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  • Gustafsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Analysis of uncertainties in fatigue load assessment: a study on one Kaplan hydro turbine during start operation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the future, hydropower plants are expected to operate more flexibly. This will lead to a more varied operation of the turbine and the generator, such as more start and stop in order to stabilise the frequency in the grid. Studies show that these transient operations are more costly in terms of fatigue degradation, i.e. consumption of fatigue life. Vattenfall has developed a methodology with the aim to analyse fatigue loads, acting on the runner and the rotor in hydropower units during operation. With a numerical model, the loads are assessed with input data gathered from measurements together with given data on several parameters. Some of the input data are bearing structure stiffness, bearing oil properties, and point of action of forces, etc. Several of these input parameters are subject to a degree of uncertainty, which affect the assessed fatigue load, determined with the methodology.

    This study will focus on analysing one fatigue force component acting on the runner. The aim with this study is to answer the following research questions: (i) Which input parameters, that are subject to a degree of uncertainty, contribute the most to the combined standard uncertainty in the assessed fatigue force? (ii) How much does the combined standard uncertainty in the assessed fatigue force amount to? (iii) How does the uncertainty in the assessed fatigue force affect the fatigue damage?. The combined standard uncertainty in the fatigue force is determined with methods in uncertainty propagation. In order to evaluate the effect from the uncertainty in the fatigue load on the fatigue damage, a statistical analysis of the ratio between the fatigue damage associated with a probability of exceedance and the expected fatigue damage is conducted.

    From the results it can be observed that the governing uncertainty parameter is the offset of the shaft displacement signal, which amount to 40 % of the combined standard uncertainty in the fatigue force. Of the nine analysed uncertainty parameters, three parameters are bearing properties parameters, i.e. the bearing clearance, the oil film temperature and the point of action of bearing forces, which amount to 47.5 % of the combined standard uncertainty in the fatigue force. Therefore, in order to decrease the uncertainties, focus should be kept on the bearing properties. Given each parameters uncertainty, the ratio between the combined standard uncertainty in the fatigue force and the expected fatigue force amount to 7 %. This corresponds to a ratio between the standard uncertainty in the fatigue damage and the expected fatigue damage of 35 %, due to the value of the index of S-N curve of five. Given the standard uncertainty in the fatigue force together with the index of S-N-curve, the ratio between the fatigue force associated with a probability of exceedance and the expected fatigue force can be assessed, i.e. the fatigue force ratio. Consequently, the fatigue force ratio amount to 1.32 for a probability of 0.0032 %, 1.09 for a probability of 10 % and 1.04 for a probability of 30 %. These probabilities correspond to the fatigue damage ratios, i.e. the ratios between the fatigue damage associated with a probability of exceedance and the expected fatigue damage of 4, 1.56 and 1.20. Thereby, the uncertainty in the fatigue force can greatly affect the uncertainty in the fatigue damage, dependent on the value of the index of S-N-curve.

    The results from this study imply the importance of considering the uncertainties in fatigue load assessments. These results provide support for assessing load levels for runner dimensioning to finally, be able to derive a correct margin of safety. This in order to not underestimate fatigue damage and thereby decrease the risk for unexpected fatigue failure.

  • Vavassori, Luca
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    SSC: Single-Shot Multiscale Counter.: Counting Generic Objects in Images2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Counting object in pictures is a computer vision task that has been explored in the past years, achieving state-of-the-art results thanks to the rise of convolutional neural networks. Most of the work focused on specific and limited domains to predict the number of just one category in the likes of people, cars, cells, and animals. Little effort has been employed to investigate methods to count the instances of different classes at the same time. This thesis work explored the different approaches present in the literature to understand their strenghts and weaknesses and eventually improve the accuracy and reduce the inference time of models aimed to estimate the number of multiple elements. At first, new techniques have been applied on top of the previously proposed algorithms to lower the prediction error. Secondly, the possibility to adapt an object detector to the counting task avoiding the localization prediction has been investigated. As a result, a new model called Single-Shot Multiscale Counter has been proposed, based on the architecture of the Single-Shot Multibox Detector. It achieved a lower prediction error on the ground truth count by 11% (from an mRMSE of 0.42 to 0.35) and an inference time 16x to 20x faster compared to the models found in the literature (from 1.25s to 0.049s).

  • de Almeida, Carlos Miguel Gomes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Smart Charging of EV Batteries for Load Balancing Strategies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the economic potential of increased charging control of Plug-in Electric vehicles (PEVs) and resulting potential for evening peak shaving and load shifting. The analysis in this body of work considered a building in Hammarby Sjöstad with four Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). A model was developed in Matlab which, with the help of linear programming tools, calculated the lowest possible charging cost for three different charging modes with added charging control for both a single night, and throughout a whole year. The “Reference mode” considers no charging control, the “Smart Charging mode” considers day-ahead electricity prices to calculate the least expensive charging profile, and the “vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode”, which facilitates the selling of excess energy to the grid.

    The conclusions of this study are twofold. As presently constituted, the smart charging mode is the least expensive charging mode available, because it decreases overall charging costs without incurring an increase in battery degradation. Nevertheless, V2G is promising, because with the constant improvements in battery development, larger batteries will allow for a larger amount of energy to be sold to the grid at a profit, without a steep increase in battery degradation costs.

  • Alexandersson, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Tran, Stephan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Change in heating costs for different renovation alternatives of a million-housing program building2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 the network for energy efficient multi-residential buildings, BeBo, finished a project called “Ett hus, fem möjligheter” (“One building, five opportunities”). The purpose was to provide insight into and a comparison of five different renovation alternatives for an existing building from the million-housing program, resulting in a decrease in energy use by at least half. Since the completion of this project the district heating tariffs have undergone deeper differentiation and added complexity, with several price components that make up the total DH (district heating) price, such as power price, energy price and return temperature discount or fee. Meanwhile, average electricity prices in Sweden have increased. The impacts of these price developments on the energy cost savings of the five alternatives in “Ett hus, fem möjligheter” have not been investigated.

    Due to this, the consultant company WSP, which is tasked with coordinating BeBo, requested an investigation on what change there has been in heating costs for the renovation alternatives from “Ett hus, fem möjligheter” between 2014 and 2019 in the city of Stockholm, with focus on Stockholm and Solna municipality. Energy demand for the building and its alternatives was simulated and entered into an energy cost calculation tool called PRISMO developed by BeBo in 2017, together with energy price structures for Stockholm municipality (from Stockholm Exergi for DH and from Ellevio for electricity) and Solna municipality (from Norrenergi for DH and from Vattenfall Eldistribution AB for electricity).

    The results showed a change in energy cost for all alternatives in all scenarios. In Stockholm municipality, both district heating and electricity cost has increased for all alternatives. DH cost has increased by between 15% and 18% for the base building and all alternatives using only DH (alternatives 1 and 2). In alternatives with combined DH and electricity the DH cost has increased by about 24% where DH is used for domestic hot water and peak heat load, and by slightly more than 30% where DH is used for peak heat load only. Alternative 5.2, with DH for peak load and where DH power demand is low due to higher heat pump power, sees the highest increase in DH cost, being 49%. This is despite lowered energy cost, primarily due to significant increase in the power cost and lowered return temperature bonus. Electricity cost has increased by about 30%. The buildings with a higher share of power cost compared to energy cost have seen a larger increase between the years, and high electricity demand has also contributed to a larger cost increase.

    In Solna municipality the DH price structures did not change considerably between 2014 and 2019 and as such the DH costs see only small changes. Most of this change in DH cost is due to a change in power price coming to favor buildings with power demand above 96 kW, with small contribution from a minor energy price reduction. Return temperature malus did not change between 2014 and 2019. The DH cost has decreased for all applicable alternatives by at most 2%, except for alternatives 1 and 5.2, where it has increased by 0.3% and remained the same, respectively, due to higher relative power cost for their lower power levels. Similarly to in Stockholm municipality, the electricity costs have increased significantly, by about 35%. Alternatives partially or fully heated by electricity have all shown an increase, which is lesser the higher the extent of DH use is. Accordingly, the largest increase in energy cost is found for the fully electrified alternative 5.1

    . Energy cost changes obtained in this study were compared with changes in energy cost reported by the Nils Holgersson Gruppen, a reporting group created by various housing companies and associations in the industry. The comparisons show that energy cost changes are aligned for both DH and electricity in Solna municipality and for electricity in Stockholm municipality. However, the cost change for DH in Stockholm municipality in this study is about +15-18% for DH-only alternatives, whereas this change is reported as -2% (between 2014 and 2018) by Nils Holgersson Gruppen for their DH-only reference building. Implementing Nils Holgersson’s reference building energy demand data in PRISMO together with DH price structures of 2014 and 2019 for the same municipality shows that there is an increase in DH cost by 8.2% over this time period, excluding return temperature discounts or fees, as return temperature is not considered in the Nils Holgersson Report.

  • Mu, Kehan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Fault-Tolerant Cloud Services2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, due to the convenience of deployment, ease to scale up and cost savings, the application of cloud computing systems has spread throughout the factory, commercial and individual users. However, fault tolerance in cloud computing systems has always been an important topic due to the high failure rate caused by the sheer size of cloud computing systems. This thesis presents an implementation of a fault-tolerant system called "supervision system" as a fault-tolerant mechanism for cloud computing systems. We first proposed a supervisor-worker relation: a supervisor node is responsible for monitoring its child (worker or another supervisor), and the worker node which does the actual work periodically reset a timer in its supervisor. If the corresponding timer overflows, the supervisor marks it as a failure, and try to restore or restart a new instance of it. The system also supports a multi-watchdog mode, which uses more fine-grained watchdogs that group the threads in the worker and applies different strategies to the groups. Besides the local system, we also implemented a remote supervision system to ensure the safety of local root supervisors, by periodically saving its running state and uploading the image files to its remote supervisor. If an overflow occurs, the remote supervisor remotely calls the restore function on the local machine. Then the restore function gets the most recent image files from the remote supervisor and restores itself. In addition to the implementation details of the system, we designed several test cases and tested the speed of each system part. According to the results, we can conclude that the system works as we expected.

  • Abid, Hamza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Techno-economic analysis of energy storage integration for solar PV in Burkina Faso2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification in rural areas of West African countries remain to be a challenge for the growth of the region. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has set a target of 2030 to achieve 100% electrification in all member countries. Burkina Faso is one of the least electrified countries in the world, where only 9 % of the rural population has access to electricity. This study presents a conceptualization of techno-economic feasibility of pumped hydro storage (PHS) and electric batteries with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the context of Burkina Faso. The results are explored for an off grid standalone PV plus storage system for a rural setting and a grid connected PV system for an urban setup. The least cost configurations for both the cases are determined using HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables). The results indicate the need of extended solar penetration in Burkina Faso in response to the challenges of low electrification rates in the country. Adding more PV to the present electricity mix of Burkina Faso could drive down the cost of energy by 50 % compared to the present grid electricity prices by making cheap electricity available to the local population. Adding PHS to grid connected PV leads to a cost reduction of 8% over a lifetime of 25 years which does not provide enough motivation for the high investments in storage at present. Policy interventions that allow stacking up of revenues and benefits of storage are needed to make it more competitive. PV plus pumped hydro storage remains the optimal system architecture as compared to PV plus electric batteries for off grid standalone systems provided the geographic availability of lower and upper reservoirs. The capital cost of PV remains to be the most dominating factor in the cost of optimal system for both the urban and the rural cases, and driving down the costs of PV would have the most positive effect for increased electricity access in the country.

  • Paul, Sourav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Sarkar, Saranik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Integration of Cryogenic Machining Technologies in Advance Manufacturing Systems2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional cutting fluids are an absolute necessity in today’s manufacturing domain, but they are a polluting and non-sustainable part of modern manufacturing processes. These conventional cutting fluids can be replaced by cryogenic cooling, which is an innovative and sustainable method which has been successfully implemented to produce aerospace products and have shown great success and great quality of finished products. But the implementation is the main obstruction as the volume of production in aerospace and automotive components is quite vast and implementation of cryogenic may pose an obstruction in maintaining the production flow. This leaves us with a large unexplored area for research specially in the implementation of the system in the existing system, which can help us get a seamless transition from conventional to cryogenic cooling. Some of the notable points that there is a need to investigate before one can go ahead with the implementation are factory layout, chip removal, raining of personal, safety, monitoring system, cost, time, implementation and integration, maintenance, source placement, mass scale supply and quality. In the first part of this work, a deep literature study has been done to know all the aspects of cryogenics and its implementation and factors that must be considered. In the second a discussion about the target industries has been made where use of cryogenic cooling has been considered. Also, a small discussion about the existing companies that provide this system has also been discussed. The room for improvisation is very large, and a lot of physical testing needs to be conducted before it can be successfully implemented.

  • Moks, Edvin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Motivation att lära: En studie om elever och lärares upplevelser kring att lära sig matematik på gymnasiet ur ett motivationsteoretiskt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that student motivation plays a significant part in students academic success and well-being in school. In the field of educational research, motivation has long been a topic of interest which has produced an large amount of thoughts and ideas about what motivation is and what learning environments promote motivation most effectively. In recent years, researchers have increasingly began to use social cognitive models to explain motivation which has produced a new understanding of motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. From a socio-cognitive perspective it has become clear that motivation cannot be explained as a stable personality trait. Instead, motivation can be understood to reflect the meeting point between the classroom context and what unique circumstances each student brings with him or herself into this context. Thus, in order to understand student motivation, one must first seek to understand the conditions each student brings to the classroom and how the classroom context affects each students unique circumstances.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how student accounts of learning mathematics and teachers classroom practices to motivate students to learn mathematics can be understood from a motivational theoretical perspective. In this study a motivational theoretical perspective refers to a framework that was developed from a synthesis of the three motivational theories, self-determination theory, goal orientation theory and expectancy-value theory.The study was conducted in two Swedish upper secondary schools with students from mixed grades and different educational programs and teachers with both short and long experience in the teacher profession. The study used a mixed method and the data was collected via a questionnaire that students participated in and through interviews with both students and teachers. Descriptive analysis was performed on the quantitative data using SPSS and a directed qualitative content analysis was performed using the developed framework on the qualitative data.

    The results showed that nearly half of the categories within the framework were satisfied in low levels within the students. Although many of the students had a positive attitude towards mathematics and felt that they were motivated to learn mathematics, there were also many students who had an opposite view. These students appeared to have had lost faith in themselves and did not experience that the learning environment took their more challenging circumstances into consideration. All of the teachers experienced a difficulty in including a motivational perspective in their teaching practice due to time constraints and limitations associated with the guidelines provided by the school system. A notable consequence of these circumstances was that student participation in learning activities and involvement in the decision making of the learning practices became very limited. Based on this result and previous research, suggestions were given on how the learning environment can be organized to promote student motivation in mathematics.

  • Hamilton, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    High risk, high reward?: -A quantitative study of venture capital investments effect on new business creation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, an econometric analysis has been conducted in order to research the rate of new business creation that venture capital investments potentially generate. Data was gathered from 32 OECD countries between the years 2006-2017, to establish to what degree TEA (total entrepreneurial activity) and TEA opportunity based, was fuelled by venture capital investments. In comparison to the majority of the literature, the findings of this thesis give a more nuanced picture to the enthusiastic attitude towards venture capital. As the results indicate a less significant impact of venture capital investments than expected, this thesis serves as an important counterweight to the overall positive stance towards the finance form. However, other findings of the study are in line with previous literature. For example, high GDP is associated to high entrepreneurial activity and high taxes discourage entrepreneurial activity. It is also worth mentioning the subtle, but existing, disparity in the results between TEA and TEA opportunity based. This indicates that further and more thorough research should be conducted within these two different measurements.

  • Ersson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Distributed energy resources in Sweden: The challenges faced by market actors that are developing business models2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity sector has traditionally been constructed for large scale generation and distribution from the high-voltage to the low-voltage network. Transition is however underway; intermittent power generation has become less expensive and nuclear power plants are set to close down. A key issue is that intermittent power generation is by definition weather dependent, hence it cannot be planned. Smart grid solutions have the possibility to meet variations in electricity supply and demand and make use of output from intermittent renewable energy through a broad range of products and services, e.g. energy storage and adjustment of electricity production and consumption in strategic times for residential, commercial or industrial end users. Even if the technological solutions exist, these demand side resources have still not been integrated to the market to the extent that is needed. Since they are of such key importance, there is an urgent need to understand the barriers in current market structures as well as to identify opportunities and innovative business models that can bring these resources to the market.

    An interview study was conducted in order to provide an understanding of the challenges individual companies encounter as they develop business models to integrate their product and service offering into the electricity markets. Additional data was gathered through a literature review of academic papers, market reports and law propositions. The results of the study showed that the business models are currently undergoing stages of 'trial-and-error' to accommodate the specific needs of the electric power system. Actors are trying to prove to the electricity sector that distributed energy resources have a purpose to serve in the electric power system. The actors of these technologies seek to explore various types of value propositions, and sources of income, which to some extent are centered around the sharing of costs and resources with end customers. Furthermore, it would be desirable to align the incentives with the particular distribution network's needs and context to form the basis for the choice of capacity reinforcement. There are clear operational advantages of smart grid technologies, which also reduce profitability related to network capacity. This has to be taken into account and evaluated to encourage cooperation between the parties in the electricity sector.

  • Nguyen, Demi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hu, Emelie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Agile Adoption in Public Agencies: A case study of the Swedish Tax agency2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Citizens’ expectations of products and services produced by the public agencies are rising incredibly due to the fact that savvy startups and other global technology businesses have been succeeded in providing a high standard of digital services in the past decades. This, in turn, puts pressure on the public agencies in how they need to work in order to meet the citizens’ expectations and needs. Besides, during the years, there are a number of projects done by some of the agencies that has been identified as not having succeeded in delivering the desired value, staying in budget and delivering the project’s result in time. Therefore, there is a need for actions in order to counteract this. It is believed that applying Agile into the agency’s project management will help them to not only meet the citizens’ expectations, but also improve the project’s outcome. Many agencies have been hierarchical for a long time involving complex and rigid structure, and the fact that they have been working with a Waterfall-based methodology for a long time. Therefore, adopting this Agile approach implies a number of challenges for the agency. Thus, this thesis aims to investigate to what extent the Agile approach can be implemented into the agency by identifying the challenges that the adoption of Agile entails.

    A number of different previous research and literature about the Waterfall, even called traditional in this thesis, and Agile project management methods have been reviewed in order to provide theoretical frameworks that are of relevance for this study. As the research subject is quite complex and broad, a qualitative approach has been utilized to obtain in-depth knowledge. Interviews have been conducted with employees from the investigated agency, and in order to pursue a comparison with how other public agencies have worked with a potential Agile adoption, interviews have also been conducted with a second agency.

    The thesis finds that applying the Agile project management method into the investigated agency will imply some challenges. A total of seven different challenges were identified which can be briefly summed up as following;

    Employees being too comfortable with old methods; Staff has difficulty committing to the new working culture; Agile is not a “one-size-fits-all” method; Large size projects; Heavy documentation; Financial reporting practices affecting the efficiency of Agile planning; Lack of competencies or some competencies being considered rare, hence there is no guarantee for each team to have all competencies that are needed.

    This study’s result shows that the studied public agency can work with Agile project management methods to a wider extent than what is done today. However, there are a couple of challenges, and solely working with the Agile method was showed to not be recommended. In order to find out if the Agile approach can be used in other works that are not covered in this study, or if the result can be applied to other sectors as well, further research is required.

  • Törnebohm, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Organisational adoption of innovation: A qualitative study on role-based access control in the physical setting of a data centre2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this work was to investigate an organisation’s readiness to adopt a new innovation. A framework was developed by combining two well-known frameworks, Diusion of Innovation (DOI) and Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE). The frameworks were chosen to give a holistic view of the factors determin- ing an organisation’s propensity to incorporate new technology. The innovation dis- cussed in this thesis is a Role-based Access control (RBAC) in the physical setting of a data centre.

    The research is designed as a case study and was carried out at the data centre group at the Swedish Police Authority. The empirical data was gathered through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews, as well as observations made at the site. The collected data was analysed using a developed composite framework.

    The findings corroborates previous research conclusions that TOE and DOI are compatible and complementary. The results indicate that while RBAC would not resolve certain challenges within a data centre, it could arguably simplify certain aspects related to access management.

  • Björkman, Linnéa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The Use of Industrial Performance Measurements: A Case Study of a Manufacturing Organization2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurements are used as evaluation tools in manufacturing organizations. The use of performance measurements should provide useful information regarding organizational performance. A challenge for manufacturing organizations is to translate the performance in an organization to quantifiable measures. Another challenge is to understand the potential of performance measurements to induce change. There are also requirements of the measures to be followed-up, in order for manufacturing organizations to go towards its objectives. Change and communication are another challenges for different departments within industrial organizations, because demands are faced for communication in order to optimize performance measurements.

    In this master thesis, a case study with a qualitative approach was conducted with the purpose of investigate the role of internal communication in the change of performance measurements systems in a manufacturing organization. A list of performance measurement has previously been provided and updated in the manufacturing organization. 14 employees within the manufacturing organization were interviewed regarding opinions of the performance measurements of the new implemented list. Furthermore, during the interviews the employees gave its opinions of how to follow-up the performance measurements. The employees also discussed how the communication is between the Manufacturing Engineering (ME) and the Product department in the manufacturing organization.

    The findings in the thesis show that after change in the organization clearer definition of performance measurements is essential. To have clear definition could lead to an increased understanding of how to optimize performance measurements. Furthermore, the findings show that effective communication between departments in manufacturing organizations can influence the performance measurement to be improved.

    The thesis firstly argues for the manufacturing organization to provide employees with a clearer definition of the performance measurements of the list with the performance measurements. Secondly, to have different follow-up processes of the performance measurements depending on the project the measures are applied to. Thirdly, the thesis argues for the development of communication to create a regular meeting place for the employees between the departments. The benefits of meeting these three arguments are for the manufacturing organization to improve its performance measurements.

  • Kälvegren, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Wong, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Leveraging the Pros of the Gig Economy: How IT departments in manufacturing companies meet their consultant needs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gig economy can be described as a temporary work-environment where an independent workforce uses platforms to find and draw income from work. In 2016, 20-30% of US and Europe’s population took part in some kind of independent work, and the amount of selfemployed in Sweden is growing. However, at what rate it grows differs depending on how these workers are defined. Within the gig economy, the fastest growing areas of work are in knowledge intensive- and creative environments such as consulting. Using gig consultants provides companies access to top talent within IT, which is required in many businesses and industries where digitalisation is disrupting their ways of working. One of these industries is manufacturing, where e.g. servitisation and Industry 4.0 makes the companies more digital and connected.

    The purpose of this thesis was to understand how manufacturing companies handle their external talent management and demand for consultant hires within IT, both now and in the future as the amount of gig consultants increases. This was done by conducting interviews with representatives from five Swedish manufacturing companies within automotive and machinery. The interviewees had different roles, but were or had been responsible for hiring consultants within IT. The empirics gained from the interviews were combined with theory, mainly on talent management and managing external talent.

    The main findings from the study were that in most cases, the companies do not choose between a consultant and a gig consultant, they rather look for the right competence. Gig consultants are however seen as more of experts and can specifically be hired when frontedge or niched competence is needed. On the other hand, consultants can be used when a complete solution has to be delivered as the capacity of a consultancy is higher. To ensure successful consultant hires, the IT departments work with preferred suppliers with whom they have framework agreements to access and hire talent. These suppliers include both consultancies and brokers, from where they get both regular consultants and gig consultants. In general, what defines a successful hire of a consultant is that he or she is sufficiently competent and able to quickly adapt to the company. Additionally, a successful hire is when the project or assignment is completed on time with good result. The main advantages with hiring gig consultants are that acquiring competence can be made easier and more flexible, they can also access more niched competencies. The main disadvantage is that it is unclear who takes responsibility if a gig consultant cannot deliver as they are not part of a firm who can send a replacement. However, some brokers seem to replace the gig consultant.

  • Driver, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    BREXIT: The Swedish Perspective: A Gravity Model Approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of trade negotiations has been a highly publicised debate in the context of Brexit. The term ‘no deal’ has come to represent the United Kingdom leaving with no specific or comprehensive preferential trade agreement, whereas the potentially most far-reaching deal would resemble something along the lines of an EFTA membership. By using bilateral trade data between 2005 and 2017 for Sweden and their top 60 trading partners, an elaborated gravity model for trade suggests a significant long-run decline in the magnitude of trade between Sweden and the United Kingdom. For trade in goods, the results suggest an impact between 21.4%-25.7% in reduced bilateral trade between the UK and Sweden, if the UK leave under WTO terms. The findings also indicate that the impact on trade in services, for which the United Kingdom is Sweden’s second largest trading partner, will be significantly more pronounced between 45.7%-70.0% under a ‘no deal’ scenario. Whilst the model is such that no robust conclusions can be made about the EFTA-type deal for goods, they suggest that terms similar to EFTA would have a significant mitigating effect on any reduction in trade in services. However, a less comprehensive free trade agreement would do little to replace lost service trade when compared to the ‘no deal’ impact.

  • Bornelind, Patrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Challenges in forecasting management for global companies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s fast-moving world, a company´s ability to align with changes in the market is becoming a major competitive factor. Demand forecasting form the basis of all supply chain planning and is a process that companies often fail to recognize as a key contributor to corporate success. Different contexts and market dynamics creates different challenges for companies to overcome in order to have an efficient forecasting process, matching demand with supply.

    This master thesis looks at the whole forecasting process, also called forecasting management, at a decentralized global company to identify the main challenges within the process and propose recommendations on how to overcome them. The research is based on a single case study where the forecasting process is investigated using four different dimensions: Functional Integration, Approach, Systems and Performance Measurements.

    The study identified twelve challenges in the forecasting process where a majority can be connected to issues within information sharing and lack of support in the process. Based on the identified challenges, eight improvement suggestions where developed to target the challenges and improving the process for a decentralized global company.

  • Kayhan, Erhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Rönnbäck, Leo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Dynamics in the Swedish Grocery Retail Industry: The current landscape, challenges and levers in distribution for Swedish grocery retailers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a significant transformation taking place in today’s retail landscape with the increasing adoption of digital technologies in society. Customers are finding new purchasing habits and retailers are exploring different channels to serve customers in. Observations indicate that the industry is heading towards an omni-channel landscape where retailers aim to provide customers with a unified shopping experience across channels and touchpoints as e-commerce rapidly penetrates the market. Currently, all growth for durable goods is attributable to online sales in Sweden, yet Swedish online grocery retailing has been lagging and still only constitute 2 percent of the total market share.

    A qualitative study was conducted to map out the challenges and levers for Swedish grocery retailers in distribution . Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 store managers from the three largest grocery store chains in Sweden. The study elicits a framework for firm controlled factors which define customer experience: price, promotion, merchandise, supply chain and location.

  • Näslund, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Lightweight and Machine Learning Attack Resistant Physical Unclonable Functions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more embedded devices such as smart home appliances are being connected to the Internet. Implementing lightweight security at a low cost thus becomes increasingly relevant to prevent malicious network entries using less protected devices. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs), and more specifically Arbiter Physical Unclonable Functions (APUFs), are cryptographic primitives that have looked promising for achieving the mentioned requirements. Unfortunately, the APUF as well as many constructions based on it have either been shown weak to machine learning modeling attacks or are not sufficiently lightweight to fit on small embedded devices. Throughout the thesis, software called PyPuf has been used to simulate APUFs. By implementing file parsing in PyPuf it is now possible to generate a software model of an APUF realized in hardware. This thesis explores methods of protecting the APUF from machine learning modeling attacks. Together with a team of researchers at KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, I propose a lightweight PUF construction called the Cyclic Redundancy Check Physical Unclonable Function (CRC-PUF), in which inputs are obfuscated using a technique based on a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). By changing the CRC generator polynomial between input evaluations, the probability of successfully recovering the obfuscated input is at most 2−86 for 128-bit inputs. The output protection technique of combining multiple APUF chains was also explored by comparing XOR with majority vote.

  • Wickberg, Adam
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Environing Media and the Production of Landscapes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2019-12-17 10:00 Kollegiesalen, Stockholm
    Su, Chang
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Building heating solutions in China: A spatial system analysis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern, clean, accessible and affordable building space heating is key tofuture sustainable development in China. However, it is impossible to recommendidentical building space heating solutions for all spaces in such alarge country as China. The decision making for choosing the most feasiblebuilding space heating solution is associated with a number of local characteristic spatial parameters, and stakeholders are still suffering from insufficient understanding of at which locations and under what conditions to choose a certain technology. Therefore, the present thesis aims at llingthis research gap by four steps: first, review current space heating situationin China; second, develop a systematic evaluation method for proper choice on building heating solution in different geolocations of China; third,demonstrate the efficacy of proposed method by case studies; fourth, analysethe Chinese energy sector administration infrastructure and its influence on building heating solutions.

    Step one is to understand the current status of building space heating in China, including what technologies currently prevail and where they are implemented, as well as their application scales. It is found that under existing energy structures, coal as the primary energy source is extensively consumed in space heating systems. Coal-based regional boilers and combined heat and power district heating is prevalent in North China. Distributed heating, such as reversible air-conditioners, is still dominating South China. During past decade, sustainable energy space heating is increasing rapidly under a series of national policy initiatives, and will continue to grow in the future.

    Following the current status review, a systematic method featured by spatial analysis is developed to compare the various heating options and find the best alternative. The method contains three system boundary levels, which reflect the characters of space heating technology, heat source, heat sink as well as the primary energy system. In each system level, local spatial parameters are analyzed. A set of key performance indicators is selected to quantitatively compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of implementing one building space heating solution over another from techno-economic-environmental as well geographical perspectives.

    Case studies are then carried out to demonstrate the application of the method. In case study one, two Chinese cities with different local spatial conditions are chosen. Ground source heat pumps and air source heat pumps are compared with status-quo space heating solutions, which are coal boilers and electric boilers. The results lie in three aspects. Technically, heat pumps are more efficient than boilers from a primary energy point of view. Economically, ground source heat pumps have to reach a satisfying seasonal coefficient of performance value of 3.7 for a competitive payback period against existing heating solutions. Environmentally, heat pumps have to reach a critical seasonal coefficient of performance value around 2.5 to guarantee their environmental advantages compared with directly burning coal for space heating as long as coal is the dominant source of energy to produce electricity. Such a threshold is fairly easy to reach considering the coefficient of performance of the heat pumps in the market.

    Case study two investigates seawater heat pumps potential in four coastal cities from north to south China. From techno-economic perspective, in North China seawater heat pumps can save primary energy use upto 18% in space heating, and can have a discounted payback period as short as 4 years compared with coal boilers. In southern Chinese cities on the other hand, seawater heat pumps can save primary energy use upto 14% in space heating but the discounted payback period is often more than 10 years compared with status-quo system. Environmentally, in North China seawater heat pumps have to reach a critical seasonal coefficient of performance value around 2.4 to guarantee their potential in carbon emissions saving when compared with fossil fuel boilers. In South China, seawater heat pumps generally emit less greenhouse gases than competing technologies. Geographically speaking, northern coastal cities are more feasible for seawater heat pumps applications compared with southern cities, as many buildings in northern coastal cities are within a proper distance to the seawater for efficient utilization of seawater for space heating and cooling.

    Energy administration structure and energy policies in China are anavilyzed in parallel with case studies, in order to understand how energy management in China is regulated and how effective such energy policies can be. It is shown that energy administrations in China have great influence on the implementation of energy technologies and many energy policies are quite effective in promoting renewable space heating technologies.

    In conclusion, stakeholders are suggested to adopt the system method proposed in this thesis, to promote the best building heating solution based on local spatial characteristics. By using the method in case studies, it is concluded that for heat pumps, a number of prerequisites have to be fullled for a more successful application in China. Future emphasis should be placed on heat pumps efficiency improvements, operation management and cost reduction. Meanwhile, increasing the share of zero-carbon electricity in the energy system should be a long-term goal so that the environmental benefits of heat pumps can be more prominent.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-16 10:00 F3, Stockholm
    Sommerfeldt, Nelson
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Solar PV in prosumer energy systems: A techno-economic analysis on sizing, integration, and risk2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition towards a sustainable energy system, building mounted solar photovoltaics (PV) have unique benefits; they require no additional land and the energy is generated directly at load centers. Within residential buildings, multi-family homes (MFH) are particularly interesting because of the economies of scale and their greater potential for emissions reductions.

    This thesis identifies and describes value propositions for solar PV within Swedish multi-family houses via three branches of inquiry; system sizing optimization, quantification of investment risk, and the techno-economic potential of PV/thermal (PVT) collectors integrated with ground source heat pumps (GSHP). Underpinning these investigations is a comprehensive review of technical and economic models for solar PV, resulting in a catalogue of performance indicators and applied techniques.

    From the sizing analysis, no objective, techno-economically optimal PV system size is found without including the prosumer’s personal motives. Prioritizing return on investment results in small systems, whereas systems sized for net-zero energy can be profitable in some buildings. There is also a strong economic incentive to adopt communal electricity metering to increase self-consumption, system size, and economic return. Monte Carlo analysis is used to quantify investment uncertainty, finding that well-designed systems have an 81% chance of earning a 3% real return on investment, and even without subsidies there is a calculated 100% chance of having a positive return. PVT integrated GSHP can reduce the land needed for boreholes by up to 87% with a lower lifecycle cost than district heating, thereby broadening the heat pump market and reducing barriers to heating electrification.

    The quantitative results provide guidance for Swedish MFH owners while the methodology presents solar PV value in a more useful manner for prosumers to identify their personal motives in decision making. This approach is also useful for researchers, business leaders, and policy makers to understand the prosumer perspective and promote adoption of PV in the built environment.

  • Hardin, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Wellenstam, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Utveckling av komplexitetsbedömningsmodell med XGBoost för att anpassa text-till-talsyntes inom Robot-Assisted Language Learning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The social robot Furhat has previously shown to be of interest for Robot-Assisted Language Learning. Currently, Furhat employs a constant speaking rate. However, conclusions from previous work have shown that from a comprehensional point of view, it could benefit from having a dynamic text-to-speech synthesis. In this bachelor thesis, a model was created in order to classify Swedish sentences according to their complexity. The model was later used to decide which utterances were to have a slower speaking pace, in order to increase comprehension among Swedish as second language learners. To evaluate the model, complexity classifications were compared with logs from previous conversations held with Furhat, as well as having questionnaires filled out by language learners. While the model showed some promising results with regards to classification of sentences, the evaluation was inconclusive with regards to its use as a way of dynamically assessing sentence complexity and adjusting Furhat’s speech rate accordingly.

  • He, Jeannie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Norström, Matthew
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Utvärdering av Part-of-Speech tagging som metod för identifiering av nyckelord i dialog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     This study presents Part-of-Speech tagging as a method for keyword spotting as well as a market research for a conversational robot to lead a language café. The results are evaluated using the answers from 30 anonymous Swedish native speakers. The results show that the method is plausible and could be implemented in a conversational robot to increase its understanding of the spoken language in a language café. The market research indicates that there is a market for the conversational robot. The conversional robot needs, however, improvements to successfully become a substitute for human language teachers in language cafés.

  • Bengtsson, Olivia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Designing useful and effective mobile tools to assist light designers’ work process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the significant growth of e-commerce, physical stores need to become more experience-driven, and delivering unique, high impact customer experiences is a core for their success. Lighting is an important element of customer experience, as it directly affects comfort and navigation. In order to customize lighting for a store,expertise from a light designer is needed. However, on-site lighting fine tuning is a challenge due to time restrictions, amount of error occurring to the light installation, and easy accessible tools for adjustments. This study aims to understand whether an mobile tool for adjusting color temperature of lights in realtime can assist a light designer when installing a light installation in a retail store.

    To understand the challenges involved in the work of lightning designers, two methods have been used. A participatory observational study and semistructured interviews with three light designers. Given that, an exploratory user test was performed, testing two versions of a lighting manager application in order to investigate the usage of an existing application and what elements in this kind of tool are of most importance for a light designer. The user tests indicated that a mobile tool like this could be very useful, but only if it contains all the necessary elements needed. The results show that one of the essential elements of such a tool regards options for adjusting color temperature, when creating specifically for a retail store. In order to investigate further how useful existing light color temperature tools are and how they could be designed to suit a light designer needs, a design exercise was performed. Through the result of this exercise a prototype of a color temperature tool was created. This prototype was evaluated through a formative user study. The usability of the prototype was evaluated through a System usability score evaluation questionnaire. According to the test, the prototype was found to be usable. All in all, the results of this study indicate that there is a need for this kind of mobile tools that can effectively assist light designers in their work.

  • Guan, Xing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Predict Next Location of Users using Deep Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the next location of a user has been interesting for both academia and industry. Applications like location-based advertising, traffic planning, intelligent resource allocation as well as in recommendation services are some of the problems that many are interested in solving. Along with the technological advancement and the widespread usage of electronic devices, many location-based records are created.

    Today, deep learning framework has successfully surpassed many conventional methods in many learning tasks, most known in the areas of image and voice recognition. One of the neural network architecture that has shown the promising result at sequential data is Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Since the creation of RNN, much alternative architecture have been proposed, and architectures like Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) are one of the popular ones that are created[5]. This thesis uses GRU architecture and features that incorporate time and location into the network to forecast people’s next location

    In this paper, a spatial-temporal neural network (ST-GRU) has been proposed. It can be seen as two parts, which are ST and GRU. The first part is a feature extraction algorithm that pulls out the information from a trajectory into location sequences. That process transforms the trajectory into a friendly sequence format in order to feed into the model. The second part, GRU is proposed to predict the next location given a user’s trajectory. The study shows that the proposed model ST-GRU has the best results comparing the baseline models.

  • Kartasev, Mart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Integrating Reinforcement Learning into Behavior Trees by Hierarchical Composition2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates ways to extend the use of Reinforcement Learning (RL) to Behavior Trees (BTs). BTs are used in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in order to create modular and reactive planning agents. While human designed BTs are capable of reacting to changes in an environment as foreseen by an expert, they are not capable of adapting to new scenarios. The focus of the thesis is on using existing general-purpose RL methods within the framework of BTs. Deep Q-Networks (DQN) and Proximal Policy Optimisation (PPO) were embedded into BTs, using RL implementations from an open-source RL library. The experimental part of the thesis uses these nodes in a variety of scenarios of increasing complexity, demonstrating some of the benefits of combining RL and BTs. The experiments show that there are benefits to using BTs to control a set of hierarchically decomposed RL sub-tasks for solving a larger problem. Such decomposition allows for reuse of generic behaviors in different parts of a BT. By decomposing the RL problem using a BT, it is also possible to identify and replace problematic parts of a policy, as opposed to retraining the entire policy.

  • Björkman, Jacob
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Evaluation of the Effects of Different Preprocessing Methods on OCR Results from Images with Varying Quality2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Counterfeited products present a serious problem in many aspects of society. More specifically, counterfeited mechanical components in machines and structures can cause great health risks. For consumers it can be very difficult to identify a counterfeited product, and many industries try to find ways to easily detect a counterfeit. One straightforward way of finding counterfeits is reading the information on the product box and confirming that it is valid. This thesis project explores the effect of different image preprocessing methods on the results of existing Optical Character Recognition engines (OCR). The study is done by applying preprocessing methods, one by one, to images of product boxes and sending them to two different OCR engines, Tesseract OCR and Microsoft Azure’s OCR engine. The results show that for Tesseract OCR, preprocessing is improving the performance regarding correctly read characters in the image. For Azure OCR however, some care has to be taken to not interfere with Azure’s internal processing. Cropping of the images as a preprocessing method stood out as most promising but needs some further development. Usage of OCR for counterfeit detection is possible but the types of images and OCR engines used must be considered when deciding on preprocessing methods.

  • Mårtensson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Rumman, Philip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Asset management in the utility sector: The challenges of breaching the gap between current practice and best practice2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vital societal functions are upheld by public infrastructure. For some time, normative theories describing asset management have disseminated in research and in business. Public infrastructure companies are increasingly required to adhere to management standards under regulatory pressure, however, the research area is in need of more empirical contributions on which challenges companies face when implementing management systems standards in their organization. For asset management systems and the ISO 55000 series in particular, the empirical data is lacking.

    This thesis addresses the challenges public utility companies face when implementing asset management principles. A qualitative case study was conducted during a five-month period at Sweden's largest water utility company, Stockholm Vatten och Avfall AB (SVOA). Fourteen interviews were conducted and compared with company documents to provide triangulation.

    The findings suggest that the main challenges a public utility company has to overcome to implement an asset management model are: 1) Lack of strategic and long-term planning responsibility. 2) Unclear division of asset responsibilities. 3) Lack of top management commitment towards asset management systems. 4) No standardized risk management. 5) Lack of information sharing between departments.

    The implications of this study are twofold: In a practical sense the thesis argues for top management of public infrastructure firms to commit to principles of asset management theory, provide a clear division of asset responsibility, introduce systematic risk management principles and policies, as well as promote cross-divisional exchanges of experiences. Academically, this investigation contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the ISO 55000 series, and the implementation process of standards similar to it, in the context of companies managed by the public sector.

  • Grass, Marcus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Performance management systems in customer service2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When management sets performance goals the expectation is that employees should strive to reach them, they are used to drive motivation and increase performance. However, the task of instituting performance goals should not be taken lightly. The goals need to fair, measurable, and accepted by the employees who are to adopt them. There are pitfalls to avoid when setting up performance management systems. If goals are not fair, they can breed resentment against the performance management system. If goals are not easily measurable, their validity in the view of the employees can fade as they cannot tell if their work impacts the goals.

    This thesis examines the deployment of a performance management application to bolster an already existing performance management system. The thesis involves both the construction of the application, using theory from the field of performance management to inspire its functions, and the investigation into how the application affects increased performance and job satisfaction for the employees who uses it. Thus, the thesis takes theories from performance management, some with their genesis before the digital age; and applied them in a digital format, investigating how well they apply within the space of a web application.

    The analysis concludes that employing a web application as part of a performance management system can increase engagement with that system. However, if that system is poorly implemented, the positive effects sought from a performance management system, increased performance and job satisfaction, can turn into negative effects such as increased negative stress for the employees.

    In the studied case, the existing performance management system was poorly fit for some employees, and well fit for others. The result of deploying the web application was increased engagement and a high affect for the web application by those for whom the system fit well, and low engagement and negative affect for the web application by those for whom the system fit poorly. Additionally, implementing competitions made the application more appealing and caused employees to actively use it. Thus, making employees seek to engage more with the underlying performance management system.

  • Lagergren, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Norelius, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Managing the Transition Towards Open Source Software Adoption:: Considerations for Large IT Companies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The promise of reduced costs, increased flexibility, and independence from vendors of proprietary products has convinced organizations worldwide to deploy Open Source Software (OSS) in their production environments and commercial offerings. Therefore, the ability to scale software, seamlessly integrate open source software in products and increase benefits from OSS participation are crucial capabilities. However, the nature of OSS is not entirely compatible with the rigid structures and processes of many large companies and thus successfully managing OSS has proven to be highly difficult. Previous research has shown that many companies have built previous success on ‘closed innovation’ logic and must now move in a highly counterintuitive direction towards an ‘open innovation’ mindset. This creates various strategic and operational challenges which they need to identify and overcome to avoid disruption.

    Based on the aforementioned, the purpose has been to investigate key patterns in how development and increased use of open source software could affect large IT companies. This is to illustrate the transition between closed innovation to open innovation strategy for software, but also to describe the strategic and operational challenges that come appear thereafter.

    To create a deeper understanding of this process of change, a single (qualitative) case study by a large Swedish IT company has been carried out. The hope is to be able to contribute to research by presenting general conclusions from the case study where empirical data is linked to contemporary research in the field. In order to be able to generalize based on the empirical data, interviews have been conducted with both doctoral students and professors in the field, but also experts in the business world.

    Our findings have generated insights concerning the OSS adoption process of Company A. The findings of the study include a 6-step model that describes the adoption process as well as strategic and operational considerations for successful transition towards efficient OSS governance.

  • Feng, Benny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Data collection for digitalization of the Stockholm Metro: A study of data sources needed to digitalize the Stockholm Metro2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations are looking to implement data-driven technologies such as big data analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning in their operations due to their rapid development and increased usefulness in recent years. With technology changing fast, it is difficult for managers to determine which sources of data are relevant in the context of these technologies. This paper aims to explore opportunities to implement data-driven technologies in the Stockholm metro. The technologies are assessed based on their usefulness and feasibility. The assessment is also done in regards to the current state of the organization in charge of the Stockholm metro, Trafikförvaltningen, and its internal capabilities.

    The study has been conducted through interviews aimed at understanding Trafikförvaltningen as an organization, as well as literary reviews of state-of-the-art technologies aimed at understanding what is technically possible. By aligning the state of the organization with current technologies, it was concluded that big data for preventive maintenance and smart grids for minimizing energy consumption were the most relevant data-driven technologies to implement.

  • Kling, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Virta, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The Digital Subcontractor: Leveraging Digital Technology by Strategic Adoption2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries are today facing the possibilities and challenges arising with an increasingly digitalised world. One such is the scantily studied industry of earth-moving contractors that today stands in front of an increasing amount of digital technologies, which may have the possibility to assist firms in their earthwork operations. However, there are indications that many firms tend to experience difficulties to beneficially adopt or see the potential of utilising these digital technologies. Hence, many firms tend to undertake an adoption approach that is associated with high client dependency and a less beneficial unsustainable subordinated position within the industry’s value chain.

    The purpose of this study has thus been to explore how the technological, organisational and external elements affect earth-moving contractors’ opportunity to adopt and utilise digital technologies in their operations. Moreover, the study has aimed to contribute with the understanding and knowledge of how the adoption of digital technology can be used to strengthen Swedish contractors’ position in the earth-moving industry’s value chain and in the end, aid the country’s sociotechnical development.

    The findings of the study are based on an explorative multiple case study approach and extensive review of literature. The results suggest that the extent to which adoption and utilisation of digital technologies differs among different earth-moving firms. Three of the five studied companies are considered as digital forerunners which have been able to leverage digital technologies to increase efficiency in their operations. In the case of two of these firms, the adoption of digital technology has enabled them to transform their whole businesses and partake in an increased and more beneficial role within the value chain. Further, the analysis of the findings indicates that the difference in adoption is affected by several factors related to a continuous interaction between (1) the internal aspects of the organisations, (2) the external context of the firms and (3) if the technical features of the digital technologies are perceived as compatible and beneficial for, the current business process and strategy.

    The thesis contributes to academia with explorative findings within a scarcely studied industry in general and, regarding digital technology adoption in particular. Additionally, the study provides examples of the previously unrecognised industry-dynamic phenomena of value chain integration by earth-moving contractors. These findings could have implications for the whole construction sector in Sweden. Lastly, the study exemplifies opportunities and barriers crucial for the adoption and implementation of digital technologies within smaller project-based organisations.

  • Kulakova, Iuliana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The impact of Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance (ESG) practices on the financial performance of companies in emerging and frontier markets2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we explore the proprietary Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance (ESG) scores and analyze their impacts on firm valuation using the sample of 166 companies operating in 35 emerging and frontier markets. Three methods of ESG scores, Principal Component Analysis and regression analysis are used. The results indicate an economically significant relationship between the overall ESG measure and firm value mainly driven by the “Environmental” and “Capital allocation” sub-scores. An exploratory principal component analysis and an extensive list of firm characteristics is also employed in our regression analysis to address problems identified in previous studies - construct validity and endogeneity. The PCA revealed dominance of Environmental and Social components in the variance of the total ESG score. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of proprietary ESG score and PCAderived index are recognized based on sector- and region level comparison and the opportunities to improve the ESG scorecard framework are identified.

  • Hallberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Lindberg, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    ATT UTVECKLA EN KRETSKORTSPROTOTYP: UTVECKLING AV EN SMART PILLERDOSA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people are dependent on medication for their survival. These are mainly found in older age groups. Many of these are medicated daily and the burden of medication is noticeable. Because of their problems, enormous stress is associated with medication because it is particularly difficult to remember when it is to be taken, which dose, but also which medicine. Some need to take medicine as often as eight times in one day.These people are treated by doctors. Doctors assess the effectiveness of medication based on the patient's ability and willingness to recall accurate information regarding their compliance with medication. All too often, the patient recalls wrongful information.We have been given the task of further developing a prototype for a "smart" pillbox whose goal is to improve the patient's experience in medication and give the doctor a reliable and safe way to follow the patients' compliance with medication.We have further developed a previous prototype by creating a new prototype that implements all the desired features on a customized circuit board.The advantages of a specially developed circuit board prototype against a modular prototype are investigated regarding size reduction, energy efficiency and cost efficiency.A suitable approach for developing a circuit board prototype, the results of the investigation and recommendations for further development are discussed and presented in the report.A circuit board prototype according to the stated specifications was successfully developed in the specified timeframe. The investigation showed that greater sizereduction, energy-efficiency and cost-efficiency were possible to achieve.

  • Yvell, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Axelsson, Elin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Implementation of UsageBased Insurance solutions: A qualitative analysis of a technology-based insurance model from the perspective of the Swedish insurance industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years’ digital transformation has led to an increased interest in using and utilising smart technology in various insurance solutions, something that has come to challenge the traditional insurance model. The UsageBased Insurance model (UBI) is an example of an insurance model that utilises these technological innovations. With the aid of smart technology, the insurance model has the possibility, by using real-time data, to price premiums more accurately and efficiently, as well as it enables a more proactive approach. Despite the model’s positive capabilities, the degree of implementation in Europe, as well as in Sweden, can generally be regarded as low. Thus, the interest is raised about what influences this low level of implementation, as well as what challenges, requirements and consequences that are attached to such implementation. By investigating the UBI model, the purpose of this study is thus to analyse how new technology-based insurance models could affect the Swedish insurance industry and, in an extension, also the Swedish society. The study also intends to evaluate how these technology-based insurance policies could affect the insurability of risk, this by applying Berliner’s (1982) insurability criteria. With the help of a comprehensive literature study in parallel with a qualitative, semi-structured, interview study, the report aims to provide a broader understanding of what bridging contradictions that exist between theory and practice.

    The biggest challenges identified, related to a UBI implementation, are the customers’ willingness to share personal data, the insurance company’s propensity for transformation, their digital ability and the Swedish welfare system. Further, it has been concluded that the model’s increased ability to assess risk could consequently mean that an implementation would contribute to discrimination and cherry-picking, also known as cream skimming. To overcome these challenges and risks, and to stimulate a high implementation level, the required factors identified are that the UBI solution needs to stimulate other incentives than the monetary, that it should be simple and designed in a way that makes it feel personalised and an integrated part of the policyholders’ lives.

    If the primary purpose of utilising the UBI model is to decide the most profitable premium cost, the authors assess that the impediments are too high, the incentives too low and negative consequences too severe to reach a high degree of implementation on the Swedish market. The insurance companies instead have a great opportunity, as a proactive risk manager, to take a whole new position in the policyholders’ lives. Through proactive services, which are not premium-based, insurance companies would instead stimulate a behavioural change by advising, encouraging and in different ways rewarding a behavioural change towards a healthier and safer lifestyle. A development that all actors benefit from, without suffering the risk of punishing and/or discriminating policyholders. From the perspective of lacking social resources, this is also an opportunity to create a more proactive health care in Sweden.

  • Forsén, Folger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Grewin, Louise
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Organizational Effects of Public Cloud: How the Implementation of Public Cloud Affects an Organization with Substantial IT Legacy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migrating from IT legacy systems to Cloud Computing, is a complex task for an organization to undertake since changes of both technical end organizational aspects are required to take advantage of all capabilities that Public Cloud offer. A limited number of studies have been conducted exploring the organizational perspective of the migration process to Public Cloud for larger organization, which are bounded to their IT legacy. This thesis aims to contribute with knowledge to this gap by addressing the following purpose: investigate how the migration to Public Cloud affects an organization with large IT legacy.

    Anchored in a case study at an incumbent enterprise, the thesis bridges literature on Cloud Computing, organizational change management and organizational aspects of the migration process. Findings from empirics indicate that the case company is experiencing multiple layers of complexity of change management such as: change management, culture, internal processes, IT legacy and security, are essential to be managed to successfully migrate to Public Cloud. These findings suggest that the challenges are constraining the migration towards Public Cloud and especially the development of the IT environment, and therefore inhibit the essential value-creation processes. Another challenge is the generalized view of security being a great risk which further inhibits the evolvement and process towards Public Cloud.

    The thesis presents that although the migration to Public Cloud is primarily of technical concern, the migration process is also a major organizational change management process with large challenges that needs to be considered for a successful migration. Hence, the thesis contributes to better understanding of how an organization with substantial IT legacy can prepare for the emerging changes of a potential technology shift.

  • Nilsson, Frida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Sundbeck, Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Understanding influential factors in the choice of the selection process: A neglected aspect of the research literature on business incubators2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the understanding of what factors influence the choice of the selection process in government-funded business incubators. The study was conducted as an abductive multiple case-study of selection processes in Swedish government-funded business incubators. Our findings are summarized in a framework illustrating that owners and financiers stipulate important pre-conditions for the opportunities business incubators have in designing and implementing a certain selection process through their impact on the incubator goal and target group, and subsequently the choice of criteria. The regional context (local economics, level of entrepreneurial activity, collaborations and brand awareness) also stipulate a precondition for the incubator’s choice of the selection process by affecting the inflow of business ideas and therefore the pool of potential candidates available to the incubator. The amount and quality of the inflow mainly reflects in the rigorousness or flexibility in the application criteria. The design of the process, and thus the practices included, is highly influenced by the orientation of managers and operative staff in the incubator, conditioned upon available resources (organizational capabilities and constraints), and influenced by best practices, investor objectives, and macro trends. The study provides implications for research on selection processes in business incubators by highlighting that prior research has had a limited perspective of selection by primarily focusing on criteria and the flexibility and rigorousness in applying these, thus disregarding other practices and prevailing selection as an event rather than a process. Furthermore, we pinpoint several factors affecting the choice of the selection process, not previously discussed in the research literature. The emerging framework may also be used by stakeholders in order to understand how different factors impact the selection process and identify areas that are weak and need to be improved.

  • Rude, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Balicevac, Aleksandar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Development of a real-time TDABC model for production activities: A case study at a manufacturing company2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating the right amount of indirect cost associated with a specific product or service offers many different options and there is no right or wrong answer to it. At the end of the day, a cost model is only as good as the organization perceives it to be. Today, an increasing number of companies are taking advantage of what the Industry 4.0 has to offer, making use of their own data in particular. In this study, we examine the possibilities of Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC) in conjunction with a data-rich manufacturing environment. The research is conducted as a case study at the Swedish startup battery manufacturing company Northvolt. The case study is two folded. Initially, a qualitative exploration of how TDABC with real-time activity data can be developed in a manufacturing company will be conducted. Following, the outcome of a TDABC model which utilized real-time activity data instead of estimated values will be examined through simulation. The study incorporates important findings from previous studies in terms of how much workers are actually overestimating their performances in most cases. The overestimation is one of the largest problems when it comes to TDABC, and it is due to the subjective belief that a worker is actually producing more than he/she actually is. With this in mind, this case simulation showed that Northvolt could possibly improve cost allocation by up to 4% from production cost in the part of the production under investigation by utilizing realtime data instead of overestimated values.

  • Håkansson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Åkerström, Tom
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Business Ecosystem for Cellular Connectivity in Manufacturing Factories: - A case study to investigate how infrastructure developing telecom companies can establish a viable buisness ecosystem for cellular connectivity in manufacturing factories.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers have begun to realize that in order to have factories which are adapted to the contemporary conditions required for having state of the art manufacturing, the fixed network cables should be replaced by wireless communication with higher capacity. Cellular connectivity has this ability, but to be able to deliver it to manufacturing factories, they would benefit from establishing a suitable ecosystem design for the technology.

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate how infrastructure developing telecom companies can work to establish this business ecosystem for cellular connectivity in manufacturing factories and make sure they remain competitive over time. The purpose was fulfilled using a qualitative case study consisting of 20 semi-structured interviews, conducted at a case company. The case study was complemented with a quantitative study to understand the status of current relationships in the ecosystem.

    Results of the study indicate that:

    • As cellular connectivity for manufacturing factories is in an early stage of its life cycle, it is of more importance to convince customers of the technology’s benefits, in order to get a market pull, rather than promoting the own product.

    • A competitive advantage may not be yielded through getting a minimum viable product to the market in the sense of learning about components and complements. However, the minimum viable product should give rise to an opportunity to establish key relationships and experience across the entire ecosystem.

    • Relationships to all business partners in the ecosystem are considered important. However, the relationships differ in strength, as they are at different maturity stages and needs various amounts of attention and resources. Accordingly, some effort needs to be put into all relationships, but making sure to understand the optimal amount of attention and resources for each relationship may facilitate the choosing of appropriate effort levels.

  • Zafarzadeh, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Real-time data gathering in production logistics: A research review on applications and technologies affecting environmental and social sustainability2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to identify the challenges and issues concerning environmental or social sustainability in Production Logistics that are affected by implementing real-time data collection concepts, technologies and applications. A systematic literature review has been conducted to shed a light on sustainability aspect of real-time technologies and applications. According to the findings, few researches directly investigated how real-time data collection affect the environmental and social aspects of sustainability. Besides, the indirect effects are discussed in order to find a better picture about the relation between these technologies and sustainability.

  • Melander, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Lewenhaupt, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Leveraging Industry 4.0: Value Creation Through Improved Manufacturing Productivity2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 is a collective name for several technological innovations that, when combined, among other things, provide an exponential potential for increased operational excellence in manufacturing. This thesis digs down into which technologies that are relevant in the context of predictive maintenance and how these can be integrated into existing theory in order to create value through increased e↵ectiveness. The primary findings can be condensed down into one general principal - uniformity. In order to leverage industry 4.0, and through it achieve a higher level of automatization, all data flow must be as canonical as possible. This is what allows both for bi-directional communication at scale, and higher-level decisionmaking algorithms to be deployed over a wide range of hardware.

  • Henningsson, Diana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Wendel, Olivia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    RFID for more effective and efficient train maintenance: A case study of a train depot in a deregulated market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis the potential value of using RFID technology in train depots has been investigated. Train depots are a crucial part of the railway system as safe and timely traffic relies on the maintenance activities preformed in them. The Swedish passenger train traffic is expected to increase significantly in the coming years and the ability to expand the existing train depots is limited. Optimal utilization of depots, achieved by efficient and effective operations, is therefore crucial. Coordinating the activities within depots is a complex activity due to the limited resources, inflexible infrastructure and the need for continuous monitoring due to unforeseen events. The complexity is further increased with the large number of independent actors. Due to EU-directives all member nations have to liberalize their passenger railway markets, enabling new actors to enter the market.

    Sweden's passenger railway market was fully deregulated in 2010. For this thesis a case study on one of the largest depots in Sweden has been conducted to examine how RFID technology can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of its depot operations. The most important factors for achieving this is to facilitate an efficient flow of vehicles between service stations and efficient and accurate flow of communication between the many actors. Based on this, three key objectives were identified for achieving effective and efficient depot operations; communication, coordination and transparency. The benefits of RFID have been analyzed within the areas; asset tracking, maintenance and safety, and opportunities for achieving the key objectives were identified within each of these areas. The findings show that RFID enables for better utilization of resources, which allows more trains to use the depot. Also, cost savings can be captured by automating manual tasks. The effectiveness of the maintenance operations can be improved by elimination of non-value adding activities and the risk of mistakes due to the human factor. It was also discovered that the transparent data that RFID provides can improve stakeholder relations and that it could be used for identification of problem areas. Conclusively, the findings of the study show that effectiveness and efficiency of train depots can be improved with the use of RFID to meet the future demands of an increased passenger train traffic.

  • Zafarzadeh, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Hedman, Ida
    Bahtijarevic, Jasmin
    Real-Time Data Sharing in Production Logistics: Exploring Use Cases by an Industrial Study2019In: Advances in Production Management Systems. Towards Smart Production Management Systems: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2019, Austin, TX, USA, September 1–5, 2019, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] F. Ameri et al. (Eds.):, New York: Springer, 2019, Vol. 567, p. 285-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production logistics systems consist often of a number of low value-added activities combined with a high degree of manual work. Therefore, increasing effectivity and responsiveness has always been a target for production logistics systems. Sharing data in real-time may have a considerable potential to increase effectivity and responsiveness. The first step to realise real-time data sharing is to have a clear understanding of current state of PL systems and their requirements. This work is performed an ‘as-is’ situation analysis of an industrial case aiming at identifying which areas and applications would benefit most from real-time data sharing. The findings take a step closer to have a better understanding of CPS and Industry 4.0.

  • Hedman, Filip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The Relationship Between Venture Capital and High Growth Firms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between venture capital and the number of high growth firms. Previous research has covered the relation at the firmlevel where the positive effect of venture capital on innovation, firm growth and economic growth has been established. However, the research field have been lacking a more aggregated approach. With a fixed effects panel regression with the number of high growth firms as the dependent variable and the amount of venture capital as the key independent variable, this study is conducted at the country-level with a panel of 20 countries. The study yield no significant results except the positive effect of GDP per capita. The conclusion is that the data available today is not ready for this level of aggregation as it captures to much noise with regards to other factors affecting firm growth in a country. Growth in employment might also be an outdated proxy to measure firm growth as today's modern firms are not as dependent on a large number of employees to scale as in the past.

  • Settlin, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Ekelund, Joar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Lagring och visualisering av information om stötdämpare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By perform simulations to achieve an understanding of how a shock absorbers setting affect its characteristics could result in improved road holding, increased roadworthiness and faster lap times at the racetrack. By visualizing the simulated data, users can get an understanding in how the settings on the shock absorber will behave.This work had as a goal to design a database that mimic a shock absorbers characteristic and to visualize these characteristics on a website. Requirements was gathered through interviews with experts and information was procured through literature studies. From the gathered requirements and case studies a relational database, that contain information about a shock absorbers components and construction, was developed. A visualization tool to visualize the characteristics of a shock absorber was also developed. The database and the visualization tool where then joined to create a prototype for simulating a shock absorbers characteristic on the web.The result from the case studies indicated that the database management system MySQL and the graph library Chart.js was best suited for the prototype, based on the collected requirements. The functionality of the prototype was validated by the client and the margin of error for the simulation was below 1%. This implies that the database model that has been produced is of good quality and that the visualization of the result is presented in a correct and apprehensible manner.

  • Roberts, Christopher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Energy Policies and Directed Technical Change: How Governments Incentivize Firms to Invests in Renewable Energy innovation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Policies are regarded as the most important instrument in redirecting invention Policies are regarded as the most important instrument in redirecting invention investments away from fossil fuel technologies towards renewable energy technologies. Despite the importance and urgency in decarbonizing the economy, the literature on how different energy policies effect the development of renewable energy technologies is relatively scarce. A difficulty has been in justifying the operationalizing of policies in as both valid and reliable. This thesis tackles the operationalization difficulty and produces empirical evidence in how effective various policies are in incentivizing the development of renewable energy technologies (RET). The main findings are that government R&D expenditure increases firm innovation across all RET, demand-pull policies either increase the likelihood of firm inventions or has an insignificant effect and carbon taxation does not increase the likelihood of RET invention.

  • Fang, Tongtong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Learning from noisy labelsby importance reweighting:: a deep learning approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Noisy labels could cause severe degradation to the classification performance. Especially for deep neural networks, noisy labels can be memorized and lead to poor generalization. Recently label noise robust deep learning has outperformed traditional shallow learning approaches in handling complex input data without prior knowledge of label noise generation. Learning from noisy labels by importance reweighting is well-studied. Existing work in this line using deep learning failed to provide reasonable importance reweighting criterion and thus got undesirable experimental performances. Targeting this knowledge gap and inspired by domain adaptation, we propose a novel label noise robust deep learning approach by importance reweighting. Noisy labeled training examples are weighted by minimizing the maximum mean discrepancy between the loss distributions of noisy labeled and clean labeled data. In experiments, the proposed approach outperforms other baselines. Results show a vast research potential of applying domain adaptation in label noise problem by bridging the two areas. Moreover, the proposed approach potentially motivate other interesting problems in domain adaptation by enabling importance reweighting to be used in deep learning.

  • Bellman, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Göransson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Intelligent Process Automation: Building the bridge between Robotic Process Automation and Artificial Intelligence2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Process Automation has the potential to yield great benefits for companies and organizations, especially in the financial services industry where companies are information-intensive and experience rich data flows. This has mostly been done through Robotic Process Automation (RPA), but the increased maturity of Machine Learning algorithms has increased the viability of combining classic RPA with Artificial Intelligence, leading to Intelligent Process Automation (IPA). However, there is a set of challenges embedded in the transition from RPA to IPA. These challenges need to be dealt with in order to ensure that the benefits of the new technology can be harvested.

    The aim of this research was to identify this set of challenges that the companies will face, as well as provide guidance to what preparations that need to be made before IPA can be implemented in full scale.

    The research was conducted as a theory building case study at a large Swedish bank. An empirical study was conducted, consisting of interviews with researchers, as well as automation professionals and R&D at the case company. The findings of the empirical study and previous research on the area were combined and condensed into a guiding framework for organizations wanting to adopt IPA.

  • Furberg, Matilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Naumburg, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Milk as a Service: Exploring the Concepts of Servitization and Digitalization in the Business Model of an Incumbent Manufacturing Firm2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to digitalization as a technology shift, many incumbent manufacturing firms face challenges to maintain their position on the market. One solution to tackle this technology shift is by servitization, which has shown great opportunities for value creation in various industries. Services are harder to imitate and have therefore potential to create competitive advantage. However, because of the limited number of studies examining the transition from one business model to another in combination with servitization and digitalization, a gap is identified in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore how an incumbent manufacturing firm can create and obtain value by implementing servitization and digital services in its current business model.

    The purpose of this thesis is achieved through a single case study of an incumbent manufacturing firm within the dairy farming industry. The findings suggest that implementing digital services in an incumbent manufacturing firm improves competitive advantage as they increase the barriers of adoption to competitors and third-parties; thus, improve the customer loyalty and the customer lock-in effect. When conceptualising servitization and digitalization, it is important to establish a clear framework for digital services, which should be aligned with the company’s overall strategies and processes. To meet the growing demand for more efficiency and flexibility, it is proposed to lay additional focus on the construction and development of the digital platform.

    Further, this study investigates how the development of digital services for predictive maintenance affects the business model of an incumbent manufacturing firm. From the conceptual framework developed in this study, it is emphasised that five business model elements are important to focus on in the era of digitalization, namely: value proposition, revenue streams, channels, customer relationships and key partner networks. The findings suggest to use adapting services such as performance-based contracting with a subscription model and add-ons. In addition, co-creation with customers in an early stage of the innovation process is deemed key to develop suitable services, while improving the customer relationship. Moreover, it is important to have in mind that digitalization enhances the transparency of information; thus, it is crucial to develop standardised frameworks to retain a trustworthy customer relationship. Consequently, it is argued as important to update the revenue model for digital services with a cohesive pricing strategy worldwide. Furthermore, this study suggests moving step by step towards direct selling, while remaining a good relationship with the external dealers. Due to the fact that not all customers have the prerequisites for implementing digital services, the degree of digitalization and direct selling must be adapted to the unique situation and service provided.

    By analysing how servitization as an effect of digitalization affects the business model of an incumbent manufacturing firm, this thesis contributes to extant knowledge within the fields of servitization, digitalization and business models. Furthermore, this thesis contributes to managerial knowledge with an in-depth contextualised knowledge of a possible servitization transition as a business model innovation.

  • Holm, Stephanie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Karlsson, Louise
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Mobile Banking Adoption in an Emerging Economy: An Empirical Analysis of Users in Myanmar: A Minor Field Study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide an overview of the attitude toward mobile banking among early adopters in Myanmar. By conducting exploratory interviews with ten bank employees, factors that are important for the adoption of mobile banking were also identified. The qualitative method allowed factors beyond the existing technology adoption frameworks to emerge. From the results, it was concluded that the attitude toward mobile banking is overall positive among the early adopters. Findings were aligned with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), suggesting that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are important factors for the usage of mobile banking. Social influence did not show any consistent results, but external barriers such as regulations and cash-based society were evidently important factors for adoption. Moreover, experience showed to have an impact on the participants’ attitude and the adoption of mobile banking. The findings from this paper could work as a foundation when formulating future hypotheses for mobile banking adoption in Myanmar. Regarding practical contributions, banks can get an insight into what is important to focus on when designing a strategy to increase the rate of mobile banking adoption. For future research, it would be of interest to extend the sample and collect data from both users and non-users.