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  • Holmberg Larsson, Albin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Biochemical characterization of resurrected ancestral ammonia lyases2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to express, purify and characterize twelve ammonia lyase enzymes for potential application as a supplement to a treatment of an inborn error of metabolism disease. The DNA sequence for two wild-type ammonia lyases, three modified ammonia lyases and seven resurrected ancestral ammonia lyases had been synthesized and cloned in vectors. These were transformed into Escherichia coli, expressed, purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography and characterized. Ten of the enzymes were successfully expressed and purified. All enzymes had a higher turnover number with substrate 1 than with substrate 2. The wild-types showed the highest catalytic turnover and one of them displayed substrate cooperativity. The modified enzymes were inactive. Some ancestral enzymes were active and had decreasing kcat with age. A promising ancestral enzymes was found that showed a kcat of 2,85 s-1 with substrate 1 and 1,82 s-1 with substrate 2. The ancestral enzymes had a lower Km with substrate 2 compared to substrate 1, while one of the wild-types had a higher Km with substrate 2 than with substrate 1, indicating that the substrate affinity has switched. The ancestral enzymes had increased thermostability compared to the wild-types which increased with age. Ranging from a +7C increase in melting temperature with the youngest ancestral enzyme to +10,7C with the oldest tested enzyme, comparing with one of the wild-types. The promising ancestral enzyme displayed a higher stability than the wild-types during long term incubation in 37_C and 25_C, since it did not become prone to aggregation,it did not show visible degradation on SDS-PAGE and it retained the highest activity following incubation. It was also demonstrated that neither wild-types nor the promising ancestral enzyme were stable in a simulated gut environment. The promising ancestral enzyme and one of the wild-types degraded substrate 1 and 2 in serum. Using the resurrection of ancestral sequences a promising enzyme has been produced and characterized, displaying properties that are desired in therapeutic enzymes. The enzyme did not aggregate or become prone to aggregation over time, it was thermostable, it was active in serum and had acceptable catalytic properties. For therapeutic application of the ancestral enzyme, immunogenicty should be analyzed in silico and in vitro followed by further investigation in vivo.

  • Nagy, Ábel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    The synthesis and analysis of a bombesin analogue for radiotherapy of prostate cancer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is becoming a widely used cancer treatment strategy. By radiolabeling receptor-specific peptides, cancer cells overexpressing the receptor can be selectively targeted, and the cytotoxic radionuclide can be delivered to the target cell or tissue for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. Bombesin analogues have been previously developed and utilized to target the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), a receptor commonly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The RM26 analogue derived from the native bombesin is an antagonistic ligand of GRPR and a possible candidate for targeted radiotherapy.

    Prolonging the half-life of the molecule is an important aspect of developing a new protein therapeutic. Using albumin binding domain (ABD) for this purpose is an emerging strategy in recent years. ABD is able to bind to serum albumin and thus remains in the blood circulation for a long period of time. It is also a scaffold for protein engineering efforts and by coupling receptor-specific ligands to ABD, the target-specific binding along with extended in vivo halflife can be achieved.

    In this project, an RM26 analogue with a PEG linker and ABD with a DOTA chelator for future radiolabeling were synthesized with solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), conjugated, purified by RP-HPLC and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The binding properties of the conjugate were evaluated by SPR-based biosensory studies, and further experiments are planned for the testing the product and its potential application in radionuclide therapy.

  • Sandgren, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn Town Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is based on the ambition of creating a modern town hall building which enables increased interaction between the activities of the municipality and its citizens. The building is constructed by 30 concrete arches which forms the two building volumes. The building meets Stadshusplatsen in northwest and Floravägen in southeast. The curved form of the building creates openings at the site which facilitates pedestrians to move freely between and through the building thereby connecting Stadshusplatsen and Floravägen. The facade is covered by glass to create visibility for the citizens to look into the daily activities of the municipality administration. The facade elements are tilted between the arches and rotated in relation to each other. The roof is also being formed by tilted rectangular elements. The building is designed to meet the programme specific requirements with an ability to cope with changing demands by its open structure.

  • Rizvani, Lejla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gottsunda City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gottsunda is facing a big change, where a whole new district will arise. This will contribute to a whole lot of new citizens, and more pressure on the infrastructure where a new train will pass that connects the new district and makes it more attractive.

    Gottsunda City Hall is located parallel with the new square, which makes it a junction for the area. The City Hall has a big focus on the public world, which makes its focus to be as open and available for the citizens and visitors.

    The main focus inside the building is sport activities and cultural activities, which is a big part in the lives of the citizens in Gottsunda. Expect sport activities and cultural approaches, a big sports field is located beside the City Hall. The sports field is open to everyone, and is allowed for everyone to use.

    The building has a very characteristic façade that shows how open and welcoming the building is. The heart and the main room in the City Hall is the big open, diagonal atrium that goes through the whole building. Along this diagonal atrium is the façade all in glass, to make it more open and contribute to have a view from inside out, and from outside in. This to make a strong bond between the building and the crowded square.

  • Joseph Anand, Emmanuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Chica Zafra, Luis Carlos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Evaluation of a medium-sized enterprise’s performance by data analysis: Introducing innovative smart manufacturing perspectives2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises are highly limited on resources for the transformation into smart factories. Nytt AB, a new startup specialized in smart manufacturing solutions, is completely focused on taking down the barriers with a basic solution: implementing a machine vision system with the purpose to monitor the machines of the factories. The main aim of this thesis is to analyze the data collected from two different machines of a medium-sized factory by monitoring the color states of the stack lights.First of all, some topics are analyzed in order to get a better understanding and knowledge of the main topic of this thesis: smart manufacturing. Secondly, the methodology used during the project is explained. Thirdly, the product developed by Nytt AB is described to get a better understanding. Together with this, the companies where the product is implemented are described. The next step is the presentation of the results by analyzing the data according to these parameters:(i), the availability of the machines, (ii), critical machine tool analysis; (iii),machine idling time; (iv), disruption events; and finally, (v), information transfer. In the results, some graphs and discussions are presented. In the following chapter the conclusions are presented, which allow the analyzed company to improve its current state. Lastly, the relocation of the product into the critical machine, the implementation of new sensors to detect temperature and vibration values of the machines and the implementation of the module OpApp within the factories are suggestions presented as future work at the end of this report.

  • Johansson, Robin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    GOTTSUNDA DISTRICT CENTRE2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IN BETWEEN GOTTSUNDA SQUARE AND A NATURE AREA IS THE NEW DISTRICT CENTER INTENDED TO BE PLACED.THE PLACE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT CREATES CONDITIONS FOR A BUILDING WHICH EXPANDS PRIDE, JOY AND OPENITY. ONE OF THE AMBITIONS IS TO CREATE A VIVID BUILDING OPENING UP TO THE SQUARE, AT THE SAME TIME THAT IT RELATES AND ENHANCES THE NEARBY BUILDING.

    THE BUILDING ACTIVITIES AT THE ENTRY PLAN IS OPEN, AND PLAY VISUALLY FROM THE SQUARE WITH ITSOPENNESS. OUTDOORS AT THE BUILDING BODIES WITH ITS VARIETY OF CULTURE AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES WILL BE APPLIED FOR PEOPLE IN ALL AGES. THE OUTDOOR AREAS SHOULD WORK AS A PART OF THE BUILDING PROGRAM DURING OPENING TIME, SUCH AS AFTER CLOSING TIME.

    WITH ITS CHARACTERISTIC MATERIAL CHOICE IN WOOD, THE CONSTRUCTION CONNECTES WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL NATURE, AND AT THE SAME TIME GIVES THE OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD IN A SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL TAKING ACCOUNT OF CLIMATE IMPACT. THE BENEFIT IN ENERGY USE, CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND WASTE ARE IMPORTANT QUESTIONS TODAY AND FEEL IMPORTANT TO WORK WITH IN GOTTSUNDA AS A NEW WAY TO THINK IN MATERIAL AFTER A GREAT USE OF CONCRETE HOUSE FROM THE MILLION PROGRAMME.

  • Ravadgar, Nastaran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gottsunda culturehouse2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to design a Culturehouse in Gottsunda Uppsala.The new culturehouse in Gottsunda started from a form bearing function concept. It is situated in the heart of Gottsunda centrum Uppsala regioen, where all the public communications and locals meet. Gottsunda itself is vast in the number of deffierent cultures living in it. The Gottsunda centrum is going to look modern and new buildings are planned to be built there in the future. The building is situated on a main street corner, very visible and bold to every passing car and all the pedestrians as well. The building is a monumetal material collage. Mainly built with timber. The design was from the beginning based on a very specific program and area. All the parts of the program needed to be included, in a specific amount of space, though no vertical limit.

    The entrance building is technically supported by a growing circular center spine and protected against the climate by a three layer exterior curtain wall. The circular shapes is supposed to be a symbol of movement and and an element of physical attraction for the building. On the buttom floor is the Entrance hall that includes the exhibition part as well. On the second floor the Internservice. On the third floor the Workshps, and finaly on the top floor we have the bibliotek. The communication happens at the heart of the building through stairs and elevators. This communication is also to reach the Blackbox on the other side of the building.The other side of the building is a 4 story wood structure. It starts with the Cafe and Personel room at the buttom floor, The kitchen and the second personel room on the second floor, The Activity offices on the third floor and last but not least the Black box on the fourth floor. The communication is through a staircase and also an elevator in the building, which also gives more privacy to the people coming to work.. There is no communication to the Blackbox through this side of the building. It is actually a design, meant to connect the buildings by having the boldest part of the other side connected by the Library.Daylight comes through tall windows inside all parts, and the exterior curtain wall. The Black box has no daylight coming through based on its purpose.(Performances, Theatre etc...)The whole building is a form in another form type of volume. A box that surronds a circule. Sustainability has been a great part of the design, by building with sustainable materials such as Cedar and usage of minimum heat and cold leaking windows, doors and fasad glazing.

  • Cronqvist, Pontus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Chemistry of Ascorbic Acid Reduction of Graphene Oxide2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ranara, Jeff
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Publikum Nynäshamn: Social-ecological Architecture in Public Municipal Space2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Publikum Nynäshamn docks directly to the west façade of the existing 9 story municipal building with seven floors of open activity space. These surround a full-height atrium across which a two-floor living plant green wall provides the monumental living presence of nature and its ecosystem services in an office environment.  Plants also grace the other side of this two story wall, providing a living backdrop for the heart of the building - the raised three floor high assembly hall. A lunchroom with balconies above the assembly hall provides city views and a roof garden for municipal staff. The two floor high lobby beneath the assembly hall provides a new internal city street between Banana Square and Floravägen – a former back alleyway.  A ground-level colonnade walkway with benches surrounds the new and old buildings, inviting citizens into the building spaces. Public space and circulation is further enhanced with a new passageway opening up the former dead-end southwest corner of Banana Square where the old municipal building met Folkets hus (People’s House). A generous stair complex in this new sunny southern square provides spontaneous seating and meeting spaces as well as additional outdoor access to the two floor café, art gallery, and the largest green roof – one of three accessible green roofs that enhance social and ecological values.  Pedestrian movement can continue through this new passageway directly down to Svandammen (swan pond), and in the opposite direction, directly up to Banana square from the commuter rail station.   The café and two-floor meeting room spaces provide evening and weekend public social spaces for the city residents, complementing existing bars and restaurants in the adjoining Folkets Hus.   Reduced use of energy is encouraged with progressively rising central spaces allowing for the possibility of natural stack ventilation, thermal mass energy storage in concrete (HD/F) slabs, and generous natural daylight through the glazed curtain wall climate shell surrounding the building.  Abstracted winged structures crown the top of the building and grace the building entrances, inspired by the sightings of sea eagles reported in this coastal area, and provides both a signum for the building (instead of a more traditional municipal building tower) and extended surface for rainwater collection that can be used for watering indoor green plant walls and the roof garden vegetation.  The deeper soil of the intensive green roofs not only provides more uptake and retention of rainwater (and thus reduced peak flow rates favorable for stormwater management) but also allows planting of larger, woody plants and bushes, and even small trees, which in turn, among other social and ecological benefits, add natural habitat to a predominantly impervious-surfaced downtown urban area.

  • Orebrand, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Civic center in Gottsunda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gottsunda civic center is a place where citizens can meet and entertain themselves either in group or on their own. The building serves the distric of Gottsunda with library, activity based offices, studios for movement, play and creative exploration as well as a blackbox with a stand for spectators.

    The design of Gottsunda civic center was inspired by an exposed rock wall with pines on top, which is located next to the site. The buildings elements mimic the relationship between the pines and the rock. A compact ground that wants to reminisce about the rock and a lighter, more transparent part that lands on the foundation and extends further with help from the basis. Just as the pine trees relate to the rock.

  • Bjernvinge, Emmie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Town Hall in Strängnäs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My proposal to the Town Hall in Strängnäs is based on an analysis of what a town hall is - and who it is accessible for. As a starting point I studied the basilica, whose function in the city I find interesting. As a town hall in the antique Rome it was used for many various purposes, such as legal negotiations and trade. The space that the basilica was in the city has almost no equivalent in the city today, where the only public and accessible spaces available are the streets and the squares.

    The Town Hall in Strängnäs is an interpretation of the basilica: an indoors square accessible to the citizens of Strängnäs. The plot of the Town Hall is next to Västervikstorget, which during the summers functions as a junction point for the social and cultural life of Strängnäs. The Town Hall becomes an extension of Västervikstorget and creates space for the motion and vivacity in the area throughout the year.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-25 09:00 Atrium, solna
    Mahdessian, Diana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Cellular and Clinical Proteomics.
    Spatiotemporal characterization of the human proteome2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing the molecular components of the basic unit of life; the cell, is crucial for a complete understanding of human biology. The cell is divided into compartments to create a suitable environment for the resident proteins to fulfill their functions. Therefore, spatial mapping of the human proteome is essential to understand protein function in health and disease.

     

    Spatial proteomics is most commonly investigated using mass spectrometry or imaging, combined with machine learning for the data analysis. Until now, studies have been limited to high abundant proteins and relied on the purification of organelle fractions from a bulk of cells. Within the scope of this thesis, we were able to systematically localize proteins in their native cellular environment using antibody-based imaging techniques, and to investigate protein subcellular localization and dynamics on a single cell level, introducing a major advance within the field of spatial proteomics.

     

    Paper I of this thesis presents a subcellular map of the human proteome, where the spatial distribution of 12,003 human proteins was mapped into 30 subcellular structures, half of which were not previously localized. Besides providing a valuable dataset for cell biology, this study is the first to reveal the spatial complexity of human cells with proteins localizing to multiple compartments and pronounced single cell variations. Paper II reports on the systematic temporal dissection of these single cell variations and the identification of cell cycle correlated variations. We identified 258 novel cell cycle regulated proteins and showed that several of these proteins may be connected to proliferative diseases. A key finding of Paper II is that proteins showing non-cell cycle dependent variations are significantly enriched in mitochondria, whereas cell cycle dependent proteins are enriched in nucleoli. In Paper III and IV, we spatiotemporally characterized the proteomes of these two organelles, mitochondria and nucleoli, in greater detail.

    In Paper III, we expanded the mitochondrial proteome with 560 novel proteins. As many as 20% of the mitochondrial proteome showed variations in their expression pattern at the single cell level, most often independent of the cell cycle. Paper IV provides a complete characterization of the nucleolar proteome. Nucleoli are not only important for ribosome synthesis and assembly, but are also crucial for cell cycle regulation through the recruitment of its proteins to the chromosomal periphery during cell division. Here, we presented the first proteome-wide spatiotemporal analysis of the nucleolus with its sub-compartments, and identified 69 nucleolar proteins that relocated to the chromosomes periphery during mitosis.

     

    In conclusion, this thesis unravels the spatiotemporal proteome organization of the human cell over the course of a cell cycle and offers a valuable starting point for a better understanding of human cell biology in health and disease.

  • Lundquist, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    The new community center of Gnesta2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Leitner, Christoph
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Communitycenter in Gottsunda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building of a communitycentre in Gottsunda is part of an uppgrade of the suburb. A main feature of the upgrade will be a city street along the tramway that will run through the area.To give the old and the new inhabitants of the area a chance to meet and form a local identity, the focus of the house will be accessibility and flexibility. The main functions are all situated at ground level. The core of the project is the possibility to link the the different premises to larger continous spatial entitys for bigger events, and still being able to maintain the integrity and function of each premise.The buildingmaterials are PM-wood and glulam to avoid the bigger climatic impact of for example concrete. That the building is modifiable and open to many areas of use and activities will hopefully give it a long life, and avoid the climatic impact of further new building.

  • Holmberg, Petronella
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Our Concrete: A New City Hall for Gottsunda, Uppsala2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gottsunda is a suburb to Uppsala where the settlement first and formost consits of multi-dwelling units built as a part of the Million Programme, surrounden by forest and with a large mall in the middle of it.

    Today the area is classified as ”an especially liable area” with high levels of unemployment and criminality. Still, there is a pride of the hiphop culture which has become huge in this suburb. The artists often sing about concrete, for example ”Sing a Song for Our Concrete”.

    All of this, is what my concept is based upon: how to use the pride, with concrete as the tool, to focus on the strengths of the community. This in turn makes possible an improvement in the area.

    In this project, there is an endeavor to use concrete as creatively and with as much variation as possible. The outside of the house is made rational and rectangular. The inside, in turn, is made more sculpturally with an organically formed atrium at the center. You can view the entire building as a meeting between the rational and the organic, just like you can view Gottsunda as the meeting between the Million Programme and the surrounding forest.

  • Hase, Natalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    The civic center in Gottsunda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gottsunda is a suburb to the city of Uppsala. A new plan has been made for the area around the center of Gottsunda, where new apartment houses and a sports centre will take place. My proposal of a civic centre in Gottsunda wants to connect the current, strong identity of Gottsunda with the newly planned neighborhood. Both through the chosen materials but also by creating an open public ground floor which refers to the yards around Gottsunda where most of the social life takes place.

  • Graflund, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Community Centre in Gnesta2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building circulates around an atrium which clearly shows the communication up the building and enters daylight. The bearing in the building lies on pillars in laminated wood that fram the atrium and makes a rhythm along the entire facade. Firewalls against adjacent houses and stairwells help to stabilize the construction. To cope with the long spans, I have chosen to use cross-glued wood in the joists. A thicker slab lies on a load-bearing inner ceiling that is cross laminated wood similar to a V-shaped truss in profile. The idea of the ceiling is to remove beams and enable installations in the empty spaces. Since there are few load-bearing walls inside the building, it is possible to easily change floor plans according to future needs.

  • Grebner, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strängnäs City Hall is situated at a square down by the waterfront. It sits in a place right where old small scale buildings meet a block of stone buildings. The building contains public functions as lobby, restaurant, external meeting rooms, lecture hall and roof terrace as well as office space for the municipality.

  • Klara, Hallberg
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Stadsdelscenter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the District Center, I wanted to create a transparent but inward-facing building that creates movement and meetings. The district center becomes an important counterpoint to the surrounding neighborhood's commerciality. The building becomes a place where one can be without much consideration. But also an important gathering point. Therefore, I want my building to be directed inwards but in an inviting manner. The threshold between the square and the entrance hall should be low.

    The idea of ​​a gathering of stairs came early in the process. The result was the surface-mounted staircase covered by a perforated sheet. The stairs will be an interesting transport route, but also a room that may create meetings and conversations that do not take place in other rooms. I want the stairs to be a bit of a secret, but a secret that everyone knows.

    The perforated sheet facade gives a view of Gottsunda daytime and in the evening it reveals the activities that take place in the building.

  • Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Höghastighetsbanor: En investering för hållbart resande och godstrafik2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med att bygga nya stambanor är att öka den totala kapaciteten för gods- och persontrafik på järnväg, öka punktligheten och öka tillgängligheten genom korta restider. Det ger också förutsättningar för större regionala arbetsmarknader för ökat bostadsbyggande. Dessutom körs tågen helt elektriskt med möjlighet till att vara helt koldioxidneutrala.

    Trafiken med höghastighetståg är eldriven och fossilfri i Sverige från början. Bil och flyg drar flera gånger mer energi per resenär och km. Även om vägtrafiken elektrifieras kan den inte bli lika energieffektiv som spårtrafik eftersom den har högre rullmotstånd. Självkörande bilar kan inte korta restiderna och inte heller nämnvärt minska energianvändning, miljöbelastning och trängsel. Ännu mera gäller detta om elflyg skulle komma till stånd, vilket dock är inte troligt för stora flygplan på längre sträckor. Utsläppen från tågtrafik är en bråkdel av de från bil och flyg. Därför blir det en miljövinst när fler väljer tåg i stället för bil och flyg.Bygget av nya banor ger upphov till utsläpp som kompenseras när banan trafikeras genom minskade utsläpp från andra färdmedel.

    Trafikverket har gjort kalkyler av ”break-even” som sträcker sig från 27 år ner till 5 år. Fossilfri bil- och flygtrafik kan minska miljöeffekten bara under förutsättning att el, batterier eller biobränslen kan produceras i tillräcklig mängd och med små koldioxidutsläpp. Detta är osannolikt under överskådlig framtid. Om man inte bygger höghastighetsbanorna kommer resandet med bil och flyg öka. Då måste vägarna och flygplatserna byggas ut med ökade utsläpp som följd.

    Som vi pekat på tidigare så fungerar inte Trafikverkets prognosmodell i dag för att utvärdera stora banprojekt. Det är ett stort problem då stora investeringar diskuteras samtidigt som utmaningen med att minska trafikens klimatpåverkan blir alltmer akut. Det är inte bara de samhällsekonomiska kalkylerna som är viktiga. Prognosen i sig har också stor betydelse för planeringen av höghastighets-banorna och utbudet, för bedömning av möjligheterna till medfinansiering och för analys av behovet av utbyggda flygplatser och vägar.

  • Smulter, Jenna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Porsbjer, Anton
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Games Based on Cognitive Workload2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Games should provide adequate challenge to players in order to provide an engaging and fun player experience. If a game is too easy or too hard, the players might get bored or frustrated. Building on the flow theory, the use of dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) systems have become popular for adjusting the game difficulty in real time according to the performance of the player. An alternative to using player performance as input to the DDA system is to use measurements of the player, such as heart rate or brain metrics. In this study, we examined Detection-response task (DRT), which is a method for measuring cognitive workload, in a gaming context. The study aimed to determine if the DRT is sensitive to real-time changes in player workload and to study the challenges with integrating the DRT into gameplay and considering these findings determine if the DRT is a suitable method for DDA. We created a game and integrated the DRT into the gameplay, and 26 participants played the game on different difficulty levels. The results show that the DRT is not sensitive to real-time changes in workload in our game, and there are some difficulties with integrating the DRT into gameplay. These results indicate that it is difficult to implement the DRT in games and that the DRT might not be a suitable method to use in DDA systems. More research is needed to assess the method further.

  • von Hacht, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Johansson, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Reinforcement Learning Applied to Select Traffic Scheduling Method in Intersections2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective scheduling of traffic is vital for a city to function optimally. For high-density traffic in urban areas, intersections and how they schedule traffic plays an integral part in preventing congestion. Current traffic light scheduling methods predominantly consist of using fixed time intervals to schedule traffic, a method not taking advantage of the technological leaps of recent years. With the unpredictable characteristic of traffic and urban population ever-expanding, conventional traffic scheduling becomes less effective due to them being nonadaptive. Therefore, the study sought out to investigate if a traffic scheduler utilising reinforcement learning could perform better than traditional traffic scheduling policies used today, more specifically fixedinterval scheduling. A solution involving a reinforcement agent choosing different predefined scheduling methods with varied characteristics was implemented. This implementation was successful in lowering the average waiting time of cars passing the intersection compared to fixed-interval scheduling. This was made possible by the agent regularly applying suitable scheduling method for the present traffic conditions. Reinforcement learning could, therefore, be a viable approach to scheduling traffic in intersections. However, the reinforcement agent had a limited overview of the current traffic environment at its disposal which could have consequences for the result.

  • Lindkvist, Trixie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gnesta Community Center2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The proposal presents an idea of Gnesta Community Center as a supportive addition to the town contributing space for convergence of cultural life, political discussions and festive gatherings. By allowing the buildings' activities to spill across borders and into the city space important connections to the inhabitants of Gnesta are created and the building is allowed to function as a natural meeting place.

  • Lindfors, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Gnesta medborgarhus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new Civic center for small Town Gnesta, Sweden. The building sits next to the train station in the center of Gnesta. Constructed in Concrete with 6 by 6,5 meter wallbslabs which are angled at nine degrees relative to the outline of the building. There is a tall narrow window in gap. The slabs change directions at the next main floor levell. The double height main floor slabs protrudes and rest on the wall slabs. This enables Three meazzanine levels. A seemingly free standing slab support the stairs that leads upwards. Some wall slabs are omitted and replaced with glazed sections. The light that seeps in through narrow openings between overlapping wall sections are defining for the experience inside the building. Library, Restaurant/bar, Meeting rooms, Exhibtion space, Ceremony room, Flexible Office space, Concert hall and a Hostel fits inside this new and welcoming Civic center.

  • Jonell, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Kucherenko, Taras
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Ekstedt, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Learning Non-verbal Behavior for a Social Robot from YouTube Videos2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal behavior is crucial for positive perception of humanoid robots. If modeled well it can improve the interaction and leave the user with a positive experience, on the other hand, if it is modelled poorly it may impede the interaction and become a source of distraction. Most of the existing work on modeling non-verbal behavior show limited variability due to the fact that the models employed are deterministic and the generated motion can be perceived as repetitive and predictable. In this paper, we present a novel method for generation of a limited set of facial expressions and head movements, based on a probabilistic generative deep learning architecture called Glow. We have implemented a workflow which takes videos directly from YouTube, extracts relevant features, and trains a model that generates gestures that can be realized in a robot without any post processing. A user study was conducted and illustrated the importance of having any kind of non-verbal behavior while most differences between the ground truth, the proposed method, and a random control were not significant (however, the differences that were significant were in favor of the proposed method).

  • Kumlien, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Community Center in Gnesta2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The assignment was to create a Community Center in Gnesta which would include auditoriums, library, hostel, restaurant, offices for the municipality and a room for wedding-cermonies. The site is centrally located next to trainstation, main streets, Gnesta square and is part of a new quarter planned for housing.

  • Krajnovic, Sonja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    City Hall in Strängnäs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strängnäs is a small scaled eclectic city where houses date from different centuries. This is shown in their different architectural styles. Main idea with this project is to adjust the City Hall building to the place that we were assigned. I wanted to create a building that is going to meet the area requirements, which is around 1600 sqm of work and activity area, and at the same time is going to be experienced as a small-scale building.

  • Kirchmeier, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn Town Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new Town Hall in Nynäshamn is a buildning made out of solid timber. My goal with this project was to try to understand solid timber as a material and it’s constructive properties. To help myself in the construction and design of the buildning i set up a few rules. For example that loadbearing walls can not have openings and that conventional doors shall only be used if nessesary. The building has been worked out through scetch models in different scales.

  • Karpouzis, Angela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    YinYang2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project represents two new established meeting points in Gnesta, whom connects the citizens with the local arrangements. The aim is to create an inviting atmosphere, as well as a well functioning building for corporates wich will reinforce the community.

  • Rodríguez, Andy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    At the Space in Between2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My project for a civic hall in Gnesta has the overriding idea to face the square, where the streets Storgatan and Torggatan cross. I think this appeals to the strength of the site as it is a public building, but also, because the lake Frösjön is placed like a backdrop from that perspective. The design concept is to frame the site with two imposing buildings and to create an interesting room at the space in between, the place for an atrium. At the space in between, certain parts of the civic hall will be exposed as public from the viewpoint inside the atrium, bathed in sunlight. The public environment will be experienced as being outside, yet one is inside. The glass is meant to allow for experiencing the weather outside by its transparency. The façade in brick of the two building volumes become the loadbearing walls for the inside of the atrium – adding to the feeling of being outside.

  • Eriksson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Consolidation and Forming of Aerospace Graded Composite Materials: An experimental study of prepreg characteristics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this project is an experimental study of prepreg characteristics, such as tack, consolidation and temperature sensitivity during forming. The aim has first been tounderstand how the material reacts during different manufacturing processes. Secondly, to recommend suitable parameter settings, based on the findings, in order to get a good andreliable manufacturing process.In a literature study it was found that the prepreg tack is difficult to measure. It is debated by the scientific community today how to best describe prepreg tack, and the answer is affectedof what parameters that are sought to be reproduced. Consolidation tests have, in this study, been performed in an Instron machine. The relaxation of two different materials has beenmeasured in room temperature, 40 °C and 60 °C, with a maximum pressure of 2-10 bar. These limits are set to cover the temperature- and pressure scope in a robot forming process.Results show that neither of the materials will experience full consolidation during these tests, and therefore, neither in a robot forming process. It is therefore recommended toconsolidate the material in a separate process, if forming it with a robot. The material 6376/HTS is more temperature sensitive than the other tested material, an aerospacegraded prepreg with T800 fibres.Forming tests was carried out in a vacuum forming box with the goal to find a temperature where no forming defects can be seen by eye. This is found to be true at temperatures above50 °C for the material 6376/HTS when stacked in sequence [45, 0, -45, 90]4s.None of the materials are recommended to be robot formed in room temperature. Results show that one can see correlations between the forming tests and the consolidation tests.The tests are also assessed as a good way to gain basic understanding of the characteristics of a specific material.

  • Jalas, Veronika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Strängnäs City Hall is a place for the people of Strängnäs to come together. The building is separated into two parts, one part for the people working in the building and one part for the public. The part for the workers consists of a traditional brick building with views overlooking the harbor. The public part has a glass facade, inviting people into the building. Inside the visitor moves through a café into the exhibition hall, up a ramp to the chambers, and further up to the restaurant with the rooftop terrace. The ramp connects the public part to the private part of the building on each level, both physically and visually, bringing the politicians and the residents of Strängnäs together.

  • Samee Lal, Rejish Lal Johnson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Thermal gas radiation modelling for CFD simulation of rocket thrust chamber2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Methane and oxygen are a promising propellant combination in future rocket propulsion engines mainly due to its advantages like reusability and cost reduction. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of this propellant combination extensive research work is being done. Especially, for reusable rocket engines the thermal calculations become vital as an effective and efficient cooling system is crucial for extending the engine life. The design of cooling channels may significantly be influenced by radiation. Within the framework of this thesis, the gas radiation heat transfer is modelled for CFD simulation of rocket thrust chambers and analysed for the 𝐶𝐻4/𝑂2 fuel combination. The radiation is modelled within ArianeGroup’s in-house spray combustion CFD tool - Rocflam3, which is used to carry out the simulations. Radiation properties can have strong influence for certain chemical compositions, especially 𝐶𝑂2 and 𝐻2𝑂 which are the products of the 𝐶𝐻4 and 𝑂2 combustion. A simplified gas radiation transport equation is implemented along with various spectral models which compute the gas emissivity for higher temperature. Also, Rocflam-II code which has an existing gas radiation model is used to compare and validate the simplified model. Finally the combination of the convective and radiative heat transfer values are compared to the experimental test data. In contrast to the previously existing emissivity models with a certain temperature limit, the model used here enables the inclusion for the total emissivity of 𝐶𝑂2 and 𝐻2𝑂 for temperatures up to 3400 K and hence more appropriate for hydrocarbon combustion in space propulsion systems.

    It turns out that the gas radiation is responsible for 2-4% of the total heat flux for a 𝐶𝐻4/𝑂2 combustion chamber with maximum integrated temperature of 2700 K. The influence of gas radiation would be greater than 4% respective of the integrated temperature. Gas radiation heat flux effects are higher in stream-tube combustion zone compared to the other sections of the thrust chamber. The individual contribution of radiative heat flux by 𝐶𝑂2 was noted to be 1.5-2 times higher than that to 𝐻2𝑂. It was shown that the analytically derived simplified expression for gas radiation along with the various spectral models had reasonable approximation of the measured radiation. The estimated radiation was correct to the measured radiation from the Rocflam-II model for a temperature range of 400-3400 K.

  • Yezeguelian, Axel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Modelling and Simulation of a Propulsive Hybridisation for a Light Fixed-wing Aircraft2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Propulsive hybridisation fits in with the sustainable development policies of many companies which are part of the transportation industry. Actually, it makes it possible either to reduce fuel consumption or to improve the aircraft performance at a fixed fuel burn. However, the current technologies of batteries restrain a more regular use in light aviation. For this project this issue is confirmed as both the quasi-static performance assessment and the dynamic studies show that the endurance objective cannot be improved with Li/Ion batteries. However, it is possible to act directly on the engine performance by placing a thermal energy recovery system on exhaust gas pipes to take advantage of their high temperatures, greatly boosting the aircraft performance in cruise.

  • Robla Sánchez, Ignacio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Wheel Wear Simulation of the Light Rail Vehicle A322010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a novel methodology for wheel wear simulation has been developed in Sweden. The practical objective of this simulation procedure is to provide an integratedengineering tool to support rail vehicle design with respect to wheel wear performance and detailed understanding of wheel-rail interaction. The tool is integrated in a vehicle dynamicssimulation environment.The wear calculation is based on a set of dynamic simulations, representing the vehicle, the network, and the operating conditions. The wheel profile evolution is simulated in an iterativeprocess by adding the contribution from each simulation case and updating the profile geometry.The method is being validated against measurements by selected pilot applications. To strengthen the confidence in simulation results the scope of application should be as wide aspossible in terms of vehicle classes. The purpose of this thesis work has been to try to extend the scope of validation of this method into the light rail area, simulating the light rail vehicleA32 operating in Stockholm commuter service on the line Tvärbanan.An exhaustive study of the wear theory and previous work on wear prediction has been necessary to understand the wear prediction method proposed by KTH. The dynamicbehaviour of rail vehicles has also been deeply studied in order to understand the factors affecting wear in the wheel-rail contact.The vehicle model has been validated against previous studies of this vehicle. Furthermore new elements have been included in the model in order to better simulate the real conditionsof the vehicle.Numerous tests have been carried out in order to calibrate the wear tool and find the settings which better match the real conditions of the vehicle.Wheel and rail wear as well as profile evolution measurements were available before this work and they are compared with those results obtained from the simulations carried out.The simulated wear at the tread and flange parts of the wheel match quite well the measurements. However, the results are not so good for the middle part, since themeasurements show quite evenly distributed wear along the profile while the results from simulations show higher difference between extremes and middle part. More tests would benecessary to obtain an optimal solution.

  • Morrisey, Ben
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Vibration Testing of Short Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applications of short fibre reinforced polymer composites (SFRPCs) have been rapidly increasing and most of the components made of these materials are subjected to cyclic loading. In automotive applications, “under the hood” is the harshest environmental condition for plastic-based materials with temperatures ranging from -40°C to 120°C. Components are subjected to mechanical vibrations primarily as a result of the periodic excitation and the dynamics of the engine firing. It is important, therefore, to design and test the components accurately so as to minimise the risk of component failure during the expected lifetime of the vehicle. Taking this into account, this thesis investigated if the current test methods being used at Scania ensured a valid fatigue testing of engine components made of SFRPCs. An extensive literature review was carried out detailing the work published on SFRPC fatigue to-date and the methods currently used at Scania NMBT were detailed. A series of sine and random vibration tests were then performed to characterise material behaviour in addition to Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy of failed specimens. The results of these, combined with the knowledge gathered in the literature review, resulted in a number of suggestions to adapt the current test methods with the aim of increasing their validity for SFRPCs.

  • Lawniczek, Baptiste
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Evolution of the methodology of weight estimation and engine feasibility in preliminary design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop and to validate a methodology to realize pre-sizing studies on aircraft engine structural frames for Safran Aircraft Engines Product Innovation Lab activities. The members of this team are in charge of creating new propulsion systems architectures in accordance with product strategy guidelines or airframer needs. Aerospace industry being highly competitive, the Product Innovation Lab must be able to respond quickly and precisely to any demand emerging from aircraft manufacturers or strategy team.The main purpose of this project is to improve the methodology permitting to make weight status and feasibility estimations of the engine frame components in a preliminary design phase and in a limited amount of time. This methodology must lead to the creation of a consistent model that is closer to the requirements and specifications imposed. This paper more precisely focus on legacy commercial engine structural frame. Reflection has been conducted on the creation of a simplified parametrized model of an existing commercial engine structural frame and on the way to mesh it in order to find a good compromise between results fidelity and computation time. Regarding the weight status and feasibility results obtained with a first model, an optimization of the model configuration has finally been conducted in order to get results that fit with the specifications.Conclusion of the report is that the pre-sizing methodology can be adapted to existing commercial engine structural frame configuration. Results obtained in terms of weight status and feasibility are in accordance with the specifications and the computation time is in agreement with the expectations. It has permitted to create a model that will be taken as a reference to develop and design new engines having a configuration similar to the legacy commercial engine considered in this study. For that purpose, iterations and optimizations will be conducted on the simplified model implemented during the project in order to determine a new configuration of the pre-sized intermediate frame model which sticks with reality i.e. that respects the provided feasibility specifications.Note that due to the public nature of this report, sensitive information and data used and obtained during the project have been removed from the present paper. Nevertheless, the methodology followed has been presented and discussed in detail. Relative deviations between the results obtained and reference values have also been exposed in order to give the reader an idea of implemented model consistency.

  • Jain, Nikhil
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Robust post impact vehicle motion control using torque vectoring2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several statistical studies have suggested that the risk of injury is significantly higher in multiple event accidents (MEAs) than in single event crashes. Improper driving in such scenarios leads to hazardous vehicle heading angles and excessive lateral deviations from thevehicle path, resulting in severe secondary crashes. In these situations, the vehicle becomes highly prone to side impacts and such impacts are more harmful to the occupants since the sides of the vehicle have less crash energy absorbing structures than the front and rear ends.Significant advancements have been made in the area of automotive safety to ensure passenger safety. Active safety systems, in particular, are becoming more advanced by the day with vehicles becoming over actuated with electric propulsion and x-by-wire systems. Keepingthat in mind, in this master thesis a post impact vehicle motion control strategy for an electric vehicle is suggested based on a hierarchical control structure which regulates the lateral deviation of the affected vehicle while maintaining safe heading angles after an impact.Sliding Mode Control (SMC) has been utilized in the higher controller which generates a virtual output used as an input for a lower controller performing torque allocation. The allocation methods were based on optimization, aimed to minimize tire utilization, and anormal force based approach. The performance of the controller was first evaluated with single track and two track model of the vehicle because of their simplicity making them easy to debug and also since they allowed for quick simulations. This was followed with evaluationwith a high fidelity vehicle model in IPG CarMaker for fine tuning the controller. It was observed that the use of SMC strategy to generate virtual yaw moment to be used in torque vectoring for controlling vehicle trajectory post impact proved to be a robust strategymanaging to control the vehicle even in cases of actuator failure. So it can be concluded that the hierarchical control structure with the higher Sliding mode controller, generating a virtual yaw moment, and a lower controller doing torque allocation using a normal force basedstrategy and an optimization approach worked as intended.

  • Barrére, Vincent
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Viability of CREO Simulate: (CAD software’s module) as a thermal simulation software2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of the reliability of CREO simulate will be done step by step. First of all, the precisionof the simulation has to be measured thus a comparison with simple theoretical computations willbe done. Then, the scope of the capacity of the software will be analyzed and if elements deemednecessary to thermal simulations are missing, back up solutions are to be found. Also, the influenceof the meshing will be studied and measured to ensure that the software guarantee convergence evenin the hand of persons unfamiliar with simulations.In parallel, one will experiment with realistic hardware that could be used to compare reality withthe simulations. Those experiments will be handmade using regular materials from the company.

  • Holm, Adam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    The Lantern - Strängnäs City Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My bachelor project is an administration building in Strängnäs, Sweden.  It attempts to explore ways of creating modern architecture in a historic environment. How do you design a building, using the materials and building techniques of our time, that can relate to typologies from other eras without becoming pastiche?

  • Hauska, Eduard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nynäshamn Town Hall2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite all great words about public architecture with democracy and everyone's equal value in mind, I believe that a future belief and a common idea can often be lacking today. In my work, I have therefore decided to examine how a Town Hall can be used as a tool for creating a natural connection between citizens and authorities. Can the design of a Town Hall help to construct the democratic citizen? Can politics find its place in everyday life? My ambition has been to concretise the idealistic slogans.I have developed a number of requirements that the new Town Hall in Nynäshamn should match:- Create a Town Hall with an open cultural arena in center where the municipality appears as citizens own organisation rather than an authority. I am convinced that this aspect is at least as important as a functional program or attractive design.- A Town Hall that gives an insight into the authority's work. The politics must be visible and accessible for an ordinary citizen.- A flexible public solution that matches the requirements of change.- A distinct program that gives an understanding of the logic of the building, both interior and exterior.

  • Amezcua Hidalgo, Ramon Andres
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Towards Understanding the “User of the Future”2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A fast-moving technological landscape is driving companies of today to constantly search for the solutions of tomorrow. As a result, companies are constantly searching for the next big thing and speculating on possible futures. Across multiple industries, it is easy to find concepts, workshops, hackathons, and marketing campaigns that address the concept of the future. With themes titled as "The future of ..."(be it medicine, food, manufacturing, sports, etc.) or "... of the future" (be it cars interiors, homes, transportation, nutrition, etc.), companies try to reimagine products and services for a speculative future. Design practice plays a large role in this movement. However, a specific contemporary global phenomenon, the Aging Populations, is surfacing important limitations to user-centred design. These limitations are resulting in unsustainable practices and negative connotations in design solutions that lead to Ageism. Furthermore, user-centred design processes are faced with the challenge of creating proposals that are limited by what could be misconceptions and prejudices based on personal knowledge. Since these proposals are conceived by present factors, needs and users, design is hence fringed by temporal positioning. The combination of these factors can lead to ideas of the future that may not be adequate or accurate for both an uncertain future, and the people that might participate in it.

    One may ask then, when identifying new opportunities, or when designing new products, what characteristics should be considered in the product development process that will remain stable and continuous in the future? This thesis explores this challenge. Resulting in a theoretically developed framework that helps design practitioners to understand the context that people may interact with in the future. Based on a Practice-Oriented Design approach, this thesis proposes a Transgenerational Practice Distillation Process that results in a Transgenerational Practice Unit, which aims at understanding the context in which the “Users of the Future” will interact with products and services. Then, by studying the practice of eating in a Quick Service Restaurant (QSR) in Tokyo with people with ages 60 to 80, the proposed framework explores how long-lasting contextual elements can be found through participatory design techniques. The output of the proposed framework consisted of stimulating material for creative processes that helped product innovation professionals in reimagining the way restaurants can be designed.

  • Larsson Olsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Svensson, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early Warning Leakage Detection for Pneumatic Systems on Heavy Duty Vehicles: Evaluating Data Driven and Model Driven Approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern Heavy Duty Vehicles consist of a multitude of components and operate in various conditions. As there is value in goods transported, there is an incentive to avoid unplanned breakdowns. For this, condition based maintenance can be applied.\newline This thesis presents a study comparing the applicability of the data-driven Consensus SelfOrganizing Models (COSMO) method and the model-driven patent series introduced by Fogelstrom, applied on the air processing system for leakage detection on Scania Heavy Duty Vehicles. The comparison of the two methods is done using the Area Under Curve value given by the Receiver Operating Characteristics curves for features in order to reach a verdict.\newline For this purpose, three criteria were investigated. First, the effects of the hyper-parameters were explored to conclude a necessary vehicle fleet size and time period required for COSMO to function. The second experiment regarded whether environmental factors impact the predictability of the method, and finally the effect on the predictability for the case of nonidentical vehicles was determined.\newline The results indicate that the number of representations ought to be at least 60, rather with a larger set of vehicles in the fleet than with a larger window size, and that the vehicles should be close to identical on a component level and be in use in comparable ambient conditions.\newline In cases where the vehicle fleet is heterogeneous, a physical model of each system is preferable as this produces more stable results compared to the COSMO method.

  • Xiang, Li
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    RANS simulations and dispersion models for particles in turbulent flows2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the effectiveness of stochastic models for particles distribution in complex turbulent flow. Turbulent two-phase flows exist in numerous natural phenomena and industrial systems, and remain a very challenging process to describe. Part of the difficulties originates from the fact that in most cases is not possible to provide an exact description for the continuous phase alone. Thus, a fundamental question arises: is it possible to obtain a reasonably accurate description of a dispersed system when simplified models are employed for the flow?

    We consider a wall-mounted cube in a periodic turbulent channel flow with particles continuously injected after the rear face of the cube. The system is described through two alternative methodologies. First, accurate time-dependent numerical simulations are employed to provide reference data. In these simulations, the flow field is assumed to be exact and it directly and solely affects the particles dynamics. In the second approach, the flow is described via time-averaged numerical simulations which require additional ad hoc models introduced to describe the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the particles motion.

  • Peluchon, Mathias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Autonomous landing of multicopters on mobile platforms: Design of an autonomous landing solution for multicopters on mobile platforms, based on a ultrasonic local positionning technology2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work studies the use of an ultrasonic 3D positioning system in multicopter landing applications. Its aim is to develop a solution for autonomous landing of rotary wings systems on mobile platforms, especially boat decks using the positioning system developed by the French startup Internest. First, the position sensing algorithms will be improved so as to let them provide accurate relative position measurements in moving reference frames. Then a first implementation of a control algorithm based on PIDs will be considered, discussed and tested. Finally some improvements will be studied, with the use of trajectory planning and feedforward control, as well as the definition of a reference model. The whole work is led in an industrial R&D context, with the aim of developing simple but effective solutions that can easily be used in numerous applications, on a large variety of systems.

  • Gomez-Torrent, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    García-Vigueras, María
    Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rennes: Rennes, Bretagne, FR.
    Le Coq, Laurent
    Université de Rennes 1: Rennes, Bretagne, FR.
    Mahmoud, Adham
    Ettorre, Mauro
    CNRS Délégation Bretagne et Pays de Loire: Rennes, Bretagne, FR.
    Sauleau, Ronan
    Université de Rennes 1: Rennes, FR.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A Low-Profile and High-Gain Frequency Beam Steering Subterahertz Antenna Enabled by Silicon MicromachiningIn: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very low-profile sub-THz high-gain frequencybeam steering antenna, enabled by silicon micromachining, is reported for the first time in this paper. The operation bandwidth of the antenna spans from 220 GHz to 300 GHz providing a simulated field of view of 56°. The design is based on a dielectric filled parallel-plate waveguide (PPW) leaky-wave antenna fed by a pillbox. The pillbox, a two-level PPW structure, has an integrated parabolic reflector to generate a planar wave front. The device is enabled by two extreme aspect ratio, 16 mm x16 mm large perforated membranes, which are only 30 μm thick, that provide the coupling between the two PPWs and form the LWA. The micromachined low-loss PPW structure results in a measured average radiation efficiency of −1 dB and a maximum gain of 28.5 dBi with an input reflection coefficient below −10 dB. The overall frequency beam steering frontend is extremely compact (24mm x 24mm x 0.9 mm) and can be directly mounted on a standard WM-864 waveguide flange. The design and fabrication challenges of such high performance antenna in the sub-THz frequency range are described and the measurement results of two fabricated prototypes are reported and discussed.

  • Prabhudev, Pavan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Investigation of Larminar Flow inside a Torus in OpenFOAM2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work deals with an investigation of steady, laminar and incompressible flow inside a toroidal pipe. In particular, our aim is to investigate the effects of curvature and the Reynolds-number on the flow features. Numerical simulation are performed with the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM and the results are compared with the available data in the literature [Canton et. Al 2017, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow]. The analysis shows that by increasing the curvature, the flow features are altered. This change in flow features becomes more important as the curvature increases. A complete description of friction factor and secondary flow quantities is provided, and a comparison with reference data allows to assess the reliability of OpenFOAM for this study case by providing results in an easier way than with more advanced codes such as Nek5000.

  • Fritzell, Julius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Sound propagation modelling with applications to wind turbines2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is a rapidly increasing resource of electrical power world-wide. With the increasing number of wind turbines installed one major concern is the noise they generate. Sometimes already built wind turbines have to be put down or down-regulated, when certain noise levels are exceeded, resulting in economical and environmental losses. Therefore, accurate sound propagation calculations would be beneficial already in a planning stage of a wind farm. A model that can account for varying wind speeds and complex terrains could therefore be of great importance when future wind farms are planned. In this report an extended version of the classical wave equation that allows for variations in wind speed and terrain is derived which can be used to solve complex terrain and wind settings. The equation are solved with the use of Fourier transforms and Chebyshev polynomials and a numerical code is developed. The numerical code is evaluated against test cases where analytical and simple solutions exist. Tests with no wind for both totally free propagation and with a ground surface is evaluated in both 2D and 3D settings. For these simple cases the developed code shows good agreement to analytical solutions if the computational domain is sufficiently large. More advanced test cases with wind and terrain is not evaluated in this report and needs further validation. If the sound pressure needs to be calculated for a large area, and if the frequency is high, the developed model has problems regarding computational time and memory. These problems could be solved by further development of the numerical code or by using other solution methods.

  • Bjervås, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Simulation of dry matter loss in biomass storage2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Material degradation and a decrease of fuel quality are common phenomena when storing biomass. A magnitude of 7.8% has been reported to degrade over five months when storing spruce wood chips in the winter in Central Europe. This thesis presents a theoretical study of biomass storage. It includes investigations of bio-chemical, chemical and physical processes that occur during storage of chipped woody biomass. These processes lead to degradation caused by micro-activity, chemical oxidation reactions and physical transformation of water. Micro-activity was modeled with Monod kinetics which are Michaelis-Menten type of expressions. The rate expressions were complemented with dependency functions describing the impact of oxygen, moisture and temperature. The woody biomass was divided into three fractions. These fractions represent how hard different components of the wood are to degrade by microorganisms. Chemical oxidation was modeled as a first order rate expression with respect to the active components of the wood. Two different cases have been simulated during the project. Firstly, an isolated system with an initial oxygen concentration of air was considered. This case displayed a temperature increase of approximately 2˚C and a material degradation less than 1%. The second case considered an isolated system with an endless depot of oxygen. This case resulted in degradation losses around 0.45-0.95% in the temperature range between 65-80˚C during approximately 300 days of storage. The temperature increased slowly due to chemical oxidation.

  • Boström, Fanny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Experimental testing of adsorbents for H2S removal in industrial applications: A comparative study on lifetime and cost effectiveness of different materials2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful emissions are a global issue and cause trouble for human health and for the environment. There is a wide variety of pollutants and one pollutant is hydrogen sulfide, H2S, that is a member of the group Volatile Sulfur Compounds. H2S is a compound that is known for its smell of rotten eggs and is detectable by the human nose at very low concentrations. At higher concentrations, H2S is highly toxic and even deadly for humans. It is also a corrosive gas, and can, therefore, cause problems for materials that are being exposed to it. This can be an issue when H2S is present in biogas since it can damage engines or pipes. It can also poison catalysts that are used for methane upgrading.

    There are different methods of removing H2S from air and common ones are to use adsorption media or catalytic oxidation for gas-solid reactions. The catalytic oxidation is oxidizing the H2S and converts it into elemental sulfur. A problem with these techniques is that they need replacement after some time when they have been saturated.

    The aim and objectives for this project are to find appropriate materials to test in a test rig that was finalized at the beginning of the project, to compare their lifetime. This was done to find the most cost effective material for H2S removal. The effect of humidity in the air was also examined.

    Eight different samples were tested. Two of these were activated carbonwithout impregnations and the other six were partial catalytic materials (impregnated carbons or metal oxide based materials). The partial catalytic materials were significantly better than the activated carbons. The lifetimes varied among the partial catalytic materials as well, andare believed to be due to different active compounds on the surfacesand the structure. When running the experiments with 70 % relative humidity, the lifetimes were significantly longer than when the same materials were run for 30 %. A lower concentration of H2S in low relative humidity showed lower or the same loading capacity than higher concentrations. Regeneration was tested for one of the metal based materials with a satisfactory result.