounding rocket-based projects via the Swedish national satellite project Odin to grand international missions such as ISO, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescope, although he also discusses other Swedish astronomy groups’ particularities and access to experimental know-how and technical facilities. Finally, based on his experiences within the Swedish and European scientific committees, Nordh elaborates on the inner workings and considerations regarding funding of space research, including national strategies and the juste retour-principle that guides ESA-funding.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Klas Änggård: Ett samtal med Lennart Björn 18 Juni, 20122018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview is a recording of a meeting between Klas Änggård and Lennart Björn regarding the importance of negotiations for expanding the activities of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). Among the European partners, Änggård considered the French CNES and Spot Image to have been very important allies to SSC forbuilding expertise in the areas of Remote Sensing and Earth Observation. Änggård emphasizes his own interest in mobilizing political support to allow SSC to promote and develop Swedish space activities in addition to yielding revenue and return on investment. When focus on revenue alone increased in the early 2000s, a process followed whereby considerable parts of SSC were divested.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Jan Englund: En intervju av Johan Gärdebo 18 januari 20182018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Jan Englund’s experiences of working at Esrange from the 1960s until 2001. Englund studied in Uppsala and worked during the summers with building roads in Norrbotten. Through this work, Englund eventually received offers to work at Esrange, which at the time was operated by the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO). In the 1970s, the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) took over and nationalised Esrange, which meant that Esrange became a smaller working place for several years to come. Englund worked closely with the CEO Fredrik Engström to expand operations and facilities at Esrange, for example balloon activities, satellite data, rocket launches. Over time, Esrange became one of the sites in Sweden that received formal visits from politicians and royalty. SSC also based many of the expansions at Esrange on funding from theSwedish Government and regional financing from the County Board of Norrbotten. Kiruna in general attracted environmental research from all over the world, which increased the international profile of Esrange. Englund recalls negotiations from the early 1990s between the employees at Esrange and the SSC management in Solna. Esrange in turn had continuous negotiations with the Sami villages regarding reindeer herding on land around Esrange. By late 1990s, Esrange had received more international investments and also contracts with the Swedish Defence. This also changed the character of Esrange towardsmore security facilities.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Wormbs, Nina
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Kerstin Fredga: En intervju av Nina Wormbs och Johan Gärdebo 1 december 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Kerstin Fredga’s experiences as a scientist and increasingly a decision-maker for Swedish space activities, from the 1960s until present. Fredga became involved in astronomy from an early age. She studied astronomy at Uppsala University and Stockholm University, and also participated in summer schools where she met many future decision-makers of scientific organisations in Europe. She later travelled to the US and Goddard Space Flight Center. This period allowed Fredga to focus and make contributions to studies of the sun. It was during this period in the US that she formed a close friendship with Bengt Hultqvist who would later build up the Kiruna Geophysical Institute. Back in Sweden, Fredga participated in the establishment of the Swedish Board for Space Activities (SBSA) in 1972. In 1988, Fredga took over as director general for SBSA and oversaw its transformation into the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB). SNSB worked closely with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) in promoting Swedish space activities. Fredga was project scientist for Viking, the first Swedishsatellite. Fredga describes that many of the successes for SNSB and SSC were due to influential networks. As part of building scientific programmes, like Viking, Fredga sought to make the space activities also support industrial aims and be of regional support to Kiruna,where many of the space activities were conducted. Membership in the European Space Agency (ESA) provided Swedish scientists with opportunities to participate in the European space programmes with instruments on major European satellites. Meanwhile, the European Union took a greater role in financing space applications. During this period, Fredga’s work to support the Swedish space activities became more complex.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Per Tegnér: En intervju av Johan Gärdebo 8 november 20172017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    In this interview, Per Tegnér describes his work from the 1970s with the Ministry of Industry that later led to his work with space activities. Tegnér worked since 1971 with restructuring various Swedish industries. Eventually he became involved in researchand development, which included space activities of the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). In 1998, Tegnér was recruited as general director for the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB),which was partially due to recommendations of the current leadership of SSC who hoped that he would continue the close relations between the Swedish state and SSC. However, some timeafter Tegnér had worked as GD for SNSB, he began reforming its operations to be more clearly distinguished from that of SSC's interests. Tegnér also formalised the conduct of SNSB with respect Swedish researchers as well as to other state ministries and the Swedish Government. Tegnér worked to position Swedish space activities with respect not only to the European Space Agency (ESA) but also to the European Union (EU),which affected relations to other Nordic countries, most notably Norway, who were not members of EU. After Tegnér ended asgeneral director for SNSB in 2009, he continued working as consultant for ESA until 2014.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Hans Rasch: Ett samtal med Lennart Björn 26 april, 20122018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview is an audio recording made by Lennart Björn in a meeting with Hans Rasch. Björn and Rasch recalled various aspects ofworking with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) as well as its subsidiary company, Satellitbild AB. Björn described how several employees had thoughts about the role of SSC and sought to find more commercial applications for its technology. This received limited interest from management or from the Swedish National Space Board who provided most of SSC’s funding. Instead, the strategy was to make use of funding from the Swedish Government and from the European Space Agency. But SSC’s management was also able to adapt and endorse commercial opportunities when these presented themselves, for example in exporting remote sensing to developing countries and for coast guard services. Rasch described how SSC and Satellitbild conducted several international remote sensing projects based on satellite data, mainly in Southeast Asia, Africa and the Baltic States (following the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990-ies). In particular, Rasch described the mapping of the natural conditions of the entire Philippines 1987-1988. This project was later used as proof of concept for how to use satellite remote sensing technology as part of development aid. In acquiring and conducting international projects, Rasch worked closely with the Swedish Commission for Technical Co-Operation (BITS), personnel within ministries of foreign affairs, and with regional agents. Sometimes, meetings in overseas countries and in the Kiruna region in northern Sweden presented surprising experiences for both international and Swedish personnel, which Rasch provides some detail about. Rasch’s project on the coastal regions of the Baltic Sea during the late 1990s was financed by the European Union. The emphasis of the project was on environmental aspects in the Baltic states and Poland. Björn and Rasch also discussed aspects of working as professional consultants on the international market. Rasch pointed out the necessity of correlating the degree of detail in the satellite data, and in products derived from this data, with the degree of detail that clients requested.

  • Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Leif Wastenson: En intervju av Johan Gärdebo 14 mars 20172018Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The interview treats Leif Leif Wastenson’s e xp er ie n c e s f r om workingwith research on remote sensing from the late 1960s until late 1990s. Wastenson describes how the Department of Physical Geography at Stockholm University were one of the pioneers in mapping land forms, and later land uses, using remote sensing techniques. Wastenson had been able to conduct some of this work during his military service and would also go on to produce educational material as part of promoting geography in Swedish schools. During the 1970s, Wastenson became increasingly involved in aerial photography as a means to conduct remote sensing research, which led to the CORINE-project during the 1980s and the “Sweden’s National Atlas”during the 1990s. Wastenson was part of building up a large research group at the Department of Physical Geography, as well as a national communityof remote sensing researchers. One of the major national collaborations was RESE during the 1990s. Wastenson collaborated with several developers of remote sensing, most importantly the Swedish Land Survey, the Swedish Research Institute (FOA), and the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). Of these, it was primarily the SSC that sought to promote satellite remote sensing as a means to a host of applications. Wastenson and his colleagues conducted several evaluations to verify the validity of different types of remote sensing. Wastenson also noted that the Swedish Land Survey could have played a larger role than it did indeveloping remote sensing.

  • Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Exploratory Testing: Do Contextual Factors Influence Software Fault Identification?2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory Testing (ET) is a manual approach to software testing in which learning, test design and test execution occurs simultaneously. Still a developing topic of interest to academia, although as yet insufficiently investigated, most studies focus on the skills and experience of the individual tester. However, contextual factors such as project processes, test scope and organisational boundaries are also likely to affect the approach.

    Objective: This study explores contextual differences between teams of testers at a MedTec firm developing safety-critical products to ascertain whether contextual factors can influence the outcomes of ET, and what associated implications can be drawn for test management.

    Method: A development project was studied in two iterations, each consisting of a quantitative phase testing hypotheses concerning when ET would identify faults in comparison to other testing approaches and a qualitative phase involving interviews.

    Results: Influence on ET is traced to how the scope of tests focus learning on different types of knowledge and imply an asymmetry in the strength and number of information flows to test teams.

    Conclusions: While test specialisation can be attractive to software development organisations, results suggest changes to processes and organisational structures might be required to maintain test efficiency throughout projects: the responsibility for test cases might need to be rotated late in projects, and asymmetries in information flows might require management to actively strengthen the presence and connections of test teams throughout the firm. However, further research is needed to investigate whether these results also hold for non safety-critical faults.

  • Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    McDermid, John
    University of York.
    Oates, Robert
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Roberts, Jonathan
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Rapid Integration of CPS Security and Safety2018In: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, ISSN 1943-0663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security and safety of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) often influence each other. Ensuring that this does not have negative implications might require a large and rigorous effort during the development of CPS. However, early in the lifecycle, quick feedback can be valuable helping security and safety engineers to understand how seemingly trivial design choices in their domain may have unacceptable implications in the other.

    We propose the Cyber Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) for this purpose. The CRAF is based on openly available and widely used taxonomies from the safety and security domains, and a unique mapping of where loss of data security may impact aspects of data with safety implications. This paper represents the first time these different elements have been brought together into a single framework with an associated process. Through examples from within our organisations we show how this framework can be put to good use.

  • Wikström, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Employment forecasting using data from the Swedish Public Employment Service2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to forecast the number of people registered at the Swedish Public Employment Service (Arbetsförmedlingen) that will manage to get employment each month and examine how accurate the forecasts are.

    The Swedish Public Employment Service is a government-funded agency in Sweden working to keep the unemployment rate low. When someone is unemployed or looking for a new job, he or she can register at the Swedish Public Employment Service. Being able to forecast well how many are expected to get employment could be useful when planning and making decisions. It could also be used as an indicator of how well the Swedish Public Employment Service manages to perform and thus how well the tax money is used.

    The models employed for forecasting were the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and the long short-term memory (LSTM). A persistence model is also used as a baseline. The persistence model is a very simple model and the other models are therefore expected to outperform it. For the LSTM model, the use of both univariate and multivariate approaches will be explored in order to examine if the model can be improved with more data.

    Results from the experiments performed showed that a multivariate LSTM performed the lowest root mean squared error (RMSE) and is therefore considered the best model. However, the robustness of the model over time needs further research. 

  • Ionascu, Beatrice
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Modelling user interaction at scale with deep generative methods2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how users interact with a company's service is essential for data-driven businesses that want to better cater to their users and improve their offering. By using a generative machine learning approach it is possible to model user behaviour and generate new data to simulate or recognize and explain typical usage patterns. In this work we introduce an approach for modelling users' interaction behaviour at scale in a client-service model. We propose a novel representation of multivariate time-series data as time pictures that express temporal correlations through spatial organization. This representation shares two key properties that convolutional networks have been built to exploit and allows us to develop an approach based on deep generative models that use convolutional networks as backbone. In introducing this approach of feature learning for time-series data, we expand the application of convolutional neural networks in the multivariate time-series domain, and specifically user interaction data. We adopt a variational approach inspired by the β-VAE framework in order to learn hidden factors that define different user behaviour patterns. We explore different values for the regularization parameter β and show that it is possible to construct a model that learns a latent representation of identifiable and different user behaviours. We show on real-world data that the model generates realistic samples, that capture the true population-level statistics of the interaction behaviour data, learns different user behaviours, and provides accurate imputations of missing data.

  • Näslund, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Artificial Neural Networks in Swedish Speech Synthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Text-to-speech (TTS) systems have entered our daily lives in the form of smart assistants and many other applications. Contemporary re- search applies machine learning and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to synthesize speech. It has been shown that these systems outperform the older concatenative and parametric methods.

    In this paper, ANN-based methods for speech synthesis are ex- plored and one of the methods is implemented for the Swedish lan- guage. The implemented method is dubbed “Tacotron” and is a first step towards end-to-end ANN-based TTS which puts many differ- ent ANN-techniques to work. The resulting system is compared to a parametric TTS through a strength-of-preference test that is carried out with 20 Swedish speaking subjects. A statistically significant pref- erence for the ANN-based TTS is found. Test subjects indicate that the ANN-based TTS performs better than the parametric TTS when it comes to audio quality and naturalness but sometimes lacks in intelli- gibility.

  • Olby, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Thomander, Isabel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    A Step Toward GDPR Compliance: Processing of Personal Data in Email2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The General Data Protection Regulation enforced on the 25th of may in 2018 is a response to the growing importance of IT in today’s society, accompanied by public demand for control over personal data. In contrast to the previous directive, the new regulation applies to personal data stored in an unstructured format, such as email, rather than solely structured data. Companies are now forced to accommodate to this change, among others, in order to be compliant. This study aims to provide a code of conduct for the processing of personal data in email as a measure for reaching compliance. Furthermore, this study investigates whether Named Entity Recognition (NER) can aid this process as a means of finding personal data in the form of names. A literature review of current research and recommendations was conducted for the code of conduct proposal. A NER system was constructed using a hybrid approach with Binary Logistic Regression, hand-crafted rules and gazetteers. The model was applied to a selection of emails, including attachments, obtained from a small consultancy company in the automotive industry. The proposed code of conduct consists of six items, applied to the consultancy firm. The NER-model demonstrated low ability to identify names and was therefore deemed insufficient for this task.

  • OLSSON, ANNA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Developing!a!framework!for!opportunity assessment!of!when!to!utilize!machine!learning to!create!data3driven!products2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In!recent years, machine!learning has developed to the!extent that it can be utilized and implemented to create business value in organizations  by  either reducing costs or increasing  innovation and growth opportunities. Machine learning can unlock possibilities to create a better! product and experience, and thereby aid in gaining a stronger position in the industry. With millions of users traveling through their e2commerce platform, the case company of this thesis, a subscription based digital service company, has the potential tocreate an improved customer  experience using optimization and machine learning, generating business value and revenue. With limited resources and need for prioritization, understanding in which areas it would be most beneficial and generate most value to implement machine learning is critical. This thesis conducted an empirical study and thematic analysis based on semistructured interviews with machine learning engineers and managers at a subscription based digital service company to investigate how to assess when it is beneficial to utilize machine learning for optimization problems within an e2commerce organization. Impact, confidence, and effort were identified as suitable factors to assess the return on investment (ROI) of machine learning. In addition to this, three factors associated with machine learning were identified as required to have in place!or to consider in order to ensure a successful machine learning implementation. These three factors were data, business metrics (what to optimize), and discovery/research.

  • MOKHTAR, LUAY
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Function-Based Assessment for Business Modelling of Electric Road Systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation of road transport towards sustainable vehicle powering technologies provided an opportunity for the development of several electromobility solutions among which are Electric Road Systems (ERS). However, a large-scale implementation of ERS involves a challenge for potential participants to develop business models for ERS. Thus, the purpose of the thesis was to explore an assessment process to be used by potential ERS participants to identify related business models. The purpose was operationalized by a research question seeking to identify how business models and subsequent interactions are to evolve for potential participants. The thesis was built upon a theoretical foundation of the intersection between technological innovation system (TIS) and business model (BM) theories. The methodology followed a threestep research design that revolved around a selected case study – eRoadArlanda – and the gathering of empirical information from interviews and documents. The research design involved empirical and theoretical definition and breakdown of ERS, the development and application of a function-based assessment process for ERS and the evaluation of function-based and relational BMs. Consequently, the assessment process yielded a breakdown into five functions: ‘Energy’, ‘Road Operation’, ‘Power Transfer’, ‘Vehicle’, and ‘Road’. Followingly, the assessment process was applied for potential ERS participants where individual ERS-based BMs – defined by value proposition, value creation cost, and value capture revenue – for the functions was collected. The information was then aggregated to establish the function-based and relational BMs for ERS. Thus, the results yielded an overview of a systematic process for business modelling in the ERS context founded on TIS and business model theories. It provides practitioners with a systematic process that provides a dynamic view for business modelling. The results further enriched the academic literature within the ERS context while providing a basis for future research regarding policy-making and information sharing among others.

  • ETEMADY QESHMY, DANIAL
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    MAKDISI, JACOB
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Human error management 4.0: Augmented Reality Systems as a tool in the quality journey2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is shifting, entering a new era with smart and connected devices. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is promising increased growth and productivity by the Smart Factory and within the enabling technologies is Augmented Reality (AR). This is a technology that can be used to augment the reality with digital information. At the same time as the technology is introduced, errors in manufacturing are a problem which are affecting the productivity and the quality. The errors can be caused by humans and companies strive to eliminate the errors caused by humans. This research aims to find the main causes of human errors in assembly lines and thereafter explores whether AR is an appropriate tool to be used in order to address those issues. Based on a literature review that identified and characterized a preliminary set of root causes for human errors in assembly lines, these causes were empirically studied in an exercise that covered an in-depth case study at a multinational automotive company. Data in form of interviews and deviation reports have been used to identify the causing factors and the result showed that the main causes of human errors are the amount of thinking, deciding and searching for information which affected the cognitive load of the operator and in result their performance. Several interviews with experts in AR allowed to verify if this technology would be feasible to solve or mitigate the found causes. Besides that, in repetitive manual assembly operations, AR is better used showing the process in order to train new operators, at the same time as for experienced operators AR show information only when an error occurs and when there is a need of taking an active choice is more appropriate. Nevertheless, while theoretically able to managing human error when fully developed, the desired application makes the augmentation of visual objects redundant and increasingly complex for solving the identified causes of errors which questions the appropriateness of using AR systems. However, the empirical findings showed that for managing human errors, the main bottleneck of an AR system is the software and AI.

  • Chen, Hanyao
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Reclaim the Right to the City: Public Space Design in Lishui Civic Center, China2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Holmstedt, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Evaluation of Sustainable Urban District Developments: The case of Stockholm Royal Seaport2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sustainable development is now seen as one of the keys in the quest for a sustainable world and increased interest in developing sustainable urban districts has become an important feature of urban sustainability. However, if cities and their districts are to be part of this transition, it will be necessary to determine the state and progress of urban developments. Evaluation and follow-up activities must therefore be an integral part of modern sustainability work.

    This thesis investigated evaluation methods and strategies for determining progress towards sustainable urban district development. The Stockholm Royal Seaport district in Sweden was used as the research arena in studies based on urban metabolism theories, including a single case study approach, focus group interviews, the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development and quantitative data analysis. The thesis main results can be summarised as follows.

    A structured frame for use in theory and practice can strengthen programme development and minimise the risk of built-in problems in environmental and sustainability plans for new urban districts. The proposed evaluation model for Stockholm Royal Seaport displayed strengths regarding core evaluation activities, such as communicating a strong vision and recognising continuity in the evaluation process. It displayed weaknesses as regards organisational structure and system boundaries.

     The proof-of-concept implementation of a Smart Urban Metabolism framework enabled real-time evaluation data on district scale to be generated and processed. The implementation process also led to identification of limitations in the framework, such as access to business sensitive data, failed integration of data streams and privacy concerns. Dynamic, high-resolution meter data can provide a higher degree of transparency in evaluation results and permit inclusion of all stakeholder groups in urban districts. The frequently used energy performance indicator kWh/m2 (Atemp) was shown to be an insufficient communication tool to mediate knowledge, due to conflation of consumption and construction parameters and the need for prior knowledge for full understanding.

  • Holmstedt, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    Brandt, Nils
    How to Evaluate Sustainable Urban District Developments?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • Nguyen, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Lundborg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    A Sensor-based System for Detecting and Registering Dump Truck Flatbed Tilts2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the productivity in construction sites is an ongoing priority within the construction industry due to the benefits that comes with increased efficiency in construction projects where sensor technology has become a more common tool used for the pursuit of increased productivity. This project set out to implement a sensor-based system that is used on a construction site to register when a dump truck tilts its flatbed, acting as a confirmation of delivery. The work was done for a Swedish company active in the construction industry. Since construction sites provide a rough environment to operate in, a requirements specification was developed from interviews and observations done on the construction site. From the requirement specification, two prototypes were developed for testing, one with an ultrasonic sensor and one with an accelerometer. The prototypes both used an Arduino board as a controller, the Bluetooth protocol for communication between the controller and the gateway. An Android smartphone was used as the gateway. These prototypes were then tested in two phases, first in office and later mounted on a truck on the construction site. While the results from the test on the construction site were inconclusive, the results from the first test phase showed a slight advantage to the prototype implemented with the accelerometer.

  • Assenai, Sumeia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Prototype algorithm development for innovative sensor technology2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preterm infants are sensitive to incorrect levels of oxygen in the blood. Thus, the oxygen levels need to be monitored continuously. The most commonly used method today has several limitations and therefore constant blood tests has to be taken.

    Neosense Technologies AB has developed an electrochemical sensor that measures blood oxygen tension continuously and in real time.

    This thesis aims to develop a prototype algorithm to derive cardiac output based on dynamic changes in inhaled fraction of oxygen and the corresponding change in arterial oxygen tension using the electrochemical sensor.

    Two measurements were done using the sensor to measure the step response of partial pressure of oxygen to obtain data to develop the algorithm. Using the obtained data, two algorithms were developed and from the validation analysis one of the algorithms were chosen due to significant better results.

  • Rahaman Khan, Md Atiqur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Feasibility Analysis of AI based Wearable Data-driven Solution for Safety and Health in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the prospects of AI and IoT based wearable solution in order to enhance the occupational safety and health. Thus this study contributes to find the probable use cases that can be suitable for such a technology. Later also investigation has been done to figure out how appropriate the Swedish market will be to target on.

    At the beginning of the thesis, it includes an overall scenario about the occupational safety/health globally as well as in Sweden. Later to improve the workplace injuries, how AI based wearable solution can be handy has been visualized. The theoretical framework explains the technical features and working mechanism and how it can implement in a real world. The methods that can be applied for such research has been discussed afterwards. Then investigation has been done to find the probable use cases and Swedish market has been analyzed to verify how fit the solution. The result chapter includes the finding of the analysis thereafter. To conclude, it has been figured out that few of the us cases for Swedish industries can certainly be applicable for such AI based wearable solution to improve the workplace safety scenario.

  • Saibel, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Blomkvist, Ylva
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Kitzler, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Applicering av blockkedjeteknik på värdekedjor: Metod för ökad transparens i livsföretags förädlingsprocesser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the application of a blockchain on different types of Swedish food value chains. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the capacity of the technique for storing information to simplify tracking between the different stages in the supply chain. More specifically, the purpose is to identify the positive effects that the technology could bring businesses, what challenges an implementation could give rise to and finally what type of blockchain would suit the purpose. The study has been conducted with the help of interviewees in order to collect crucial data. Previous studies show that the new technology could lead to more efficient data management, facilitate communication between different stages of the value chains as well as increase traceability and transparency. Furthermore, the technology can increase food security and reduce fraud since higher traceability increases accountability. The study shows that there are indeed challenges with the launch and implementation of the technology, including the need for consensus among all parties involves in a value chain, which leads to increased complexity. Today there are no official requirements for information sharing through a shared database between organizations, in the future there might be a need for standardization. The results show that the most suitable type of blockchain for the purpose is one with permission and access control with regulations regarding who is allowed to read, add and validate information in the database. A prototype of an application based on the technology has been created to illustrate how information sharing could be done between different organizations.

  • Johansson Evegård, Kristin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Gabriella, Westman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Augmented Reality Navigation Interfaces Designed for People with Mild Dementia2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation can prove a real challenge for a person suffering from dementia, even in well known environments. In order to relieve some of this burden, companies around the world are developing assistive technologies. However, getting accustomed to such technologies could still be challenging since people with dementia often perceive new technologies as difficult to use. Among the new technologies though, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been reported as both intuitive and easily adopted. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how this particular technology could be implemented, i.e. how the AR interface could be designed, in a mobile navigation application so people with mild dementia can use the application without assistance.

    This qualitative study is based on a pilot study followed by two usability tests, where people diagnosed with mild dementia tested a mobile navigation application and a navigation mockup, both implementing augmented reality technology but with two different interface designs: i) one included an animated figure and ii) one used arrows with a filter that could be turned on or off. Five persons participated in each usability test. The collected interview and observational data was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. Overall the participants found the suggested AR technology to be usable while navigating. The results also showed that the respondents were rather neutral to which of the two AR interfaces were used. The majority expressed that it was easier to navigate with the navigation mockup when the filter was off. Finally, the study presents five design implication suggestions to be considered while developing this type of assistive technologies for people with mild dementia. The AR interface should:

    1. use an unfiltered camera view,
    2. be intuitive,
    3. be adapted to outdoor conditions,
    4. not prevent the user from focusing on the surrounding environment,
    5. be precise and trustworthy.
  • Amino, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Topographic building pattern recognition with geospatial OpenStreetMap data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore the perceptual recognition of topographical building patterns from real-world OpenStreetMap data on virtual globes. An implementation was developed in which all geographical and contextual information was layered and, for the purpose of this study, what solely remained were building patterns as viewed from above. This was developed as a module for the planetarium visualization software Uniview. The aim was to determine how cities with different building patterns were perceived by participants in terms of size, scale, and building density. This was measured as the comparative difference between city pairs, that is, how much they differed in the percentage of the area that they covered. Two quantitative studies were conducted, one smaller controlled study with 19 participants and one larger online crowd-sourced study with 72 participants. The results show that participants are generally able to discern building patterns when the comparative difference is greater than a certain critical threshold. This critical threshold was determined to be at approximately 0.5% for both studies and for accuracy levels above 60%. Thus it was concluded that below this critical threshold users should be provided with visual feedback or other means of identifiers in order to allow for definite recognition, depending on what kind of information a certain type of visualization is trying to convey.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-18 09:30 Q2, Stockholm
    Siyal, Shahid Hussain
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. NA.
    Techno-economic assessment of wind energy for renewable hydrogen production in Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind energy deployment has been growing globally. The resource is expected to play an important role in achieving economic and environmental sustainability - depending on its level of availability, economics, and policy.  Sweden has committed to have 20 TWh/year production of onshore wind energy in the national electricity sector by the year 2020. Further, Sweden has a target for a fossil fuel free transport sector by 2030. Local wind energy coupled to electrolysis-derived hydrogen fuel production offers a pathway for achieving both targets. The analysis of wind energy’s potential in this context necessitates a new type of approach, one that captures the complexities of wind turbine siting in relation to the build-up of hydrogen infrastructure, including refueling stations. In this thesis, high-resolution spatial assessments were performed to evaluate wind energy and wind-to-hydrogen energy potentials, including land use restrictions and techno-economic evaluations. The methodology combines Geographic Information System (GIS) data with the Hybrid Optimization Model for Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) tool and includes key constraints with the purpose of improving the fidelity of the assessments.

    Overall, significant potentials for wind and hydrogen energy can be harnessed in Sweden. Wind-generated hydrogen can be produced economically at selected sites along existing roads. After applying all possible land use restrictions, results show that around 31% of the total land area is viable for wind energy applications in the country. In total, 190 TWh/year wind electricity could be generated in areas within 30 km from the national electricity grid. Moreover, approximately 26000 kton/year of hydrogen fuel could be supplied by installing wind turbines on the viable land area. While considering standalone wind-powered hydrogen refueling stations, the cost of hydrogen lies in the range of 6-10 USD∕kg, depending on wind speed models employed and other factors.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-19 13:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Sharing the doughnut: Exploring sustainable and just futures2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite decades of international discussions or summits on the need to radically reduce e.g. increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) or biodiversity loss, these are still rising. While these negative environmental trends continue, it is important to discuss alternative futures in an attempt to redirect society on a more sustainable and just path.

    The overall aim of the thesis is to develop images of the future and explore what sustainable and just futures might look like. The current environmental impact of Swedish consumption, both in Sweden and abroad, is shown using eight indicators of environmental pressures and resource use – illustrating where in the world the pressures or resource use occur and for which product groups. This gives us a starting point as to where we are today regarding some of the environmental challenges facing Sweden.

    Alternative futures that can challenge existing unsustainable trends are explored using four images of the future – so-called backcasting or long-term transformative scenarios. All of these need to fulfil two environmental and two social sustainability goals and do not rely on continued GDP growth.

    These images represent different strategies to reach the four selected goals.

    Such strategies may however have different consequences not just for these four specific goals but also for other sustainability issues and may have different implications for various groups in society. Therefore, they need to be evaluated accordingly. Existing methods to evaluate future scenarios regarding sustainability aspects are discussed in this thesis as well as the need to develop new methods to encompass all issues.

    A combination of methods and data is used to evaluate what it would actually mean if the scenarios were to fulfil a climate target for Swedish consumption in line with the 1.5°C. trajectory suggested as the target to strive for in the Paris Climate Agreement and in the latest IPCC report (IPCC, 2018) as regards reduction of goods consumption and altered consumption patterns in Sweden.

    This thesis stresses the need to clarify the assumptions made when formulating goals such as whether a perspective on intergenerational (between different generations) and intragenerational justice (within the current generation) is considered. It also underlines the need to identify and discuss potential goal conflicts that necessarily occur when considering several sustainability goals, whether they can be avoided or require potential trade-offs. It highlights the importance of making the underlying values embedded in assessment methods more visible. The intention in revealing goal conflicts, contradictions or hidden values is not to reach consensus but to ensure that the decisions are informed and made in a transparent manner.

    Indeed, these considerations imply moving from a first and rather vague level of meaning of the concept of sustainability where everyone can agree on a definition but no concrete and practical guidance can be gained to a second level where conflicts arise and values differ.

  • Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Activity-based Flexible Office work environments: Design and implementation processes and outcomes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, there has been a reported increase in organizations relocating to Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) worldwide. The idea of A-FOs is to offer work conditions suitable for the workforce’s tasks and individual preferences. Benefits of the A-FO include employee autonomy, privacy and inter- and intra-team communication. However, there are reports within Swedish media on reduced performance, increased dissatisfaction, injustice, and workplace avoidance amongst employees occupying A-FOs. Added to which empirical research supporting A-FOs claimed benefits are scarce with inconsistent results.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to explore and investigate perceptions of workspace, work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance in A-FOs (aim of Studies I-V). Additionally, the sub-aims are to explore and investigate associations with underlying factors such as design and implementation process factors including methods suggestions (aims of Studies II, IV & VI), physical workspace factors (aim of Study III), desk-sharing and speech policies (aim of Study IV), and organizational preconditions (aim of Study V).  This thesis aims at integrating the contributions of each paper and making the whole greater than the sum of its parts.

    Method: A problem centered, pragmatic approach guided the methodological choices. Two in-depth longitudinal case (n=66 & 46) and two cross-sectional (n=202 & 105) studies were conducted at five single floor A-FOs. A mixed method approach was adopted comprising of six questionnaires, 105 individual interviews, documentation of plan layouts, photographs, planning documents and observations. A third cross-sectional study with 7 additional cases was conducted on 473-715 questionnaire responses.

    Results & discussion: The results showed that work environment satisfaction and perceived performance can increase after relocation to A-FOs. Reported contributing design and implementation process factors included meaningful objectives for the employees, allocation of time and financial resources, having an organizational focus, employee empowerment, and a methodological approach. A methods framework divided into A-FO design stages is presented that can facilitate the design process of A-FOs. Reported contributing workspace design factors included ample desk-sharing ratios and workspace diversity. Desk-sharing and speech rules were identified: when to remove belongings, allowance to occupy the same workstation in open-plan and enclosed areas on consecutive days, and allocations of areas where speaking on the phone, and verbal interaction with colleagues and interruptions are allowed or forbidden. Organizational preconditions, such as innovative work tasks and an open-plan office type prior to relocation were associated with preference for the A-FO.

    Conclusion: Design and implementation factors, workspace factors, application of rules and organizational preconditions are possible predictors of work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance. A-FOs can be perceived as noisy workplaces that create extra work, decrease interaction as well as increase uncertainty on how to act within the office. However, A-FOs can also be preferred above other office types and be perceived with high work environment satisfaction and perceived performance. This thesis has stressed the importance of a holistic sociotechnical perspective during A-FO implementations, and the importance of employee involvement and empowerment, workspace diversity and desk-sharing policies.

  • Jacobsson, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Matematiklärares syn på muntlig matematikför elever med matematiksvårigheter: En innehållsanalytisk studie om stödjande faktorer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematics has a unique subject language that students need to master in writing as well as verbally. Shortcomings in the oral mathematical communication capacity contribute to the fact that students with mathematical difficulties do not receive an approved grade in mathematics for grade 9. These students need help and support from their environment in order not to risk being disapproved. This study has been conducted with the purpose of portraying and analyzing mathematics teachers' views on supportive factors for students with mathematical difficulties focusing on oral mathematical communication skills. As a method, a content analytical research approach with inductive thematic methodology has been used and the study is based on five semi structured interviews. Mathematics teachers' views have been judged to be possible to be depicted and analyzed by the following six themes:

    1. The balance between oral and written communication

    2. The oral mathematical communications skills components

    3. Activities based on the students' needs

    4. Supporting learning environment for the student

    5. The student's participation in mathematical discussions

    6. Cooperation with the parents

    Teachers agree that students with mathematical difficulties need adaptations of content and knowledge objectives for oral mathematical ability. However, there is no unanimity in the teacher's view of adequate goals and content, but this is considered being the result of a variety of factors such as the student's knowledge, teacher's interpretation of the curriculum, the written focus in mathematics, the lack of adequate situations to assess oral capacity, stress and time shortages and the less good availability of special educators. Students with mathematical difficulties also need support in the context they are in. This believes teachers can be managed by either blending the context of differences in student knowledge or ensuring that students with mathematical difficulties interact with friends who they feel safe interacting with. Teachers also try to support the students with control, control and order, which can be explained by the fact that these students experience through their teens. The teacher makes a subjective assessment of the students' need for governance, and this then paves the way for the students to participate and influence in different ways. Teachers also have different expectations of student performance in a participation, where some teachers believe that the students are performing, with which some people are content with a participation. Teachers thus have different focus on these students ‐ either knowledge or value goals. The last theme concerns teachers' views on cooperation with the parents. Some teachers are interpreted believing that this contact contributes positively whereas others have not been interpreted having the same beliefs.

  • Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University.
    Öhrn, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Babapour, Maral
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Predictors of Preference for the Activity-based Flexible Office2018In: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, CHU-Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Redha Taiar, Switzerland, 2018, p. 547-552Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are implemented with vary- ing degree of success. Employees relocate from cell or open-plan offices, from different organizational backgrounds, varying design and implementation pro- cesses, and have different types of work tasks. This study aims at investigating whether preference for the A-FO correlate with these preconditions. The results from Chi-square tests and Spearman’s non-parametric correlation of post- relocation questionnaires distributed to 11 A-FO sites, showed that a high pref- erence for the A-FO correlated strongest with an A-FO preference prior to relo- cation, being a former open-plan office occupier and with frequent performance of innovation. Low preference for the A-FO correlated with frequent perfor- mance of concentration demanding tasks. Working with tasks with high confi- dentiality did not predict the preference ratings.

  • Public defence: 2019-01-07 13:00 F3, Stockholm
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Environmental Considerations in the Zero-waste Valorisation of Bauxite Residue: A Life Cycle Perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bauxite residue, also known as red mud, is produced in large quantities as a result of alumina refining (the first stage in aluminium production), and is one of the world’s most abundant and important industrial wastes. As demand for aluminium continues to increase and space to store this residue diminishes, the potential to utilise bauxite residue as a secondary resource is increasingly being considered by the alumina industry. Bauxite residue can be used as a source of iron, aluminium, titanium oxide, scandium and rare earth oxides, or utilised for its bulk properties to create cement clinkers or inorganic polymers. Achieving any of these uses however requires a series of complex valorisation processes, which in turn require inputs of energy and materials. Some bauxite residues also contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides.

    The EU Horizon 2020 MSCA-ETN REDMUD project was set up to investigate the valorisation of bauxite residue in an integrated manner. The ultimate aim of the REDMUD project is to develop environmentally-friendly, zero-waste, integrated processes for extracting valuable materials from bauxite residue and/or utilising it at high volume. This thesis presents the environmental perspective on this aim, taking a life cycle view; that is, taking into account the upstream and downstream impacts, in addition to the direct impacts, which may result from diverting bauxite residue from landfill to the proposed valorisation processes. This involves using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approaches to understand the environmental balance between the impact avoided through landfill diversion and the substitution of conventional materials, and the impacts incurred by the use of materials and energy in the valorisation processes themselves. Importantly, the potential ionising radiation impact from naturally occurring radionuclides is also considered from a life cycle perspective for the first time.

    A new life cycle impact assessment method for assessing the impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides was developed. In addition, two pieces of research software, designed to overcome the current shortcomings in LCA software with respect to streamlined and prospective LCA studies of emerging technologies are presented as part of this thesis.

    The potential hotspots of environmental impact in a single step valorisation process, the production of high bauxite residue content inorganic polymers, were identified. The results identify the high temperature processing of bauxite residue, in order to transform it into a reactive precursor capable of forming solid inorganic polymers, as a hotspot of environmental impact across a range of environmental impact measures. The production of alkaline activating solutions (the other reagent in the polymerisation reaction) also represented a hotspot of environmental impact. These hotspots were used to identify possible future research directions for this process, which have the potential to reduce the environmental impact of this valorisation process.

    Finally it was shown that even in the absence of a detailed and quantified system description, qualitative approaches based on life cycle thinking can be usefully applied to identify important aspects on both sides of the environmental balance between the impacts avoided and the impacts incurred in waste valorisation. Chemical reaction products, chemical synthesis, thermal and mechanical energy are highlighted as potential sources of environmental impact. A case study, looking at the combined extraction of iron and production of inorganic polymers from bauxite residue was used to demonstrate the validity of these qualitative approaches. This study also demonstrated that combining the extraction of iron and inorganic polymers is vital in order to yield a net environmental benefit in terms of climate change.

    This thesis provides an initial step on the road towards the environmentally sustainable valorisation of bauxite residue, as well as the analytical tools and additional impact assessment measures required to ensure that this journey can be continued, both within the REDMUD project and beyond.

  • Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Relocation to an activity-based flexible office: Design processes and outcomes2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 73, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations relocate to activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) and the results are mixed. This study aims at identifying factors in the design and implementation process that contribute to perceived performance and environmental satisfaction with A-FOs.

    A company with 50 employees was studied using interviews, questionnaires and documentation before and after relocation. The results showed that process factors such as objectives, financial and time resources, employee participation and empowerment, and methodological approach contributed to the outcomes. Perceived performance and employee satisfaction with the physical environment increased significantly after the relocation. Employee empowerment, highlighted by the employees, correlated with the performance and satisfaction parameters.

    A conceptual model is proposed relating process factors, internal and external organizational context, and physical office setting to work condition consequences and overall outcomes such as employee performance and satisfaction.

  • Frid, Emma
    Accessible Digital Musical Instruments: A Survey of Inclusive Instruments Presented at the NIME, SMC and ICMC Conferences2018In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference 2018: Daegu, South Korea / [ed] Tae Hong Park, Doo-Jin Ahn, San Francisco: The International Computer Music Association , 2018, p. 53-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a survey of accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) presented at the NIME, SMC and ICMC conferences. It outlines the history of research concerned with facilitating inclusion in music making and discusses advances, current state of developments and trends in the field. Based on a systematic analysis of DMIs presented at the three conferences, seven control interface types could be identified: tangible, nontangible, audio, touch-screen, gaze, BCMIs and adapted instruments. Most of the ADMIs were tangible interfaces or physical controllers. Many of the instruments were designed for persons with physical disabilities or children with health conditions or impairments. Little attention was paid to DMIs for blind users. Although the haptic modality could play an important role in musical interaction in this context, relatively few of the ADMIs (26.7%) incorporated vibrotactile feedback. A discussion on future directions for inclusive design of DMIs is presented.

  • Marin, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    TRETOW, ERIK
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Synergy Valuation in Industrial Software Acquisitions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging in M&A is a common corporate strategy and deals are often motivated by synergies, the concept that the value of the combined entities is greater than the sum of their standalone values. However, it is often difficult to capture synergistic value in reality and increasing the probability of a successful acquisition requires a thorough assessment of potential synergistic effects pre-acquisition. In this thesis, we have analyzed the strategic rationale, synergies, and valuation methods used in acquisitions of industrial software companies. Through multiple case studies comprising empirical material from interviews, valuation models and other transaction-related documents, we have studied five bolt-on acquisitions, three of which were completed by subsidiaries of Marrow and the remaining two by an industrial software company under private equity ownership. Main conclusions from the study are: • The foremost strategic rationale and source of synergy is revenue enhancements through acquiring technology and leveraging established sales channels to cross-sell and accelerate market access for the target’s products • A prevalent cost synergy is consolidation and/or renegotiation of contracts with third party software providers whose products are used in industrial software development • Financial synergies are not explicitly estimated nor valued • Valuation is conducted using both the DCF and multiple method with a varying degree of sophistication in the underlying estimations, ranging from a granular bottom-up approach for each line item to a top-down approach based on experience and intuition Lastly, the results indicate that synergies may to a greater extent be a function of the strategic rationale rather than a function of industry. However, acquisitions of industrial software companies seem to be underpinned by the same strategic rationale, namely revenue enhancements through leveraging sales channels and cross-selling. Thus, the corresponding synergies may be comparatively more common in this industry.

  • Trange, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Widegren, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    The Mapping and Visualization of Deuterium in Surfaces of Plasma Facing Components2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how the spatial distribution of deuterium and especially its depth distribution can be determined and visualized for Plasma Facing Components (PFC). The main incentive of the project is to find attractive ways of presenting the distribution. Common ways of presentation are cross sectional 2D images. However, to give a more interactive way of studying the data we present a distinctive 3D solution. To reach this goal, a software was developed in MATLAB that used nuclear reaction data from micro Ion Beam Analysis (µ-IBA), to estimate the deuterium distributions of samples with trapped deuterium. The next step was to present the data, which was realized by a rotatable three-dimensional graph of transparent data points with shifting colors of deuterium concentration relative to the surface material. Deuterium distribution of a divertor surface from the JET tokamak is visualized, along with deuterium blisters in a tungsten surface. The precision and the significance of the results may be improved by theoretical expansion and numerical methods, such as the consideration of concentration dependent stopping power expressions.

  • Kjellberg, Mikko
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Lundgren, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Helical Waveguides With Higher Symmetries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Helical waveguides are widely used today as slow wave structures and as normal or axial mode antennas. By introducing higher symmetries in the structure the dispersive properties of the waveguide can be manipulated and the helices can be made to radiate energy as leaky wave antennas. In this project the properties of a smooth helix and a helix with periodically added protrusions are studied. The waveguides are simulated and then constructed so that they can be used as study material for upcoming courses at KTH. The helices are constructed around neon filled glass tubes between two ground planes so that a resulting standing wave pattern can be observed as excitation in the neon. The results show that the helical structure shortens the wavelength of the propagating wave inside the waveguides to lengths small enough to be measured by visual observation. The addition of higher symmetries to the helix were shown to change the dispersion of the propagating waves and to lower the cut-off frequency at where the waveguide starts to behave as an leaky wave antenna.

  • Hug, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Giske, Gustav
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Linear Ferrite Generator Prototype for Wave Power2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A linear, direct drive, scale model prototype generator has been designed at KTH Royal Institute of technology in Sweden. The prototype is based on a scaled down electromagnetic optimization made by researcher Anders Hagnestål. The aim of the project is to verify the calculations experimentally and by using ferrite magnets, there is an opportunity to develop a competitively priced and environmentally friendly generator for wave power plants. Based on the electromagnetic optimization a mechanical design has been developed using computer aided design (CAD). Structural calculations have been made to ensure that the design withstands the large magnetic forces involved. Furthermore, different techniques and challenges appearing in the build of the prototype have been evaluated and explained. A description of the advantages of the design and the basic electromagnetic design is also included. The build is underway and is expected to be finished during 2018.

  • Hagman, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Saleh, Seloan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    The Impact of Wind Power on the Dynamical Behavior of Power System Frequency2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As we introduce increasing amounts of renewable power sources to the existing power system infrastructure, the need of studying its behaviour increases. Lowered power system inertia, caused by replacing conventional power plants with energy sources that do not provide inertia to the grid, can cause challenges in operating a system in a stable and costeffective manner. In this paper we analyze the effects of increasing amounts of wind power on the system frequency.To assess the effects of higher wind power penetration, we have used three years of power grid data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). From these data we then extract data of interest according to adjustable parameters. Further the data of interest are categorized based on power losses and wind power penetration.As the installed wind power capacity has increased during analyzed years, the categorization by wind power penetration level is complicated. After constructing the categorization we conclude that given higher wind power penetration levels, the system experiences lesser system inertia. This in turn caused the maximum IFD, following sudden losses of generated power, to be higher on average when wind power penetration is high.

  • Gåvermark, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Modeling of Current Drive with Radio Waves on DEMO2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In fusion reactors, one has to make sure that the plasma does not come in contact with the reactor wall. This is done by accelerating electrons within the plasma creating a current. One method to do this is to transmit radio waves into the plasma from antennas which are located in the reactor wall. In this paper, the current current has been studied in a new design of DEMO. In this new design the placement of the antennas is meant to enable a more effective generation of current.A program called FEMIC has been used to create a model of DEMO consisting of plots and data that describes how the radio waves propagate through the plasma and how ions and electrons absorb energy from the radio waves. A function for the current drive efficiency has been implemented in FEMIC. FEMIC has then been used to calculate the wave field and generated current. The study showed that there is one particular frequency of the radio wave that enables optimal generation of current which agrees qualitatively with results from other experiments. The study also showed that the placement of the antennas is not optimal considering the current drive as the radio wave does not reach the center of the plasma where the current was found to be most effective generated.

  • Forsell, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Holmberg, Wilhelm
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Adaptive Protection Scheme for Microgrid2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental issues receive more attention by the day, which results in a greater interest in renewable energy sources and ways of making the delivery and usage of energy more efficient. One solution that has emerged is microgrids, selfsufficient electrical grids containing renewable energy sources and loads. A microgrid can either operate on its own or as a part of larger grid, depending on energy availability. The aim of this project was to develop a protection algorithm and deploy it on a cheap microcontroller. The protection algorithm should ensure that faults occurring in the microgrid were detected and handled, in both operating modes. A model of a microgrid in both operating modes was created. The protection algorithm was applied to the model in a real time simulator to verify that the algorithm took action against faults. By introducing faults to the circuit, we could demonstrate that the algorithm performed as expected. We concluded that it is possible to deploy a basic adaptive protection scheme on a cheap microcontroller. Also, that a flawless protection scheme for a microgrid is of high value if the use of microgrids will continue to grow.

  • Cederlund, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Dahlin, Carmen
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Analysis of the ion Composition in the Io Plasma Torus From Observations by the New Horizons Mission2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this project is to analyse data from the plasma torus around Jupiter. The material in the plasma supplied by Jupiter’s moon Io is composed mostly of the elements oxygen and sulphur at different ionisation states and the torus has a changing environment. The goal is to analyse the composition of the torus and calculate the ratios between the two elements as well as the ions of each element and compare it to previously done research.The images that are analysed were taken by the spectrograph Alice on board the space probe New Horizons, during its flyby of Jupiter in 2007. The images were taken in the range of 520 - 1870 Å. The atomic database CHIANTI is used to simulate a spectrum and compare it with the data from the New Horizons mission and calculate the ratios.The analysis of the spectrum shows that the ratio of oxygen to sulphur in the Io plasma torus was lower in 2007 than previously seen, as well as a higher O+ to O++ ratio than has been found in previous studies. This may be the result of the volcanic eruption of Tvashtar the same day as the data was gathered.

  • Ahlberg, Carl Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Mauritz, Wera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Modeling Far Ultraviolet Auroral Ovals at Ganymede2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ganymede, one of Jupiters moons, differs from other moons in the Solar System as it has its own magnetic field. This rare property shapes the morphology on the existing far ultraviolet oxygen auroral ovals on the celestial body in the northern and southern hemisphere created by high energy electrons colliding into the atmosphere.With the help of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) this phenomenon has been captured and analyzed multiple times during the past 20 years using the on-board Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The ultimate goal of this project is recreating the far ultraviolet oxygen auroral emissions on Ganymede as a 3D computer model in MATLAB by using the data recovered from HST.The method used to reach this goal was to implement a model with main characteristics of the auroral ovals, project it onto a plane and then use a Cauchy distribution to filter the model. To compare the model with images from HST, a χ2-value was calculated for every pixel in each image. To further improvethe model the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization method was applied.The project succeeded in such a way that the final model created views of the locations and the appearance of the bright spots that represent the auroral ovals around Ganymede with an accurate result in relation to the given data.

  • Lindström, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Marstorp, Gustav
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Security Testing of an OBD-II Connected IoT Device2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a rapidly growing network. As society begins to trust the devices in the IoT with increasingly complex tasks, issues regarding the security of these devices are of high priority. An example of an IoT-device in which failure of security could be fatal, is the Telia Sense. Telia Sense is an OBD-II dongle which together with a mobile application connects a car to a smartphone.In this paper, the discoveries that was made during security testing of Telia Sense will be discussed. The system was investigated through a black box perspective. Primarily, a model of the system was produced. Threats were then identified, ranked and tested accordingly.No major vulnerabilities were found. The results all indicated that Telia Sense is a well secured system. The main reasons to this is the fact that the device has very limited functionality and its communications are bounded. Even though no major vulnerabilities were found, this paper can still be used as a guide for future testing of security in IoT devices.

  • Sörell, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Ågeby, Elias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Inverse Diffusion by Proximal Optimization with TensorFlow2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for implementing a large scale, proximal optimization algorithm in a machine learning framework to solve an inverse problem. The algorithm is based on a previously developed method for analyzing data of some imagebased immunoassays in the context of detecting diffused cells. By employing TensorFlow through it’s Python API, parallelized computations on graphical processing units, distributed processing, automatic gradient computation and computational efficiency are made available for implementation. Image processing methods are also utilized throughout the implementation, resulting in a F1-score of 0.91. The performance matches previous implementations of the algorithm presented, leading to the conclusion that the TensorFlow platform is well suited and provides advantages over traditional methods. We conclude that the method presented coupled with the resulting performance is a proof of concept, by providing an example of implementing convex optimization in a machine learning framework.

  • Malmström, Josef
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Yavari, Najib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Power Spectral Density Based Sleep Scoring Using Artificial Neural Networks2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep scoring is the process that medical researchers use to analyze the sleep of a subject. By looking at signals in the brain and muscles, it is possible to determine the current sleep state of the subject. The procedure is traditionally done manually, requiring a lot of tedious processing of data. In this report, a machine learning system that automates the process of sleep scoring is studied and developed. The system works by estimating the power spectral density of the electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals, and training an artificial neural network to classify the correct sleep state. The signal processing was done in Python and the artificial neural network was implemented in Keras, using a TensorFlow back end. Finally, the implemented system proved to have an accuracy comparable to that of manual sleep scoring on five different rat datasets. Additionally, the system was able to generalize beyond the rat specimens it was trained on, meaning it could potentially be used on specimens that lack labeled sample data.

  • Molitor, Torsten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Wollbo, Hilding
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Estimation of Statistical Properties in a Mobile MIMO System2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several measures to evaluate the stationarity of a MIMO radio channel are proposed and implemented. The analysis is performed on a Kronecker model implementation of the channel matrix covariance, which describes the statistical characteristics and transmission properties of the radio channel. The analysis involves calculating the Path Gain, Eigen Quotient and Correlation Matrix Distance. A novel measure, Time of Stationarity, is introduced based on the CMD and is seen to correlate with changes in the Eigen Quotient.

  • Nawaz, Sabeen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Remstam, Sophie
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Recommender Systems for Movies Using a Class of Neural Networks2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project a recommendation system for suggesting movies is implemented, in the field of Collaborative Filtering (CF). The system is created with a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM), which is a two-layer neural network. The main tool used for programming the RBM is the TensorFlow library, imported to Python. The performance of the system is evaluated with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) where the error between the observed movie ratings and the predicted ratings is computed. This study shows how different parameters of the RBM, e.g. number of hidden units, mini-batch size, epochs and learning rate, affect the prediction error. The results show that parameter values within a specific range can generate good recommendation with low prediction error. The lowest RMSE, with optimal values for RBM’s parameters, is documented at 0.80, while the aim of this project is to reach a prediction error lower than 1.1. How to improve the accuracy of the model is discussed and the result is compared to previously done studies in the area of CF.