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  • Andersson, Nathalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Påverkande faktorer vid fastighetsutveckling på skidorter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The culture of skiing is very big in Sweden, and downhill skiing is an activity that a lot Swedes isperforming. The sport can be performed in a lot of different places around the country, but there aresome unique places where skiing is the main purpose of the place. These places are called ski resortsand are characterized by the fact that they offer unique opportunities for skiing. To enable the visits ofthese places, it is also required that the visitors have somewhere to live. The buildings erected on thistype of site can have characteristic features as a result of being optimal for skiers' experience.Furthermore, the process of its establishment can be influenced by several different factors.The purpose of the paper is to find legal and technical factors that affect the construction of recreationalhomes on ski resorts, and to analyze what effect these may have on projects in this type of place.The work begins with a literature study in which areas within real estate law, property development andsales of ski-passes are affected. The work has then been carried out through a case study, whereuponthree of the larger ski resorts in Sweden have been used as the basis for the data collection. Thecollection of data has been done by analyzing zoning for selected areas of the resorts, as well as byinterviews with plan architects and developers who have a cluster to the resorts.The conclusion suggests that there are both legal and technical factors that affect the development ofski resorts, and that these have different effects and starting points. In order to obtain an optimal projecton this type of site, all factors should be taken into consideration.

  • Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Fält, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Privat initiativrätt i planprocessen: En jämförelse mellan Sverige, Norge och England2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 51,000 and 93,000 homes need to be built in Sweden every year up until 2025. Today, we’re not even close to that. The business cycle is very important for housing construction, but so are also the efficiency of the detailed planning process and how quickly detailed plans can be developed, which then affect how much is being built. Byggprocessutredningen and Plangenomförandeutredningen are two previous investigations that previously attempted to improve the planning process. Based on these investigations, the issue of private initiative has been raised. In 2019, a new investigation has been carried out to review the need and conditions for this. At the same time, the municipal planning monopoly says that the physical planning of land and water is a municipal matter.The purpose of this thesis is therefore to first compare the planning processes in Sweden, Norway and England especially in terms of the right to private initiative in urban planning. The questions then focus on how the Swedish planning process can be developed through an expanded right of private initiative, what advantages and disadvantages it can lead to and if the municipalities and developers are interested in such an expansion. Parts of the systems in Norway and England, that have a distinctive part of private initiative, have been specifically studied, more precisely planning preparation and consultation. The thesis comprises a case study for the planning systems in Norway and the England with the aim of being compared with the Swedish planning process. The purpose of two comparative countries was to be able to use real, functional proposals on development areas for the Swedish process. Both a document and literature analysis have been performed. This is to get acquainted with the subject and understand basic legislation, the background to these and identified consequences of this today. The qualitative study has resulted in fourteen interviews with municipalities, developers and industry organizations.The Swedish planning system at municipal level includes a guiding overviewing plan and a legally binding detailed plan on which building permit is applied. The municipality has the planning 

    monopoly and decides when a planning work is to begin. In order to try to make the process more efficient, developers can, since 2011, request planbesked and municipalities can since 2017 request planeringsbesked. In Norway, all municipalities have an overviewing plan that includes two parts, of which one is legally binding. Områdesregulering and detaljregulering correspond to the Swedish detaljplan, where the second one may be designed by private plan stakeholders. In England, an application for planning permission are based directly on a guiding overviewing plan.Interviews showed that the cooperation differs depending on which municipalities and developers that are involved. Investigations, resources, competence, financing and legislation all affect the time schedule. Potentiality are considered to be found in the detailed plan's degree of detail, the cooperation with the building permit unit, the balance of national interests and contract terms. The developers state that they want to take more responsibility in the process simply in order to be able to influence the time spent. The parts of the process that constitute the exercise of authorities are not considered interesting to transfer to an individual party. Transparency, clarity and collaboration need to be improved on the basis of a competitive purpose. However, opinions are split on whether private right of initiative is a good thing, and how it will practically work.Time limits for the entire planning process, together with further investigation responsibility, can strengthen the developer’s control over the time schedule. The resource shortage in the municipality should be facilitated when more responsibility is placed on the developer More significant overviewing plans are considered to increase transparency and reduce the risk of planning in vain. Part of the risk should be transferred to the municipality that exercises the most control. Private right of initiative places greater demands on cooperation between the municipality and the developer. It is stated that knowledge and experience are best used when it is shared.Cooperation and transparency are important factors that must be improved to make the planning process more efficient. There is, in fact, a need for private initiative right if it contributes to efficiency in the planning process. However, it is difficult to see how it will work in practice, much because of the municipal planning monopoly. The advantages of private initiative law are higher efficiency, better cooperation, greater availability of land and control over the risk for the developer. The disadvantages are that competition gets worse, some additional work for the municipality arises, the risk increases at an early stage for the developer and there is an infringement of the planning monopoly. Private right of initiative can in particular be expanded in the investigation phase, but also regarding the design of detailed plans.

  • Arafat, Dalill
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Czerkinsky, Karolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kritiska framgångsfaktorer för fastighetsägande bolag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The real estate industry in Stockholm is in growth, urbanization is continuous, the housing queueis longer than ever before and the vacancy rate for office spaces is at a record low. The intensivemarket competition forces real estate organizations to adopt strategies to ensure survival, growthand development in a fast-growing environment. In this regard, organizational methods andtechniques has become a prioritized field of study. The real estate companies' success should catcheveryone's attention as these are of great importance for the economic and social life of an area.This study is placed in this theoretical framework and aims to identify the critical success factorsfor property owning companies in Stockholm, both from a holistic and property managementperspective. The study also aims at investigating any differences in critical success factorsdepending on what type of real estate the company is specialized in. Furthermore, the studyhighlights if there are any differences in critical success factors depending on geographicallocations and whether it has an influence on property companies’ decisions on whether to expandin new locations. The methodology of the study includes interviews with six real estate companiesrelated to the property management sector in Stockholm, as well as Hans Lind, ex professor in realestate economics at KTH. The interviews were administered by phone calls and personal andrecorded meetings with respondents. The model studied provides an overview that can easily beused by companies for internal analysis of critical success factors.The research is presented in four main parts. The first part encompasses the characteristics of thereal estate industry in Stockholm, specifies the research problem and determines the conceptualanalysis of the real estate industry's internal factors. The second part consists of a literature studyon critical success factors in general and in a facility management environment. The third partestablishes the method and interpretation of the results that follow the conducted interviews.Finally, the report ends with a general conclusion and recommendation. Our conclusion indicatethe existence of a common critical success factor for all property-owned companies participatingin the study: to offer local presence within owned holding. There is no significant variation amongcritical success factors depending on the companies included in study. Furthermore, all companiesconsider that there is a difference in critical success factors depending on geographical location,but it does not affect the decision whether to expand to said position or not.

  • Bergsten, Lisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ledningsrättslagens sakägarbegrepp2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interested parties in a cadastral procedure or process holds the right to take legal actions. Incadastral procedures such as utility easement procedures, it is the cadastral surveyor decidingon who should be considered an interested party.Utility easement is a way for a proprietor of utility easement to ensure its right to have publicutilities in someone else’s land. In Sweden it is the cadastral authority determining if utilityeasement can be formed in a utility order according to the Utility Easement Act.The legal framework in deciding which ones should be considered as interested parties in autility easement procedure are to be found in the Utility Easement Act and the PropertyFormation Act. According to these the cadastral surveyor is responsible for investigating whoshould be interested parties in the procedure. It also says that a right-holder, with the right tospace on a property that will be claimed by the utility easement should be an interested party ifhis right is concerned.To examine how the legislator intended the law to be interpreted, the legislative history hasbeen investigated. Also, cases from court regarding this specific question has been studied forguidance in the interpretation. To investigate how cadastral surveyors’ apply the concept inutility easement procedures a study of cadastral documents has been done. In addition to thisseveral cadastral surveyors and technical judges have been interviewed to convey their viewand approach to the concept.The result shows that who is considered an interested party in the utility easement proceduresis handled differently between different cadastral procedures. The interviews reinforce thepicture of a concept that is difficult to interpret and therefore has a varying interpretation.The legislative history does not describe how to interpret the concept of interested parties. Butaccording to the cases, the court seem to have a quite low threshold for when a right-holdershould be considered as an interested party. The differences in how the concept of interested 

    parties according to the Utility Easement Act are interpreted indicates an inadequatelegislation.The formation of the concept of interested parties is vague which opens for a lot of differentinterpretations. A clarification is well needed, and a reformulation would be even better –both in the interpretation of the concept interested parties and the cadastral surveyors’ duty toinvestigate.

  • Blidhem, Jonathan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Berg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Örebromodellen: En studie om Örebros markanvisnings- ochdetaljplaneringsprocess2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For some time now, supply and demand for housing have been very debated. There hasbeen a political debate about housing in which many municipalities have been criticized forhow this is being handled. The Örebro-model has recently been recognized as an efficientway to shorten the time period from an initial idea to a finished building through the Örebromunicipality's way of carrying out the municipal land allocations1 together with how theydesign plans2 for these areas. However, it has not been proven how or why this model worksand whether these alleged improvements are actually correct. Therefore, it has beennecessary to investigate this further.This thesis aims to investigate what the Örebro-model entails from a planning and municipalland allocations perspective. In addition, the thesis aims to investigate how the municipalityof Örebro works according to a faster and more efficient process in these previouslymentioned perspectives, and whether any subsequent steps in the process have beenaffected by the timesaving from the Örebro-model. This thesis also aims to highlight boththe advantages and disadvantages of the aforementioned planning and used method ofmunicipal land allocation.In this thesis, a qualitative case study has been carried out, which comprises four residentialprojects in Örebro. Through the study it has been found that the Örebro-model is not astrict model that the municipality of Örebro relies on, but instead a strong guideline thatmay differ slightly between projects. This model uses general plans that can have greatadvantages given their flexibility but can also be considered uncertain for the futureregarding the municipality's original intention with the area. In addition, it has beenestablished that the Örebro-model's land allocations are carried out with a pilot study3 andreservation agreements4. These studies and agreements have both advantages anddisadvantages. Among other things, it has proved to be a good way to ensure the design ofthe construction in the implementation stage and that it is an effective way to speed up theprocess. However, it is necessary to examine how well this method, which is used for landallocations, holds up in, among other things, economic cyclical fluctuations. This thesis alsoanalyzes and discusses, among other things, the Örebro-model’s pricing of land and howthe reservation agreements can be seen as a strong instrument for influencing constructioncompanies. The thesis also shows other implications that can follow from this. 

    Furthermore, regarding the study of the timeline of the projects, it has been shown that theaverage of how long the land allocation and planning takes in reality, for the projectsstudied, is broadly in line with what the municipality of Örebro presented themselves.Where the timeline was not followed, there have been explanatory reasons for this. This haslargely been due to the housing market stagnating after the summer of 2017, which made itdifficult for construction companies to sell enough housing units before they started theconstruction. This led to the risk of continuing the construction being too great for theconstruction companies and they then had to extend either the pilot study or thereservation agreements. In addition, other cases have been investigated that have beenshown to affect the process. These cases have shown problems that have arisen due to thistype of method used for land allocation.

  • Bohman, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Karlsson, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Leasing Risks and Commercial Real Estate: A Study on the Relationship Between Risk Premium and Leasing Risks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis paper is to evaluate what the current market practice of real estatevaluation and investment decisions is when it comes to different leasing risks and the risk premium.With regard to some of the ongoing trends within real estate, it is believed that investor preferencesaffect the market practice and the underlying theories of valuation does not fully comply to the currentmarket practice.

    Method: The implementation of the method is stage wise. At first already existing research andliterature was evaluated and triangulated to find relevant knowledge as basis for the theoreticalframework. Afterwards an analysis was performed to answer whether there is a research gap or not.By analyzing the literature, a research gap as well as potential problems related to leasing risks wasfound. The second phase consisted of a qualitative method where experts in the field were interviewedregarding leasing risk to evaluate whether the problem exist in practice or only in literature.Experts on the topic also helped to develop the questions consequently delivered to the interviewees.The mentioned strategy was done with guidance of our tutor Han-Suck Song at KTH and DanielHolmkvist at CBRE.

    Interviews: Nine interviews were conducted where experts in the business (consultants and propertyfirms) participated to deliver different perspectives on the research question. All interviews were madein Stockholm and held in Swedish and afterwards translated to English.

    Results: The results consist of the answers from the interview-part, where the relevant findings weresummarized and pin-pointed with regard to the respective field of business and property segment.The general themes that arose throughout the methods are presented, as well as the extremes in termsof opinions and answers. It was found that there is a clear relationship between the leasing risk and therisk premium for commercial real estate. The relationship depends on several factors such asgeographical location, the different submarkets and finally the segment. A municipal- or corporate bondcannot be fully comparable to a leasing contract but for a 20 year or longer contract where the tenant ispublicly financed, the contract can become an interesting investment alternative due to the currentinterest rate cycle. Finally the leasing contract needs to be more effortless to liquidate in order to becomparable to the bond situation.

    Scientific relevance: The recent transaction activity on the Swedish real estate market has been ratherdefensive for multiple segments the last twelve months with an exception of community properties.A common understanding is that such objects feature “stable tenants” and are viewed as a safeinvestment by the market. This investment practice raises the awareness of what a stable tenant is, andhow the consultants and property owners’ reason during investments and appraising decisions.This research paper illustrates that a common perception on the subject is that the risk exposurecompletely depends on the specific segments, location or contract length etc. The academic researchexplains the theory behind how to derive the discount rate for an investment decision, however thisstudy has during the literature review proven that several important concepts are left out in the theorypartand thus does not fully cover phenomena’s that investors and appraisers are exposed to duringmarket practice. The most critical part is how to relate leasing risk to the risk premium on the Swedishmarket. Since this study focuses on specifically the Swedish market it is crucial to relate to suitableliterature review for further discussions. On foreign markets, more rigid literature on the subject wasfound.

  • Brunius, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lorenius, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Osäkerheter kring förhandsavtal för nyproducerade bostadsrätter i Stockholm: Vilka finansiella orsaker ligger till grund för de problem som har uppstått?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Residential investments have increased over the past years in Sweden. Thefavorable price trend has resulted in more investments in new-construction, and thenumber of new-built apartments has been large. During this market situation, itbecame increasingly attractive to sign pre-sale agreements on newly producedcondominiums. Since the prices subsequently fell in Autumn 2017 and thereafterstagnated, there has been an increased uncertainty in the Swedish housing market.In this stagnated market, the residential housing developers’ financing models for thepre-sale agreements has received greater medial attention. Most of this attention hasbeen about criticism and shortcomings regarding the pre-sale agreements that havebeen signed and which have become increasingly appeared when the marketswung. This has led to enhanced numbers of disputes between residentialdevelopers and buyers, as an attempt to lift these agreements. Today an increasingnumber of households have been waiting to sign pre-sale agreements, especially oncondominiums where access dates are well ahead.In the paper, interviews were carried out with housing developers in Stockholm,financiers and legal representatives for consumers in order to compile the view of themarket today regarding pre-sale agreements for newly produced condominiums,from various players. In addition, a case study has been conducted to get a deepdive into two different housing developers' business models and control processes,in order to be able to examine the underlying reasons why any disputes with buyershave arisen. The purpose of the thesis has been to identify the financial causes thatunderlie the problems that have arisen in the market today, and to give suggestionsfor solutions that could further be investigated on the subject.

  • Feng, Minggang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How Will Proximity to Higher Education Affect the rental Housing Market? A Case in Beijing: A Regression Analysis of Rent Level in Beijing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Education would always be an important issue in China. Capitalization of education wouldhave impact on housing price and rent price and affect the housing market, this can bereflected from the phenomenon of ‘over-priced school district house’. While thecapitalization of higher education on rent price is always be neglected.In that case, the propose of this study is to estimate the relationship between highereducation and rental market price level in China based on the rental market in Beijing.And the study would focus four zone in Beijing, each of them contains one to twouniversity district and surrounding non-university district.Hedonic pricing model would be used in this study to determine the impact of independentvariables on the rent price development.The result of this study indicates a complex relationship, it finds that the relationshipbetween higher education and rent price in different zones while most zones shows apositive relationship, and the overall result is insignificant. And according to our research,some target suggestions were pointed out.

  • Hallbäck, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Vem betalar den kommunalainfrastrukturen?: Tillämpning av exploateringsavtal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When urban areas are developed, it is often necessary to develop the infrastructure. The society has aneed for public places such as roads, squares, parks and playgrounds. The outset is that the municipalityis responsible for the public places. However, the resources are limited and infrastructure is costly.When the values on the land increases as a result of the public investments there is a possibility toimpose the landowners to pay for these.New rules about land development agreements were introduced in 2015 with the purpose of distributingthe costs for public places through the agreements. A general goal for the legislation of distributionsystems is to be effective and fair. There has to be a consideration of both justice and effectivenessin order to make the distribution system fulfill its purpose. Through the development agreementsthe municipality can impose the developers to pay for the public places that is necessary to carryout the plan and reasonable in comparison to the landowner’s benefit of the plan.The aim with this study is to investigate who pays for which public places. This study have examinedthe situation where the municipality has the responsibility for public places and uses land developmentagreements. An investigation of existing law has been done in order to show who is possibleto impose to pay for what. In addition has this study investigated how the usage of the land developmentagreements are used in practice. A comparison between the legislation and practice has beencarried out in order to see if the agreements are in accordance with the legislation. Furthermore, thesystem has been compared to some theories and concepts of justice.The result shows that there are agreements that does not seem to be in accordance with the legislation.Some of the public places does not seem to be necessary and it is questionable how much of themeasure can be imposed to the developer. The agreements are neither specified enough in order to bein accordance with law.Who actually pays for the public places in the end seems to depend on the market situation inwhich they are carried out. If the system is fair depends on the subjective values that lays ground forjustice. The legislation and implementation also shows faults in the system in order for it to be effective.When the municipality goes further than the law allows there is a risk for increase in conflicts andalso reduced trust and a bad attitude towards the project.

  • Westberg, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Rönnqvist, Tony
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Maskininlärningsalgoritmer för klassificering av barnkläder efter kön2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a machine’s ability to classify children’s clothes according to gender. This was done by implementing three different machine learning algorithms; kernel ridge regression, regularized extreme learning machine, and support vector machine. A Gaussian radial basis function kernel was used for both ridge regression and support vector machine, and for extreme learning machine the softplus function was used as activation. The algorithms were trained and tested on a data set consisting of one thousand images gathered from the Swedish clothing-retail company H&M. The clothes were categorized as being for children from the ages of eighteen months to ten years.

  • Hansols, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Steffensen, Cassandra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kommersiella hyresavtal i förändring: Co-working - En perfekt kompromiss?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following thesis will describe the legal aspects of the new phenomena co-working. The study will beimplemented by reviewing a selected number of contracts that are used by actors on the market for co-working inStockholm. Co-working took its form 2005 in San Francisco and has grown rapidly since. The concept is aboutletting flexible workspaces in different shapes and this raises the question if the contracts are to be seen as leaseagreements. This considers be to hand when all four requisites in 12 chapter 1 § JB is fulfilled. Requisites that areespecially interesting is “house or part of house” and “exclusive right to use”. This due to that the object for leasingis not technically separated and that it is sometimes shared by others. In this thesis four different types ofmembership are identified, and the study shows that some of these are to be considered as lease agreements. Thismeans that the memberships have to follow the rental laws (12 chapter JB). The purpose of the rental law is toprotect the tenant that is to be seen as the weaker part. The study has focused on the rules about notification periodsand indirect protection of possession because this could have a large economic impact for the parties involved.The study has shown that the contracts that are used contains several flaws both regarding notification periods andindirect protection of possession. Current legalization has shown to be flexible enough to be applied on these flexibleworkspaces. For the actors to be able to reach the intended flexibility the contracts need to be rewritten. Onesuggestion is that the actors writes the contracts for a designated time that will allow them to use shorter notificationperiods. The actors are also able to create contracts that doesn’t contain indirect protection of possession byobtaining approval from Hyresnämnden. By doing this, the actors are able to operate in accordance with currentlegalization as well as the users are able to have accessible and flexible workspaces.

  • Hugosson, Alice
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Visualization of 3D Real Properties in Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a high demand of land in the society today, especially in urbanized areas. Values of land are increasing, and the cities get more complex constructions and relations between ownership.Since the 1st of January 2004 it is possible to form real properties that are limited both horizontally and vertically. This is called three-dimensional real properties a property spaces and is defined in the Swedish Land Code and the Real Property Act. The purpose is to separate land and buildings with different functions on different levels to achieve a more efficient use of land.The aim in this thesis is to investigate current legislation and recommendations for presentation of 3D real properties and their rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) and how these are presented in cadastral dossiers today. Further, the thesis addresses the question of how a 3D cadastral model should be visualized, which level of detail should be implemented in the model and which input data is required. The thesis has been conducted by studying literature, documents and laws, creating a 3D model and by study and evaluate cadastral dossiers for 3D property formation.The current legislation for property formation declares that if a property boundary cannot be marked in the ground, it should be presented by “enough accuracy” in maps and drawings. As a complement to this there are also a textual description of the vertical and horizontal extent of the property. The results of the study show that the intelligibility of the 3D extension in cadastral dossiers for 3D property formation can be improved. One way to improve this is to use standardized 3D models which can make it easier to interpret the relations between real property boundaries, RRRs, the construction and other features of interest. But to create a 3D model that presents the accurate cadastral relationships can be very time consuming and requires a lot of data. To solve this, a concept for standardized 3D models in three levels of detail is proposed. The concept covers a general, schematic and detailed model. The models require different types and amount of data and need different amount of work to create. A general visualization concept for these models are also proposed.A conclusion that can be drawn, is that standards and requirements for presentation of the extent of 3D real properties and RRRs is are missing today. It is hard to interpret the legal situation in current cadastral dossiers for 3D property formation, if this could be presented in a better way it could lead to more efficient processes and better understanding by both professionals and laymen. Another conclusion is that how 3D real properties and RRRs are formed varies a lot, from simple volumes to more complex situation related to construction details. This makes it hard to create one type of 3D cadastral model that covers all types of 3D real property situations.

  • Ingelmark, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Nettelbladt, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Social hållbarhet i markanvisningstävlingar: Urval, tydlighet och rättvisa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish planning and construction market have been investing more in developing sustainable cities, that is, more sustainable urban development. Sustainability has historically been divided into three different parts: economical, environmental and social aspects. Today, there is no generally accepted definition of the concept of social sustainability and therefore the concept needs to be further explored. There is also a legal justice aspect in creating clarity of the concept, in order to reduce the risks that there will be disputes about what the agreements entail. With the ambiguity around the concept, information asymmetry can arise between municipalities and the property developers, and between the property developers. In the context of municipal land allocations, clarity is needed for the parties to be able to work together towards the common goal – sustainable urban development.The overall purpose of this study is to clarify to municipalities and property developers how they can contribute to social sustainability in urban development, through fair land allocation competitions. The aim of this study is to, through analysis of land allocation competitions, describe how municipalities express and use the concept of social sustainability, as well as describe how they make selections and assesses entries in land allocation competitions in urban development projects.The study was carried out with a descriptive method with three different approaches: documentary review, in-depth semi-structured interview and text interviews with municipalities. The urban development projects examined were Skeppsbron in Gothenburg, Kolkajen part 2 in Stockholm, Nya gatan in Nacka and Vallastaden in Linköping. The result of this study indicates that no significant efforts have been made to clarify the concept social sustainability in urban development projects, even in the investigated municipalities that have made expressed attempts to achieve socially sustainable development projects. Instead, the municipalities work with unique conditions and solutions in each of their projects. They have no uniform management or definition of the concept social sustainability in urban development. One conclusion that can be drawn is also that clearly designed models that are dynamic and leave room for innovation and creativity would probably ease the management and incorporation of sustainability in the municipalities. These proposed models would enable the municipalities to host clear, fair and transparent land allocation competitions where property developers can compete within the same conditions.

  • Johansson, Patrick
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Tomträttens vara eller icke vara i Huddinge kommun2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1907, it has been possible in Sweden to lease a property with leasehold rights. The site leasehold right is a right of use that means that the site leaseholder has the right to use a property against of annual ground rent. Only the public may grant leasehold rights, which is usually the municipality but also state may grant a site leasehold. The conditions are similar to the right of ownership and the intention of the introduction was to give private individuals the opportunity to gain access to land for housing purposes without the state or the municipality losing ownership of the land.The question posed in this work is whether the site leasehold has a future and especially in Huddinge municipality. Huddinge municipality is a municipality with a few site leaseholds at present and the question is whether they should either keep, sell off or develop and work furthermore with site leaseholds.Since it is an older legislation, it has emerged in the work that several of the municipalities that work with site leasehold consider it old-fashioned and rigid legislation. The major problem with the site leasehold is that the termination cannot be renegotiated before the termination period is over and that it must not follow an index count. This has led to major increases of the ground rent, which the media has been quick to criticize. The increase comes from the fact that land value has often risen sharply. However, the criticism has primarily concerned site leasehold for residential purposes.In the work it has emerged that leaseholds for residential purposes probably do not have a future in Huddinge municipality or in other similar municipalities unless the entire market value is charged in the ground rent. The problems that can arise when renegotiating ground rent mean that the revenue that the site leaseholds brings does not cover the costs that can arise. The rent and the purchase price for the purpose was discounted by most municipalities. Among other things, this means that the site leasehold for housing purposes, Huddinge municipality should be cautious about granting leaseholds for residential purposes. Site leasehold for purposes other than housing have a future in Huddinge municipality but also in other municipalities. The advantages are many with leasehold rights where, among other things, land ownership is retained. If the debt is market-adjusted, stable income will be added over the term of the debt. Especially in municipalities with a land value development that Huddinge municipality has had, it is with great advantage that land ownership is retained. The leasehold means for the municipality an increased administrative work in the case of renegotiation of the debt and in connection with leasing compared with lease and land sales. On the other hand, land sales do not provide recurring income and lost ownership of the land.

  • Karahan, Gözde
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    An Econometric Analysis of the Office Market Rent in Istanbul: Long-run Equilibrium Rent Estimation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Istanbul metropolitan area is the largest office investment made in Turkey. According to the CBRE ERIX data, the total office stock in Istanbul by the end of 2018 exceeded 7 million sqm. There is approximately 1 million sqm of pipeline figures. The biggest problem for office projects which in the hold-on status and under construction status, Turkey's economy is rapidly affecting office rents and tenants of office the selection criteria. In particular, high financing costs and construction costs increase the importance of predicting the rent figures in office investments. This degree project aims at contributing to the understanding of the Istanbul rental office market underlying mechanisms. The office market data will be analyzed between Q1 2005-Q4 2018 period. Long-term equilibrium rents will be reached for the Istanbul office market and examined sub-markets. With the econometric analysis method, the long-term causality for rent with employment, stock and vacancy will be examined. Short-term estimates will be made with an error correction model.

  • Katsivelis, Rebecca
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kaya, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Problematiken i praktiken kring förhandsavtal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past 2-3 years, the debate on pre purchase agreements for new production ofcondominiums has been a hot discussion in the media and in the general society. This debateand the issues concerning these contracts arose when prices in the housing market began tofall in the spring of 2017.Our essay will investigate which factors that contributed to the prices of housing suddenlydropping in Sweden. Furthermore, we will study what the connection is between the pricedecline on housing and the pre purchase agreements and why these agreements causeproblems in reality for home buyers.An interesting investigation of the legal situation, interviews and current rulings are madewith interesting results. We have interviewed over 30 people who are familiar with thesubject, or have suffered as a result of these contracts.Our results show that the problem of pre purchase agreements actually has a connection withthe recent price increase in the housing market.However, the biggest problem with these contracts is not the agreements themselves. It isactually about the fact that the law principles are interpreted very differently, and in manycases are utilized by the building companies when designing their contracts for newproduction condominiums.

  • Le, Mai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Eriksson, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Investeringsbeslut i komplexa projekt: Fallstudie - Överdäckning av centralstationsområdet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many aspects to consider when investing in complex projects and there exist several methods to evaluate those investments. Complex projects such as a decking over existing thoroughfares engender new areas that generate more utility than just economic. Therefore it is of great importance in case of investment decisions to evaluate the investment with regards to the aspects of interest.Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a method used in contexts where more than just the economic aspects are included in the investment decision. The method is well-known and appears in both the academic field and practical at companies. A different method, Option Games is newer and so far mainly applied theoretical and not used in daily practice yet.The aim with this paper is to compare the two methods, Cost Benefit Analysis and Option Games. The goal is to assess which of the two methods best includes the aspects of interest when considering investment decisions for complex projects. The methods will be evaluated based on three selected criteria. Firstly, assumptions and inputs of the two methods. Secondly, their applicability in the current case study and finally the scope of the methods. The paper is conducted as a case study applied on the planned over decking of Stockholm Central station.The result indicates Cost Benefit Analysis to be the preferable method compared to Option Games. Cost Benefit Analysis generates a better foundation when investing in complex projects. Nevertheless, Option Games does regard some aspects that are not considered in the Cost Benefit Analysis method. The most important parameter for both methods is the discount rate in relation to the implemented sensitivity analysis.

  • Li, Xiaokuan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Asset-Backed Securitization of Chinese PPP Projects: Operating Mechanism and Current Difficulties2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Under the background that China's economy has entered the new normal, de-leveraging, structural adjustment, and resolution of various risks have become an essential part of macro-control. The unique advantages of PPP asset securitization make this tool widely recognized and respected by the government, enterprises, and investors. On December 21st, 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission and the China Securities Regulatory Commission jointly issued the Notice on Promoting the Asset Securitization of Government and Social Capital Cooperation (PPP) Projects in the Field of Traditional Infrastructure. This prompted the PPP asset securitization process to enter the express train. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the research on the securitization of PPP assets.The author mainly uses the literature review method and a comparative analysis method to study the securitization of PPP assets. This paper first carries out theoretical research on PPP asset securitization, and then studies cash flow analysis theory, asset reorganization theory, risk isolation theory, and credit enhancement of PPP asset securitization; and then participates in the subject, operation model of PPP asset securitization, The operating mechanism is studied; the related cases are used to analyze the cases, and then the research conclusions are drawn, and policy recommendations are proposed. It was found that PPP asset securitization can improve the creditworthiness of the issuer and reduce the issuance cost. Further suggestions include strengthening cash flow management for PPP asset securitization projects; encouraging enterprises to restructure assets through PPP asset securitization; strengthening risk control of PPP asset securitization projects; strengthening statutory construction; Change government functions.

  • Lindstrand, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ålander, Astrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Gröna Byggnader: En redogörelse av miljöcertifieringar och miljömärkningar för byggnader på den svenska bostadsmarknaden med fokus på byggaktörers lönsamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has its main focus on green buildings on the market for housing [in Sweden] and what is involved in the area of environmental certifications and ecolabelling of these buildings. How vast is one consumer’s knowledge about environmental certifications and markings on the housing market? This is an interesting question that is discussed continuously throughout this essay. The fact that consumers get more and more sustainable and aim towards making more sustainable choices for themselves when it comes to travel and consuming different goods, is not unfamiliar to anyone. But what does it look like when it comes to the housing market and when a consumer is presented with the choice of choosing a home which is in an apartment that is covered by environmental certifications? This bachelor’s thesis contains three main questions that revolve around how big the demand for apartments in an environmentally certified house is, what connection this has to the profitability of building actors and last but not least, which certification or ecolabel is the most preferable on the market for housing. A total of six people have been interviewed for this bachelor’s thesis, during the spring of 2019. The participants are all working for different building companies, either as contractors or on the market for commercial buildings or the market for housing. These people are either sustainability managers, CEOs or responsible for the sustainability of the company. Apart from these interviews a survey was filled by numerous people where the main question was to examine which three preferences were most popular when it comes selecting a new apartment. The result, from the six interviews and the survey, was entwined with the screening of the different environmental certifications and ecolabels in an analysis. The analysis argued that the demand for environmentally certified buildings on the commercial market is a lot higher than the demand for these on the market for housing. The customer is not briefed enough, and the companies need to step up their marketing and make environmentally certified buildings more attractive for the customer. Buildings that are environmentally certified generates a higher operations net since lower operations and maintenance costs tend to get lower if the building is certified, in comparison to a non-certified building. This, despite the low demand on environmental certifications, is an attractive aspect for building actors that use these certifications. When a building has an ecolabelling, it is effective in different aspects, such as when it comes to the appropriate selection of sustainable materials. A building that is equipped with an ecolabel only affects the production of the building. However, a building that is environmentally certified looks to the continued management of the facility. Most participants in the interviews suggest that the ecolabel Svanen is the best one for the housing market since it is most recognizable by customers. However, they point out that the certification Miljöbyggnad is a better choice if they are interested in, not only the production phase of the building but also the continued facility management.

  • Ermakova, Natalia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Natalia, Alicia
    Maskininlärning och kvantmekanik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to use machine learning to solve for the ground state energy of the quantum system corresponding to the particle in a box. A radial basis function (RBF) network is used with Gaussian functions as the variational wave function. The weights in the network are updated so that the energy expectation value is minimized, which is carried out by using the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) method. The method using machine learning succeeds in finding the ground state energy for the particle in a box. The method also works when a perturbation in the form of a linear potential is added to the infinite potential well.

  • Linell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Riise, Theodor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Logistics in a Changing Retail Landscape: How Will Warehouses and Logistics Real Estate Evolve With the Transformation of Retail?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish retail sector is experiencing a structural shift, where the e-commerce sector isgrowing steadily each year. As of 2017, e-commerce had seen an average annual growth rateof 14% over the past decade. Currently, e-commerce corresponds to 8.7% of the total retailsector. As the e-commerce sector is growing, so are the requirements for the underlyinglogistics operations. Larger trade volumes implicate a greater need of warehouses andlogistics real estate.The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate how the changing retail landscape will affectdemand for logistics real estate in Sweden for the coming decade. The study is based on amixed-method research design, combining a data analysis on the current market situationwith scenario-based interviews with 14 professionals about future market expectations. Thisthesis is structured around the DAS-framework, a strategy model developed at the Real Estateand Housing department at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.From observations, the conclusion is that the logistics real estate stock in Sweden needs to becomplemented by several, smaller distribution terminals located in close vicinity to the citycores. This in order to address the last-mile issue from the continued development of ecommercein areas with dense population.

  • Linjo, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Andonov, Alexandar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kontorshyresgästers betalningsvilja för flexibla hyresavtal: En undersökning av kontorshyresmarknaden i Stockholm CBD2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    such as coworking and flexible office companies have absorbed the market that meets the tenants' demand for flexibility. The current market that property owners in Stockholm is in with high rents and low vacancies has led to a situation where they do not have to take the step to adapt the office supply to the tenants' desire for flexibility, but in line with the progress of digitization, changed working habits and a potential prospective recession this can change in the future. However, the question of how profitable it will be to offer more flexible rental options remains for those property owners who choose to go through the process of adapting the office supply so that flexible leases can grow. The purpose of this thesis is to examine office tenants’ willingness to pay for flexible lease agreements concerning contract length, area and service in Stockholm CBD. In order to capture the willingness to pay, a quantitative survey and a qualitative interview study were conducted, where tenants with offices in the CBD were respondents in both surveys. The results of the study show that there is a very large proportion of tenants in Stockholm's primary business district who are willing to pay a premium of 4% on the market rent in order to benefit from shared service in the form of reception, conference rooms, changing rooms and bicycle garage in the property. A large proportion of the tenants were also willing to pay a premium of 25% on the market rent in order to rent an office in a property where there is also access to a coworking area and thus the opportunity to rent extra workplaces. The survey also showed that there was a relatively large willingness to pay for turnkey offices with lease agreements that run indefinitely and have a short notice period where the premium was 50% on the market rent. Previous studies show that the demand for flexible lease agreements for office tenants exists, and the results from this study also indicate that a willingness to pay more than the market-based rent to get the flexibility exists. For property owners who are willing to offer more flexible leases, it will be important to diversify the tenant portfolio to minimize the risk that flexible leases entail. By offering tenants a menu of contracts, a larger mix of rental agreements can be achieved.

  • Mabrouk, Nizar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Soumi, Lukian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Time on market: En studie om en ny indikator påbostadsmarknaden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The housing market in Stockholm has since the financial crisis in 2008 been remarkable with risingprices and short sales periods. Today the housing market is everything but remarkable. The pricetrend has stopped, record numbers of objects are out for sales and housing developers choose towait with new housing projects. Due to the changes in the housing market, the study aims toconstruct a new index based on time on market. The aim also includes investigating what effectsmacroeconomic factors have on time on market and if the time on market index can be used as anindicator to show the price development on the housing market.The method used in this study is based on both economic theories and econometric analysis.Through the application of regression analyzes, based on cross-sectional data and time series data,an index can be constructed. Results shows that time on market for both the house- and tenantownedmarket has a cyclical pattern. Furthermore, the results show that the housing market haspreviously been in a valley, with low time on market value, to then rise and finally turn downwards.Time on market correlates with the chosen macroeconomic factors being unemployment, omx30,mortgage rate and price development for housing. The results indicate that the macroeconomicfactors have a certain lag in relation to the time on market index. Moreover, the result shows thatthe time on market index can only be used as an indicator for the tenant-owned market, as itchanges six months before the price development on the housing market.

  • Smångs, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Synergieffekter i fastighetsbestånd: Skapandet av mervärde inom fastighetskluster2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common strategy used by today’s real estate companies is to group their properties indifferent clusters. They believe it is more beneficial to own a number of properties in the onearea, as opposed to having a real estate portfolio that is scattered. The strategy aims to createsynergy effects, which add value to both the tenants and the property owner. In order forthese areas to succeed, it is essential that the cluster is attractive and encourages people tospend their time and money in it.The town of Åre has successfully carried out this approach, transforming an unpopular areainto an attactive year-round destination. The objective of this thesis was to identify thesuccess factors in Åre and then to investigate whether these factors are present in thestrategies of Stockholm-based cluster projects. In such cases where they are used, tounderstand whether they provide added value to the tenants and, thus, higher rental incomefor the property owners.Through a theoretical review of literature and interviews with relevant companies andproperty owners in Åre, a case study was created called ”Case Study Destination Åre”. Thiscase study showed that there were many similarities between the success factors in Åre andthe success factors found in the theory of how to create prosperous clusters and destinations.In the Åre case, these success factors are summarised as follows:

    • A cooperation between the business sector and the municipality• The creation of effective meeting places• An increase in communications to the area• Events that create attraction to the area• The achievement of creating a year-round destination• An image of taking responsibility for the environment• The creation of a welcoming environment where people want to live and work

    These success factors were then presented to representatives of the companies Kungsledenand Atrium Ljungberg in Stockholm. They were asked to examine to what extent they usethese success factors in development of their own property clusters in Danderyd,Värtahamnen, Sickla and Slakthusområdet. The result demonstrated that, while thedestination theory is relatively new among property owners, it is used. In the case of AtriumLjungberg, the theory is very much used throughout their property cluster projects in Sicklaand Slakthusområdet. These particular districts endeavour to be living destinations that,through culture, housing, commerce and office-spaces, will attract people for all hours of theday. As the strategy is so new, however, it is impossible to understand if it creates added valuefor the tenants and, thus, higher rents for the property owners at this stage.

  • Staflund, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Östblom, Rickard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Anbudsförfarande eller direktanvisning?: En studie om markanvisningsmetoder i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to investigate how and why municipalities choose a particular type ofland-use method and explain if there are any similarities and/or differences in the different municipal groups´approaches. Unlike previous studies, this bachelor thesis has not only taken Sweden´s larger municipalities intoconsideration, but also the smaller municipalities have been taken into consideration. Through a modificationof SKL´s municipality group division, the participating municipalities have been divided into groups of “small”,“medium and “large”. Through a questionnaire survey we have acquired information from 24 geographicallyscattered municipalities on how they handle land-use issues.In the survey, a number of different alternatives of the two collective concepts of land-based methods werefound: allocation by tender and direct allocation. Therefore, a national conceptual framework for the two landallocation methods could be needed to increase transparency in the market and promote a clearer land-basedprocess.The results showed that allocation by tender are usually applied for attractive areas and for projects of specialnature. Direct allocation is in turn applied for less attractive areas, and for when the municipality does not wantto participate in the development process. Differences have been found in which method is commonly usedamong the different municipalities divided into “small” and “large”. Allocation by tender is the most commonlyland-used method among the municipalities group “small” and “large”. Whilst in the “medium” group, directallocation is the dominant method.

  • von Heideken, Hedda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Höglund, Nina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    E-commerce and its Effects on Commercial Real Estate and F&B: Space Conversions, the Optimal Meeting Place and Future Expectations on Development in Stockholm CBD2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People are becoming more digital today, and are spending the majority of their time behindscreens. Because of this, the importance to socialize have become more prominent. In thisdigital era, more businesses are establishing online. A structural reformation in the retailmarket is inevitable. One of the reasons for this is the competition which comes frominternational competitor. Consumers can click home goods directly from internationallow-cost production actors. With this change, it has become harder for physical retailbusiness to become profitable. Even though the online retail market is blooming, there is stilla need for physical spaces in Stockholm, and this is because of webrooming and Halo effects.In combination to this, retailers desire fewer and smaller spaces. Further, the effectse-commerce has on physical retail have altered the way real estate owners establish theirspaces. Several real estate owners convert retail stores into food and beverage (F&B). TheF&B sector has become more important and prominent today because of its importance ofcreating a meeting place in today’s society. Due to this, the F&B market is saturated causingcannibalization between actors.The aim of this study is to explore and interpret qualitative data, based on interviews withbranch experts from real estate owners and consultants, retailers, researchers and F&B actors.Considering, if the online retail market affects the F&B market in Stockholm CBD. What willbe the future for physical retail and F&B spaces, based on the change in consumer behaviour?What is the relation between the expanding online market and the conversion from retail toF&B? What will happen when the market is saturated and how will the future meeting placebe established? The thesis will also be based on a case study of Sergelstan, a developmentproject in Stockholm CBD, owned and established by Vasakronan.The conclusion of the research is that e-commerce has an indirect impact on the F&B sector,based on direct effect from retail. The physical retail sector creates vacancy due to a changedconsumer behaviour, which enables other sectors to grow. Due to the importance of ameeting place for society, real estate owners have almost doubled their F&B supply in theCBD of Stockholm.

  • Fischer, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Al-Janabi, Mustafa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    En generisk delsystemsimulator - Tillämpad på antenndelsystemet i MIST-satelliten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing is a vital process when building a satellite. However, often using flight-ready hardware for testing is not feasible. The work in this project has been to construct a flight representative model of the antenna deployment system for the KTH student-built MIST satellite. Specifically, the focus has been on creating a physical simulator for the antenna system. The purpose of the simulator created is to achieve the correct behavior, but without the need to use the real flight hardware. The challenges mainly concern establishing communication between the on-board computer of the satellite and the microcontroller on the created antenna deployment system, via the I$^2$C bus, and ensuring that physical responses occur in a useful manner. Further, the simulator needed to implement software with the same functionality as the real system. The microcontroller used in this project was an Arduino Due that represented the antenna deployment system's microcontroller. All the functions, e.g. temperature sensor and LEDs, were put together on a custom-made add-on circuit for the Arduino. Moreover, a 3D-printed model has been made for the deployment mechanism of the antenna elements. A simulation of the antenna system has been produced, determining whether a custom-built simulator can be used for functional testing of the antenna deployment system. The simulator can later be used for functional testing of the MIST satellite and also be the base for testing the deployment of the solar panels.

     

  • Yashar Khezri Kraim, Sven-Åke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Cykelplaner i Stockholms län: En jämförande studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of regular bicycle users in the country have historically been significantly higher, however, due to the increased popularity and time critical nature of the environmental problem, there is a new spark of interest in this climate friendly mean of transportation. Since the beginning of the 21st. century, bicycles have been part of the city planning and traffic planning forums, and a new kind of planning documents, the so-called bicycle plans, have been developed and used as part of the city planning process. Bicycle plans still mostly exist in municipalities with higher urban development, since this is where they can have the biggest positive impact.This bachelor’s thesis is a comparison between a number of bicycle plans from municipalities in the county of Stockholm. The samples are non-probability samples. Based on the questions below, the bicycle plans have been compared and analyzed.• How are the plans written, and how do they compare with regards to structure and contents?• What are the goals set in the plans and how are said goals expressed?• Describe the process of implementation used to make the goals reality.• Do the plans express problems with current legislature with regards to promoting bicycle usage?The results show that bicycle plans are similar in overview, but all the more different, the more in detail they are analyzed. This is due to the simple fact that the municipalities for which the plans are developed have the same inherent relationship. It becomes clear, that the structure and wording of goals set in bicycle plans is flawed in some municipalities in that the phraseology is vague and obscure, and do not really clarify all that much about concrete planned bicycle promoting commitments. This vague target setting inevitably leads to making the monitoring work, which generally has flaws in many bicycle plans, even harder.The implementation process that is needed to reach set goals, is hard to analyze, due to lack of follow-up documents as “cykelbokslut”, which literally translates to bicycle balance sheets, and can be described as yearly follow-up documents that presents how bicycle promoting efforts are going. So far in the development of systematic working routines, the best follow-up information is not provided by the public sector, but by nonprofit organizations, like “cykelfrämjandet”, and their reports such as “kommunvelometern”. The report does not include all of the Swedish municipalities, only the ones who choose to participate, which makes it difficult to draw general conclusions based on obtained results, however, three out of the six chosen municipalities are participants of kommunvelometern and are therefore evaluated based on results that are presented in the report. In order to obtain a framework to evaluate the other three municipalities bicycle plans, four factors are identified, that facilitates the possibilities of successful implementation, whereupon the plans are evaluated based on these factors.Potential areas of development with regards to the legal aspect have been identified, and the author is of the opinion that there are obstacles in existing legislature that hinder bicycle promoting efforts. The municipality of Stockholm have come to the same conclusion as they have identified legal challenges and also started to experiment with small changes in order to promote biking. Although this may be the case, it is expressed in the discussion chapter, that bicycle promoting work through the means of bicycle plans is still a very young and underdeveloped area, wherefore it cannot yet benefit from changes in legislature.In order to best continue with bicycle promoting work, better statistics and data is needed. The existing information is inadequate with regards to bicyclists. Municipalities, who carry most of the responsibility must also actively work with honing the bicycle plans to be as effective as possible, while at the same time start working with follow-up work on a much bigger scale than they currently do, in order to ensure completion of stated goals and visions. Tentatively through so called cykelbokslut.

  • Rodrigues, Diogo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Toward Tractable Global Solutions to Maximum-Likelihood Estimation Problems via Sparse Sum-of-Squares Relaxations2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In system identification, the maximum-likelihood method is typically used for parameter estimation owing to a number of optimal statistical properties. However, in many cases, the likelihood function is nonconvex. The solutions are usually obtained by local numerical optimization algorithms that require good initialization and cannot guarantee global optimality. This paper proposes a computationally tractable method that computes the maximum-likelihood parameter estimates with posterior certification of global optimality via the concept of sum-of-squares polynomials and sparse semidefinite relaxations. It is shown that the method can be applied to certain classes of discrete-time linear models. This is achieved by taking advantage of the rational structure of these models and the sparsity in the maximum-likelihood parameter estimation problem. The method is illustrated on a simulation model of a resonant mechanical system where standard methods struggle.

  • Lindbohm, Adrian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Actively Working with Sustainability: What are the Rewards?: Rewards, Premiums and the Future of Sustainability2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is becoming an increasingly pressured problem for the climate and worldeconomy. The trend and importance of sustainability is growing and is a heavily researchedarea. Real estate accounts for approximately 40% of global energy consumption and 33% ofcarbon emissions. Naturally, the potential and significance of sustainability is an increasinglyimportant topic within the sector.On the foundation of global climate change, this thesis aims to uncover the financial benefitsof active sustainability work for listed real estate companies on the Stockholm StockExchange. Previous research within the field has focused heavily on tangible sustainabilitywork and the effects on the property level rather than the company level by primarily usingquantitative research methods. This paper combines a quantitative and qualitative researchmethod to dig deeper into the market's view of financial effects given to real estate companiesworking actively with sustainability.The study commenced with a panel data regression model analysis where a dummy for activesustainability work in the form of membership in the organisation GRESB was used todetermine the financial effects of active sustainability work on the daily total return index.GRESB guides members in their work with sustainability where membership indicates a willto improve. Results landed in a random effects model which showed that GRESB is positiveand significant for daily total return index, explaining 3% of development. Results from thequantitative study were used in the qualitative research method when designing an interviewguide for semi-structured interviews.It can be concluded that active sustainability work has positive effects on the total return oflisted real estate companies in Sweden. Sustainability work differs in its effectiveness andsuitability depending on the real estate companies size and core business area. GRESB islikely to be an umbrella for other sustainability-related factors and future research shouldexpand the number of sustainability variables used for analysis. There is no universal workmodel for sustainability and every organisation needs to design their sustainability strategywith regards to their business. Organisations seeking sustainability rewards should aim to domore than the minimum needed; real estate companies at the top of sustainability brackets arethe ones receiving the highest portion of the rewards.

  • Bladby, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Verktyg för social hållbarhet i stadsplanering: Älvstadens värderos2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that social sustainability has not received the same attention asecological and economic sustainability, which may be due to the fact that the concept does nothave a clear definition and that many dimensions are included. Despite this, the social dimensionis high up on the agenda in Sweden and urban planning is considered one of the processes thatcan contribute to a more sustainable society. There is however a need to work moresystematically for social sustainability by using different methods and tools practically in urbanplanning.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate challenges for social sustainability in urban planningand which tools are used to address the challenges. Furthermore, the purpose is to investigate andevaluate how social sustainability is handled in the project Älvstaden in Gothenburg, and howtheir work can be improved. The methods used in the study are qualitative - a literature studywas conducted to investigate the challenges and tools for social sustainability and semistructuredinterviews were conducted with people within the project Älvstaden to investigatetheir work on social sustainability.

    The results of the literature study show that there are several complex challenges and obstaclesfor social sustainability in urban planning. The human quality of life and needs should be thestarting point, there is a lack of a holistic view, system thinking, collaborations and participation.In addition, there is a spatial division in the cities and the literature also shows that theconnection between social and ecological sustainability is not sufficiently addressed.Furthermore, the results show that the tools used for social sustainability in urban planning aresocial impact assessments, urban space analyses, checklists and indicators, certification systems,analysis of ecosystem services and civic participation. The challenges of social sustainability arecomplicated and what the tools provide does not cover all aspects. It is probably required morethan specific tools to meet the challenges and many issues may need to be handled at a politicallevel. However, tools can help to analyse, discuss and make social issues more visible.

    The project Älvstaden in Gothenburg is the Nordic region's largest urban development project atthe moment and there, among other things, a tool for measuring quality and social sustainabilitythrough measurable indicators are used. The indicators are based on a vision for the project withthree different strategies. The interview study shows that social sustainability is defined indifferent ways among the participants and several believe that it is a difficult concept. Theinterviewees mean, however, that it is an important concept to work with and that tools arenecessary. The tool used within the project is considered to be good as it shows a visual image ofthe results, but needs to be developed in certain parts to cover more aspects.

  • Verheij, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Urban green space as a matter of environmental justice: The case of Lisbon’s urban greening strategies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the summer of 2018 the European Commission awarded Lisbon as European Green Capital 2020 – in part due to investments made by Lisbon municipality in Green Infrastructure (GI) and new green spaces. As the city is becoming greener, this study aims to analyze Lisbon’s urban greening strategies from an environmental justice perspective. It does so based on data collected through desk-research of relevant planning documents and other studies; semi-structured interviews held with individuals working in different positions at Lisbon municipality; and field observations made in Lisbon’s green spaces. The data was analyzed while attending to the different dimensions of environmental justice (EJ), namely procedural and substantive aspects.

    This research finds that Lisbon’s urban greening strategies reflect environmental justice concerns by seeking to expand GI across the city and increase green space availability. However the strategies are based on a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of green spaces, failing to address other barriers that may prevent people from accessing and using green space. This is problematic as EJ is considered to go beyond just distribution.

    Furthermore forms of public participation and consultation are rather limited and are an exception to the rule; the decision-making process is based on the expert knowledge of civil servants – mainly landscape architects. As participation is seen as a central element of EJ, this research identifies a risk for Lisbon’s urban greening strategies to bypass the different needs and vulnerabilities of different social groups. Therefore, this study recommends policy-makers to include qualitative data regarding the use of Lisbon’s green spaces when analyzing access to green space, and to actively involve and recognize local residents when designing and implementing Lisbon’s GI.

  • Michaelis, Tamara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Simulating Spatial and Temporal Flood Risk Dynamics with a Coupled Agent-Based and Hydraulic Model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Floods are one of the most costly natural hazards worldwide, affecting millions of people every year. Flood risk management is of global concern, and a deeper understanding of dynamic flood risk development is needed. Currently,vulnerability and exposure are often assumed to be constant in quantitative flood risk assessments, which does not reflect patterns observed in real life. In fact, flood protection measures on individual and community level can induce changes in both vulnerability and exposure, as well as alter river and floodplain hydraulics. The human-flood system is complex, incorporating two-way interactions between both subsystems. To build up these dynamics from the bottom up with a focus on the role of the individual, an agent-based model was combined with a hydraulic model. It was shown that this coupled model is capable of replicating levee and adaptation effects which are commonly knownto occur in the context of river floods and flood protection measures. Moreover,the new modeling approach can explicitly simulate the spatial distribution of flood risk which allowed for an analysis of conflicting interests in urban and rural areas. Here, model outcomes suggest that a shift of flood risk from high-value urban to lower-value rural areas can reduce system-wide flood losses. However, decreasing flood awareness in the city will push population growth rates, and discontent in rural areas might nally induce a shift of higher floodrisk back to the urban area. In the end, one low-probability high-intensity event might cause a disastrous outcome.

  • Machado, Beatriz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Artificial intelligence to model bedrock depth uncertainty2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of bedrock level for soil and rock engineering is a challenge

    associated to many uncertainties. Nowadays, this estimation is

    performed by geotechnical or geophysics investigations. These methods

    are expensive techniques, that normally are not fully used because

    of limited budget. Hence, the bedrock levels in between investigations

    are roughly estimated and the uncertainty is almost unknown.

    Machine learning (ML) is an artificial intelligence technique that

    uses algorithms and statistical models to predict determined tasks.

    These mathematical models are built dividing the data between training,

    testing and validation samples so the algorithm improve automatically

    based on passed experiences.

    This thesis explores the possibility of applying ML to estimate the

    bedrock levels and tries to find a suitable algorithm for the prediction

    and estimation of the uncertainties. Many diferent algorithms were

    tested during the process and the accuracy level was analysed comparing

    with the input data and also with interpolation methods, like

    Kriging.

    The results show that Kriging method is capable of predicting the

    bedrock surface with considerably good accuracy. However, when is

    necessary to estimate the prediction interval (PI), Kriging presents a

    high standard deviation. The machine learning presents a bedrock

    surface almost as smooth as Kriging with better results for PI. The

    Bagging regressor with decision tree was the algorithm more capable

    of predicting an accurate bedrock surface and narrow PI.

  • Jerome, Adeline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Integration of LCA into the building design process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The required estimation of performances of a building cannot be limited to its energy efficiency anymore. Environmental issues are rising concerns into national policies. However, information about construction products is still segmented into several distinct databases: the construction company gathered data for its design process into private pricing databases while environmental declarations from manufacturers are available in a public database. The interconnection of the different information about the same product is difficult because of the difference of data formatting and representation.

    The objective of this project was to provide first tools to facilitate this interconnection between the design process of the company and environmental data, considering incoming requirements from the new thermal regulation of 2020. This led to the creation of a SQL environmental database, based on environmental declarations, more adapted for statistical analysis than a document-based database. Specific data management functions were also developed to homogenise unit representation and to spot product performances for the purpose of multi-criteria analysis of products

    Finally, an estimation of the distinctiveness of products through a selection of key words was tested. The comparison of lists of words provided good performances for their classification into a limited number of lots. But it is not sufficient to identify items that can be related to the same construction product. So further works is needed into the creation of a semantic metric model of construction vocabulary.

  • Lindestam, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Troive, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Tunnlingstider inom kvantmekanik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no clear consensus for time that it takes for quantum tunneling to occur. This report aims to examine previous work in the field and find likely candidates for the tunneling time. Simulations are conducted on a one-dimensional rectangular barrier and used to verify previously postulated theoretical tunneling times. It is concluded that quantum tunneling time does not depend on the barrier width and tunneling thus can occur at arbitrarily high speed. This validates previous claims that particles can tunnel faster than light within the frames of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  • Zhang, Chenda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Dowling, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Förbättring av kvaliten på "adversarial examples" i ljuddomänen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to create targeted adversarial examples for an audio classifier without access to the neural networks internal structure. Previous work in this domain has shown white box attacks that generate adversarial examples with very high measures of similarity and more noisy adversarial examples generated by black box attacks. By using an algorithm that iteratively applies noise to the audio file and selects the best candidates based on the output layer of the neural network we have managed to create new audio that is 98\% similar to the original but manages to fool the speech to text audio classifier. By evaluating the generated candidates based on different measures of similarity between the proposed candidate and the original audio file we managed to create high quality black box audio adversarial examples using genetic algorithms.

  • Andersson, Gabriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Yap, Martti
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Att spela 'Breakout' med hjälp av 'Deep Q-Learning'2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We cover in this report the implementation of a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm capable of learning how to play the game 'Breakout' on the Atari Learning Environment (ALE). The non-human player (agent) is given no prior information of the game and must learn from the same sensory input that a human would typically receive when playing the game. The aim is to reproduce previous results by optimizing the agent driven control of 'Breakout' so as to surpass a typical human score. To this end, the problem is formalized by modeling it as a Markov Decision Process. We apply the celebrated Deep Q-Learning algorithm with action masking to achieve an optimal strategy. We find our agent's average score to be just below the human benchmarks: achieving an average score of 20, approximately 65% of the human counterpart. We discuss a number of implementations that boosted agent performance, as well as further techniques that could lead to improvements in the future.

  • Hirsch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Steinholtz, Tim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Tidsserie regression på finansmarknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we study the performance of two machine learning algorithms when implemented for price predictions on the Swedish electricity market. The goal of this project is to evaluate if these algorithms can be used as a tool for investments. The algorithms are Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR), and Support Vector Regression (SVR). Both KRR and SVR use the kernel trick to efficiently find non-linear dependencies in the volatile market. The methods are both used with an offline approach. For the Kernel Ridge Regression, an online approach using Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) to reduce the computational cost was also implemented. Both algorithms are applied to the Swedish electricity market for the year 2017, using the programming environment Matlab. To evaluate the performance of the algorithms the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), the root mean squared error (RMSE), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated. The conclusions of this project are that both methods show potential for being used in financial time series predictions. The presented implementations, however, are in need of some refinements. Examples of possible ways to refine the results obtained in this project are discussed, with ideas of future implementations.

  • Minoz, Valentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Järmyr Eriksson, Carl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Produktion av magnetfältssimulator för MIST2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the design and production of a 3-axis Helmholtz coil assembly and its control unit. The purpose of the system is to simulate the magnetic environment that the CubeSat MIST will need to measure in order to determine and control its attitude. To achieve this, the system consists of three Helmholtz coils with diameters of roughly 1 metre, supplied by a circuit that filters, transforms, and amplifies signals of 0-5 V (e.g. Arduino signals) to -50 to 50 V. The size of the coils allow for a near-homogeneous magnetic field large enough to cover the whole satellite. By adjusting the input, two necessary tests can be done on the satellite's attitude determination and control system. The first consists of verifying the magnetometer's correct measurement of the direction of the ambient magnetic field, and the other of testing the detumbling capability of the system when the satellite is in a rotating field. The equipment produced has been tested to verify its operation meets set requirements for testing.

     

  • Hafvenström, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Pettersson, Andreas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Konceptuell design av ett elektriskt drivet kommersiellt flygplan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to design an electric powered commercial short-range aircraft that is set to take off in 2030 with reasonable technical advancement assumptions made. The aircraft is designed with the ATR 42-500 as inspiration and has therefore similar requirements. The aircraft has a payload of 5070 kg and cruises at 7600 m above sea level. It has a max speed of Mach 0.5 and a stall speed of 41 m/s. Climb rate is 560 m/min, takeoff distance is 1165 m and landing distance is 960 m. The conceptually designed aircraft has a range of 400 km that is approximately the distance London-Amsterdam and is able to carry up to 48 passengers in a two by two seat configuration. Batteries are expected to improve with 30 % during the next ten years resulting in a maximum takeoff weight of 19900 kg, where 3220 kg is battery weight. Fuel powered it has a maximum takeoff weight of 19200 kg and a fuel weight of 2900 kg. The power needed for propulsion was found to be 4.18 MW which would be equally divided over the engines that drive the two propellers. These are positioned one on each wing. The 26 m long aircraft is equipped with an unswept high mounted wing with a wingspan of 29 m and a wing reference area of 75 m^2. The horizontal stabilizer is 12 m^2 and the vertical stabilizer is 11 m^2.

  • Ribberheim, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Skaredotter, Erika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    En multivariabel regressionsanalys av priset på utsläppsrätter i EU2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis in applied mathematics and engineering physicsis to develop a model to describe the price of emissions allowances in EuropeanUnion Emission Trading Scheme, EU ETS, a scheme created to systematically re-duce carbon dioxide emissions with market forces in a free market. With the help ofstatistical regression, the core of the project is to explain the price of these emissionallowances by creating a model based on free available data from both microeconomicand macroeconomic factors in Europe. Stock indices, interest rates, electricity price,and inflation rates are examples of factors that were used. Two models were devel-oped, one with data points from mid-2010 to March 2019 and one with data pointsfrom mid-2010 until March 14, 2018, when a new directive was voted through re-garding the premises of the trading scheme. The models were developed throughstatistical methods such as identification of outliers, detection of multicollinearity,cross validation, and bootstrapping in order to create a model as suitable as pos-sible. Afterward, the model’s credibility and legitimacy were discussed, as well aspossible areas of improvement and further studies to improve the model and theunderstanding of the pricing.

     

  • Wilczek, Andrej
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Erlandsson, Oskar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Evaluering av LASSO och ARIMA algoritmerna för prognostisering i den finansiella marknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stock market forecasting is considered to be a particularly challenging task due to the complexity and volatility of the stock market. In this project we evaluate the performance of existing machine learning techniques as methods for modeling and predicting patterns in the financial market. In our attempt to predict the Nestl\'e stock closing price point, linear LASSO and ARIMA models were implemented based on the assumption that the volatile data has some type of linear dependency. The methods was evaluated by calculating the Mean Absolute Deviation, Mean Squared Error and Mean Absolute Percentage Error values based on their performance in making short and long-term predictions. Our results suggest that the LASSO algorithm performs better in regards to short-term predictions whereas the ARIMA provides more accurate long-term predictions. In terms of prediction of future trends, both methods show good overall performance. Finally, we propose interesting areas to consider in order to make more precise predictions on volatile data.

  • Corneliussen, Ilian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Läckage detektering med artificiellt neuralt nätverk i ett vattendistributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early leakage detection is one way to make water distribution networks more efficient and sustainable. The goal of this project is to investigate the possibility to detect leakages in water distribution networks with the help of artificial neural networks. The project is based on real data collected from Stockholm water distribution network and is focusing on how to present the prediction from neural networks in an intellectual manner, by implementing and analyzing the need of a time filter. The study shows that it might be possible to detect leakages in a water distribution network with a binary accuracy of 87\%. An improvement to 98\% was achieved by implementing a time filter.

  • Correa Silva, Joan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Brisen, Joakim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Rörelseplanering och kontroll för obemannade luftfarkoster2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a system for motion planning and control of multiple UAVs that are autonomously navigating in a confined space. A dynamic model of a rigid body UAV is presented as a basis for the system. The motion planning for each UAV is done using an A* algorithm in a discretized space to plan a collision-free path to the goal. The UAVs plan these paths in a decentralised way, detecting obstacles and other UAVs based on local sensing. Therefore, a certain collision avoidance logic is applied in cases where blocked paths occur. A non- linear continuous controller using a position-based flight mode is presented and applied to the dynamic UAV for navigation in the discretized workspace. Finally, the designed planning and control multi-agent scheme is demonstrated via a numerical simulation example.

  • Rizvanovic, Teo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Konceptuell design av elektriskt flygplan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring semester 2019 the students partaking in the aerospace bachelor thesis were tasked to design an electric airplane to study the plausibility of an electric future for the aviation industry. It comes as no surprise that commercial aviation is a big polluter and electric powertrains could help drive it towards a sustainable future. The airplane developed in this report is an electric airplane in the light business jet class. Due to the required development of completely new technologies and the fact that the aircraft would be manufactured in small quantities the initial price of the craft would be rather high. This ties in nicely with the target audience of politicians and executives as they tend to be more capable of purchasing these products. With a carrying capacity of 8 passengers, corresponding to a payload up to 960 kg (including luggage) and a maximum range of 1500 km, the airplane is perfect for flights to cities on the continent. For example a flight from Stockholm Arlanda to Berlin Tegel (830 km) or Arlanda to Wien Flughafen (1240 km). By examining historical data on planes in the same class the maximum take-off weight was estimated to 11000 kg. This value was later used to construct the constraint diagram. By considering the usage of the plane specific constraints were set. These constraints were a function of wing loading and by plotting them together in a diagram an optimal point could be found. This point was 250 kg/m^2 which meant a power rating of 1580 BHP and a wing area of 43.8 square meters. With the maximum take-off weight set an estimation of the fuselage length could be done by comparing it with historical data on similar planes. The fuselage length was estimated to be 16,1 m. The wing was placed on top of the fuselage in a high wing configuration. To complete the 1500 km journey the aircraft needs batteries with an energy density of 3045 Wh/kg. By examining historical data on the energy densities of lithium-ion battieries and extrapolating it to the year 2030, an estimated energy density of 380 Wh/kg is attained. This is considerably lower than what is required. The best batteries today (2019) have a specific energy of about 280 Wh/kg, meaning the capacity of batteries would have to increase more than ten times to reach the needed density level of 3045 Wh/kg for the aircraft to be able to perform adequately.

  • Lindholm, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Fox, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Larsson Sevon, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Bärplan till 505-jolleHydrofoilHydrofoil2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to study the feasibility of using hydrofoils on a 505 sailing dinghy. This was done by designing a concept solution of a hydrofoil system. The system type chosen to be evaluated was a bi-T-foil system. The basic design criterias used as the framework for this project was firstly that the wing must be able to provide sufficient lift. Secondly the system must be able to be regulated for a range of operating conditions and finally the system must be able to withstand the load specified by operating conditions. To accomplish this a pilot study of previous similar applications of this type of system was made. This study resulted in two different wing profiles chosen to be compared to each other. This comparison was made using mathematical models for lift force and drag. Based on this model the size and take-off speeds for both wing profiles was determined. From the size and takeoff speed the most suitable profile was chosen. This resulted in a NACA-63-412 profile for both rudder and centerboard wing. The size of the centerboard wing was a chord length of 300 mm and a span of 1678 mm. The size of the rudder wing was a chord length of 200 mm and a span of 580 mm. This resulted in a takeoff speed of 6.2 knots. When the wing profile and size was determined a mechanical flight height-regulating system was designed. This was done based on a desired flight height at cruising speed and the rotational torque produced by the wing. This resulted in a controll system able to regulate the flight height within the speed interval 6,2-23 kntos. To determine the durability and strength of the system a basic FE-analysis was made with a pre determined material AL6061-T6, a light and strong aluminium alloy. This showed that the system built from this material would hold for the loads it was to be subjected to with a great safety margin. Although it is not studied in this project weather this type of system is the most suitable type for this application and the fact that this project could have been done with a much moore detailed design process to study the effects within areas overlooked or simplified. It can be concluded from this project that it is feasible to equip a 505-dinghy with this type of hydrofoil system.

     

  • Nyholm, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Axelsson, Mathias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Direkt detektion av mörk materia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite accounting for almost 85 % of all mass in the Universe, the properties of dark matter are mostly unknown. While some of this unknown matter can be explained by the standard model, the properties of the rest are unspecified. The most common explanation is an unknown particle that can interact with baryonic matter. If that is true, dark matter could be detected through weak interactions with other particles. In this report we will explain some evidence for dark matter and discuss different avenues of detecting dark matter while focusing on direct detection. We will examine theoretical detection rates and their dependencies. Finally we will examine numerically calculated expected total number of detector events, compare them to experimental total number of detector events and discuss current efforts in direct detection of dark matter.

  • Perzanowski, Andrzej
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Boman, Frode
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    En Översikt av Dekoherens i Kontexten av Kvantmätning med en Exakt Lösbar Ren Dekoherensmodell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We explain the concept of decoherence by first providing basic background information and then working out a simple model intended to represent a Stern-Gerlach experiment. The model describes a spin-1/2 quantum system and a device consisting of a quantum particle. Using Lindblad dynamics, the model is solved, revealing the effects of decoherence on the system. Specifically, we show that decoherence is sufficient for driving the off-diagonal of the system-device density operator to zero, providing a possible explanation to the fact of wave function collapse. Furthermore, comparisons are made with related work on a similar, exact model which includes relaxation.

  • Mäkelä, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Danielsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    En studie på kvarlevorna av mörk materia med användandet av boltzmannekvationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we formulate a simplified version of the Boltzmann equation and use it to study the behaviour of dark matter abundance today for different masses and thermally averaged cross-sections for the dark matter particle. Prerequisite knowledge is laid out together with a description of the model and assumptions made in simplifying it. Both analytical approximations and numerical methods are used in determining the final abundance and differences between the methods are analyzed.