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  • Ané, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Karlsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Dimensionering av färdigvarulager2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This written summary includes an account of the thesis project “dimensioning of finished goods inventory”. The work has been carried out at Scania DT in Södertälje within the department for transmission and axles. The central part of the work has been to study how today's finished goods inventory for transmission should be able to face the future production-related challenges. In conjunction with the fact that higher production volumes were forecasted for the next few years and that a completely new article program would be introduced in parallel with today’s assortment concludes that the overall current capacity would be exceeded.

    In order to secure the capacity of the finished goods inventory before the future changes, the area would be reviewed so that solutions could be proposed on a number of points in order to increase the capacity of the finished goods inventory. Primarily the focus was on reviewing the dimensions of the inventory and building simulation models to be able to present proposals for necessary dimensions that could handle the increased production volumes.

    Scania also requested that the simulation models could be applied to their other finished goods inventories so the model could be used to present similar dimensional proposals for future scenarios in other inventories. The work was limited to look at three time horizons that were of crucial importance for the inventories capacity. The horizons included the current volumes of today as well as two future stages of increase in production with a reduction of the system's cycle times, which would generate larger volume flows of products. Data for the simulation models were collected with the solution methods, semistructured interviews, construction of simulation models, observations and data sources.

    The model's first step was to mirror to today's finished goods inventory, in order to validate the model against confirmed data. Then future production data would be generated based on the current input and output flows to correspond to future production increases. The production data of the future was generated by reducing today's output and input data with the differences between the new and old cycle times.

    The Excel data tool was used to manage the large amounts of data, while the simulation program Extendsim9 was used for the construction of the model. The data in the programs were then linked together and generated the future volume flows that the inventory would be dimensioned for. These results would be the basis for the solutions that would be proposed on how the aspects of working methodology and inventory layout could be reworked to increase the storage capacity of the inventory.

    These two aspects were examined in addition to the proposals for dimensioning, since the only solution proposal that was applicable on the aspect of dimensioning was expansion in height or width to give room for more stalls. This solution was very costly and not a first choice for Scania, which requested other solution methods to the problem. After the simulations were completed, the results of the various components of the model were examined. The results indicated that the next production increase would result in a product flow that exceeds today's storage capacity. In addition the capacity of the trucks in the finished goods inventory would be overloaded in conjunction with reduced cycle time, which would mean regular production stoppages when the conveyor belts were overloaded with articles.

    Solution proposals were presented in order to ensure the future capacity of the finished goods inventory, where the solutions were aimed against the bottlenecks that had been identified in parallel with the changes. The proposals included the implementation of high bay warehouse, added truck and transport capacity, reduced lay time for the inventory´sarticles and revised time slots to enable a sufficiently wide outflow for the new volumes. This results in an overall increase in capacity for todays finished goods inventory, so that it can meet the future capacity requirements.

  • Nilsson, Alfred
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Elsin, Vidar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Pålitligheten av fasrekonstruktion i koherent diffraktiv avbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project examines the reliability of the process of phase reconstruction in coherent diffraction imaging, where the electron density of a particle is reconstructed from the magnitude of it's Fourier transform. We use a simulated experimental setup and produce high contrast test particles with different levels of internal detail, together with three different amounts of signal and two different kinds of noise present in the detection process. Phase reconstruction was done using the Hybrid Input-Output and Error-Reduction algorithms to produce independent reconstructions starting from randomized phases, and the reconstructions were compared using the Phase Retrieval Transfer Function (PRTF) as a measure of accuracy. The results indicated that both particle detail and the amount of signal were important parameters for an accurate reconstruction. The presence of Gaussian noise together with Poisson noise had a larger impact in the high signal case, and the PRTF was not a good measure of reconstruction accuracy in the low signal situation. Future improvements to these simulations could examine different types of noise distributions and a wider range of parameters.

     

  • Iich, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Soltaniha, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Processtyrning av IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB:sprocesser2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Processes make up the foundation for a company’s capability of producing, whether it is physical products or services. For IVL Swedish Environmental Institute AB to be able to optimize itself internally, process control needs to be implemented instead of traditional line control. Therefore, this project had the goal to research KPIs and control forms that are applicable within the processes from aquality-, time- and cost perspective.

    Primary data for this report was collected using interviews with Group Managers and members of the Management, while secondary data was collected using literature studies. For the interviews, reliability and validation were considered. Literature studies have taken publication dates-, relevance and subjectareas into account upon studying.

    The project processes at IVL Swedish Environmental Institute AB consists of three main processes: ”Sales Process”, ”Accomplishing and Delivering” and ”Concluding and Evaluating”. Results from the primary data show that all KPIs and forms of control occur on a general level. However, for process control there is a need for KPIs and forms of control on a subprocess-level.

    It is possible to achieve process control on a subprocess-level with assistance from the newly implemented CRM-System Salesforce, within the Sales-process and Concluding and Evaluating process. It was also discovered that the Accomplishing and Delivering process is lacking an unambiguous Project Management System. From a quality-, time- and cost perspective, such a system delivers increased internal project efficiency and a basis for data-collection for KPIs and understanding for the processes. In-total, 17 KPIs and 2 forms of control were recommended, which act as a foundation for improved customer relations, continuous improvement and as tools within decision models.

    Final recommendations for further studies are to initialize a pilot study for an unambiguous Project Management System. Furthermore, the topic of frequency of measurement is a matter that needs to bediscussed internally, where a recommendation is made for IVL Swedish Environmental Institute AB toset a target value to measure and control on a weekly basis.

  • Lundqvist, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Totalfosforhalten i Bällstaån2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The high levels of phosphorus in the river Bällstaån are in contradiction to the environmental goals and norms set by the Swedish government. By 2027 the total phosphorus content in Bällstaån's has to decrease sharply, from the current “unsatisfactory” level (91 µg/L) to the minimum level “good” ecological status (40 µg/L). Simultaneously, Bällstaån is located in an expansive area in Stockholm making the future uncertain.

    The purpose of the project is trying to investigate which phosphorus sources affect Bällstaån and how the phosphorus is transported from source to river. A compilation of measurement data regarding total phosphorus has been made of sampling points along Bällstaån, for a series of measurement periods, in order to determine which sampling points phosphorus levels that differ from the surrounding sampling points. Graphs have been produced in Excel to visualize the measurement values.

    Only test periods with monthly measurements are used and only sample points with at least 3 consecutive sample periods are used, to reduce error sources. The 2013 sample period is used as a starting point, as it is the newest period with monthly samplings. The sample periods used are 2013, 2009 and 2004 for all sample points. For some sample points the additional sample periods, 1999 and 1992, were added. To create additional sample points two adjacent sample points are co-joined so a valid trial period can be created. This is due to the fact that a number of sample points varied between the sample periods and some points have been replaced.

    A literature study and review of land use in the area has been conducted to predict how the phosphorus reaches the river and where it comes from. Using elevation data from Swedish National Land Survey, I have been produced maps in ArcMap, primarily with the tool ArcHydro Tools. These maps show basins, sub-basins and sample points.

    The result of the literature study shows that possible phosphorus sources to Bällstaån with significant environmental impact are agriculture, stormwater and industries. The land use in the basin area showed that the majority of the surface consists of large zones of hard-coated surfaces.

    The compilation of measurement data shows that for the three sample periods 2004, 2009 and 2013 9 valid test points were selected with the addition of a merged point, the one between the Ankarstocksbron and Travbron. Of the 10 test points, Veddesta dike and Brädgårn revealed high levels of total phosphorus.

    The conclusion regarding emission points was that stormwater outlets accounted for the largest amount of phosphorus. Probable sources of phosphorus for Veddesta dike were found to be the roads with heavy traffic, Veddesta industrial area and the area in which stormwater network is covering hard-coated surfaces within Veddesta dike sub-basin. For Brädgårn, the probable phosphorus sources were the roads with heavy traffic, Bromsten industrial area and the hard-coated surfaces within the sub-basin covered by the stormwater network.

  • Lundkvist, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Ramic, Zlatan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Vass, Tamas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Piscator, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Konceptstudie av lastbärande kompositgolv för stadsbuss2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in the automotive industry towards more fuel efficient vehicles requires all components to be as light as possible while still meeting other demands such as stiffness and feasible cost. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility to replace a partial chassis structure in a Scania low-entry city bus. The partial chassis to be replaced consists of a steel structure and an inner flooring, with the purpose to support loads that the bus is subject to. This was to be done with a composite sandwich structure, with the primary goal to reduce weight by at least 40% and number of components by 50%. The replacement structure needed to meet the stiffness and strength requirements that the current structure fulfils. This was achieved by designing two concepts, concept 1 and concept 2, through an iterative FE-analysis in ANSYS. Two prototypes where built and tested for real world load applications. The result from this study showed that it was possible to meet both the weight and component reduction goal. Concept 1 and concept 2 achieved a weight reduction of 62% and 68% respectively and the number of components was reduced significantly. Further work would be to investigate the interface between the new structure and the rest of the bus, modal- and fatigue analyses, production implementation and economical aspects to name a few.

     

  • Holmström, Gaston
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Chlebek, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Safety One: En studie i säkerhetslösningar inom världens snabbaste motorsport2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Formula One is known to be a dangerous and thrilling motor sport. Given the dangers, huge measures of safety issues needs to be analyzed, and when a solutiuon is found - applied to ensure that the drivers, vehicles and audience is protected from any worst case scenario. This report analyzes the main factors of safety used throughout the ages and studies the main components used in the competitions of today. Given the results, an attempt was made to better understand where remaining safety hazards lie, and also formulate a suggestion of improvement to the found areas. David Chlebek studied the safety mechanisms used between 1950 and 2019, mainly focusing on the vehicle itself and the safety gear used by the drivers, while Gaston Holmström analyzed the circuits, the safety barriers around them and how they have improved over the years. In conclusion, they found that while there have been great strides in the safety development there are still multiple areas of possible improvement. They identified where the most critical areas were and presented ideas on how to enhance the safety there.

  • Farde, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    Svinge, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Sustainable production development.
    SCADA-system för mindre företag - en inkörsport till Industri 4.02019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital industry does not need a huge investment and the advantages are many for companies that wants to gain competitiveness. With the implementation of a digital factory you can develop each process or the whole factory and at the same time monitor the production with greater precision.

    The reason for this study is how a digital factory can improve their competitiveness, what resources are necessary and which problems are likely to occur and how to solve them. The study has taken place at a specific small industry with an already established prototype that was further developed and installed in a created network system with purpose to communicate the status of the factory or each single machine. The study's main focus has been to compare manually taken key performance indicators through a form, and automatically taken key performance indicators from the digital system with the help of the prototype which included a RAPID SCADA implementation. This is for practical enlightenment over the difference between a manually and an automatic system and which one to prefer.

    The KPI:s are based on OEE, but it also highlight that the development to other measurement tools can easily be achieved from this base. The system that has beencreated are flexible and adaptable to be used as a tailor fit solution that most SME can use. The study shows that an implementation of a digital solution does not necessarily need huge means of investments or high personal competence. The worrying part from the perspective of a smaller company is the time it takes to learn why and how the system should be built.

  • Lundin, Andreas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Stabilisering av fyrhjuliga terrängfordon med tillståndsåterkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All terrain vehicles, commonly abbreviated as ATVs, poses a higher risk of roll over compared to other kinds of four wheeled vehicles, due to their high center of mass. The incentive to decrease the amount of accidents of this kind is great, both for the individuals as well as society. This thesis explores the possibilities of implementing a controller using a state feedback loop. The dynamics of the system are based on a simplified model of the vehicle, and the controller is designed to be physically feasible, yet quick enough to prevent an accident.

     

  • Olsson, Adam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Jacobsson, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Att balansera en obalanserad flygmaskin: Roder och vektoriserad dragkraft2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To balance and control different aircraft, it is often necessary to use some type of control system, the less stable the craft is without any control system, the more advanced the system is required to be. This project is an experiment which purpose is to attempt to control a very unstable craft using steerable rudders. A design of the craft is modeled in CAD after a rough estimation to determine the required capacity of the components. Then a simulation of the craft is modeled in Matlab’s Simulink environment, which is used to test the control system’s capabilities and determine its optimal settings. Finally a physical model is built to see if the control system is sufficiently designed to stabilize the vessel under real conditions, which when flown did not successfully balance due to insufficient roll capability. Different solutions to this problem and other potential improvements is then discussed.

     

  • Älfvåg, Hector
    et al.
    Lindbergh, Jakob
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Optimering av kontakt med kontaktledning hos tåg:: Utplacerade massors påverkan på kontaktkraftens kvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to answer whether or not masses placed along a catenary can improve dynamic performance in the contact force between the train's pantograph and the catenary, and more specifically reduce the fluctuation of the contact force. This would be a way to improve the performance with only minor modifications to the infrastructure, rather than needing to replace entire catenaries, which is both economically and environmentally costly. The idea of masses as stabilizers comes from other applications, such as skyscrapers and power lines, where said masses have a positive effect on vibrations and movements. Simulations in ANSYS and post-processing in MATLAB are used to determine the contact force, which then can be quantified and compared between different scenarios. Eight different catenary positions, four different masses and two train speeds are tested in hope of seeing trends of what improves the performance and what doesn't. A few conclusions about the effect of the masses can be drawn from the results. Bigger masses gave a bigger effect, and a very big mass gave fluctuations where it was tested. Regarding the impact the speed has on the effect of the masses, the case studied here indicates lower speed decreases the local effect but increases the global effect. All mass placements that improved the performance, by reducing the fluctuations of the contact force, were at the end of a catenary span, and all placements that decreased the performance were at the centre and start of a span. Some practical limitations on the application of masses on real catenaries, such as mass placements on the contact wire and increased wear on the components involved, are discussed.

  • Holmen, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Svensson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Debt Funds: Alternative Financing on the Swedish Real Estate Market2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Banks have become increasingly restrictive in their lending towards real estate, a development that is expected to continue due to further regulations, such as the Basel framework, and the emergence of new alternative financing options. As described by interview respondents, companies have shown an increased preference for a mix of capital sources following the financial crisis of 2008, which has led to an increase in demand on the capital and alternative markets. Factors that may have affected this development is the inflated corporate interest in maintaining a good credit rating and a change in investor sentiment towards a wider diversification. On the Swedish market, the so-called debt funds are a relatively new phenomenon and the purpose of this paper is to investigate how and what conditions that exist and have been necessary for this development. Debt funds already play a prominent role in real estate funding on other markets, such as US and UK, which could indicate a similar development on the Swedish market henceforth. However, as shown in the paper the markets are different on a systematic level, which makes it hard to draw parallels. Furthermore, as described in the empirical study the Swedish AIF market is underdeveloped in many respects since Swedish companies traditionally have used bank loans or turned to the capital markets - with a preference for equity before debt. With new regulations being introduced in the banking sector, the bank risk appetite has become more volatile, however, the banks retain a strong position and a continued large exposure to the real estate sector which may be due to the banks being well capitalized and an overall increased demand for capital. The increased demand for capital may also have given rise to favorable conditions for alternative financing options. However, in order for debt funds to continue to grow the key is most likely going to be offering loans with more favorable terms and longer maturities compared to other financing options.

  • Andersson, Lukas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Källman, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Crises in Stockholm’s Office Market: Any Signs Today?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The office market in central Stockholm has since the financial crises in ‘08 showed remarkablegrowth and the current conditions are compared to the once under the previous crises. Thecommercial real estate market has had a substantial role in the last crises, as it is sensitive to cyclesand has high indebtedness. The study aimed to evaluate the market today by comparing it withforemostly the crises in Sweden in the 90s and dotcom-era, but also the great recession in’08.Further, the perception of the market actors was analysed. The methodology was qualitative, as sixprofessionals have been interviewed representing property companies, consultancy firms, bank,and institutional owners. The result shows more differences than similarities to the past crises, inboth macro and micro level. Furthermore, consensus had an optimistic view of the future and thereal estate market. Central Stockholm office market can be regarded as more professional andstable. However, there are uncertainties which were not present during the crises, such ascoworking, market-financing and low-interest rate. The study suggests that the factor causing thenext crisis is something the market does not know.

  • Berglund, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Nordqvist, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Development of the Warehouse and Logistic Property Market: And the Effect of E-commerce2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer shopping preferences has changed in today’s society. E-commerce is rapidlygrowing and the turnover for physical stores is effected negatively. A segment that hashad an upswing in recent years is the warehouse and logistic property market. Thechange in consumer behavior requires property owners to adapt to the development indemand from their tenants. Furthermore, e-retailers must adapt to how they managethe warehouse and logistic operations. The thesis investigates the development of thewarehouse and logistic property market and if e-commerce has an effect on theproperty segment.Results show a growth in rent levels, negative yield development and an increase intransaction price per square meter. This is further confirmed by interviews held duringthe thesis process. Interviews has been executed with three different segments;warehouse and logistic property owners, retail property owners as well as e-retailers.The development of yield and rent levels show an increase in demand within thewarehouse and logistic property segment and the new developments illustrates thesame for the supply. Furthermore, the transaction price suggests an increase in theinterest for this property segment, compared to 10 years ago. Simultaneously, the ecommerceis rapidly increasing and will expand even more in the future.The effect of e-commerce on the warehouse and logistic property market means newrequired solutions within the warehouse and logistic properties. Focus for the future ison flexibility, automation and other creative solutions. Furthermore, tenant fitting-outand new constructions within the segment is required.

  • Blomqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Vilhelmson, August
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Konkurs på småspararnas bekostnad: Crowdfunding av fastighetsprojekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the two housing projects partially financed via Tessin’s crowdfundingplatform that faced insolvency. The purpose is to discuss whether or not the two bankruptcy projectsdiffer from the successfully completed projects and if so, is there reason to question the fact that theywere financed at all. The report is limited to crowdlending and geographically to Sweden and theSwedish crowdfunding platform Tessin. The report takes a quantitative approach where a typical projecthas been derived from 53 successful real estate development projects. This typical projects is laternumerically compared with the two unsuccessful ones. Project owner factors as well as project specificfactors for the two unsuccessful projects have been compared to its peers with the intention to identifyany significant deviations. The deviation is then evaluated and discussed in line with the theoreticalframework. Among theories are The Pecking order Theory and Market for Lemons. The ultimate goalis to answer the question: With regards to the data available before the financing of these unsuccessfulprojects. Was there, at the time for financing, deviation from the typical project of such character oneshould have realized the two projects were doomed to fail? In one of the unsuccessful projects theconclusion is that the deviations were of such character, and in the other it is not as clear.

  • Bozena Strzalka, Katarzyna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    What are the Students’ Housing Preferences?: A Case Study of Lublin, Poland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Housing preferences are unique to each individual. Nevertheless, there are certain similarities between the residential needs within the same demographic groups. This research will focus on the students’ housing preferences. The aim is to understand the factors affecting the decision-making process regarding the choice of housing by students in Lublin, Poland. The findings provide guidelines for the future student housing (re)development in the local area. The theoretical concepts used are The Theory of Basic Human Values and The Means-End Chain Theory. They assume that when making decision, the consumer is affected by his/her core values. The research strategy uses qualitative approach. It consists of both primary and secondary data. The first includes conducting interviews with 15 students. The second is based on the literature review and the official documents available at the official local government’s website. The limitations of the research are the bias of authors’ interpretation and exclusion of the students attending smaller, private universities, which may give an inadequate picture for the generalisation of the population. The findings are that the location, finance, privacy continue to be the key determinants in students’ housing choices. Moreover, students value the ability to personalise their rooms and having no noise distractions. They are also attracted to the attributes that improve their sleeping quality. The new generations of students value happiness and have high expectations. Thus, people responsible for the future (re)developments should keep those in mind, when designing the accommodation for students. The implications and guidelines are at the end of each section of data analysis.

  • Börjesson, Alexandra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Automatic Generation of Levels of Detail: A Study on the Swedish National Road Database2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When creating a map, the amount of data and which geographical information chosen to bepresented are decided based on the purpose of the map. Trafikverket is responsible for theNational Road Database that is a reference road network with a large amount of dataconnected to it. The database is built at a carriageway level where several links can be usedto represent a single road. In this thesis the database has been studied as well as thepossibilities to create an automatic workflow that creates a generalisation to road level. Someapplications and analyses that use this database are requesting input data of a higher level ofdetail. It is also found important from a cartographic point of view. Possibilities to create alinear referencing for the data between the different levels was studied as well, to make theupdates between the levels easier and not having the need to maintain two differentdatabases. It would make it possible to inherit attributes and the generic features connectedto the network.The first fully automated workflow for a generalisation of an entire map was developed in theNetherlands in 2014. Several other agencies in Sweden and Norway are currently working ongeneralisations as well and using different approaches. Statens Vegvesen, which is theNational Road Agency in Norway, has already implemented the different levels of detail intheir road database. Lantmäteriet currently has a project where their goal is to create a fullyautomated map to easily change to a larger scale.After studying the programs used in other generalisations and which programs Trafikverketnormally use, FME and ArcGIS were chosen to be used in this thesis. A small study area waschosen, and the proper data was collected from the National Road Database. The study wasconducted by a set of experiments and trying different parameter values in order to obtain asatisfactory result.Three different areas where studied, where the goal was to find a sequence of functions thatsuccessfully generalised all the areas. The areas were parallel roads, complex intersectionsand roundabouts. The result consists of a suggested workflow, but alterations hade to bemade manually since it was not possible to find a fully automated generalisation for the areachosen. Therefore, a set of functions and tools that could be developed were collected as wellin the end to make a more automated workflow possible.The result found in this thesis show that if the cartographic generalisations are more studiedand examined it should be possible to get a more automated workflow to create ageneralisation between the different level of detail. However, it might be difficult to get theworkflow fully automated due to the complexity of the intersections.

  • Dahlin, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Price Dynamics of Regional Family Houses in Sweden: Ripple Effect or Not?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on the study Prices on the Second-hand Market for Swedish Family Housesconducted by Lennart Berg, economist and associate professor emeritus from UppsalaUniversity in 2002. This study attempts to identify inter-and intraregional pricedependencies in Sweden for the second hand market for family houses. The house priceindices used in this econometric analysis commences in 1990:1 and ends in 2018:4 for allregions in accordance to NUTS 2 in Sweden.This thesis models the change of the regional prices for one-and two family houses indicatingthat the metropolitan area of Stockholm contributes predominantly to all other regionsthroughout the country. In addition, the capital city also shows cointegrated relationshipswith all regions although not the contrary. Shocks to the housing market of Stockholmindicate that Gothenburg, the Western region and Malmö are affected contemporaneouslyfollowed by the other regions nationwide with a certain time lag leading to say that thecontribution and influence of the capital city´s house price development leads the pricedevelopment throughout the country, Sweden.

  • Chaundy, Jimmy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Björk, Niklas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Vilket gräs är grönare? En litteraturöversikt kring nytillverkade och begagnade personbilars totala klimatpåverkan för olika drivmedel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In general, mankind has a need for transports. A significant part of these transports in Sweden is executed by car. For travels and transports that are too long or too time consuming for public transport, walking and/or bicycling, the need for the car within the Swedish society will persist. Travels by any car today is associated with significant carbon dioxide equivalent emissions - therefore it is desirable to use cars with minimal emissions, with regard to the vehicles entire life cycle. This report develops a method to carrying out a life cycle analysis (LCA) for a car with regards to a few data points about the vehicle. To achieve this, a literature review is carried out in the area to obtain data on emissions in the five life stages of material production, manufacturing, use, service and recycling for a general car, the variables being certain data points. These data points are then paired with the cars data to approximate their emissions. Two passenger car categories are chosen: sedan and SUV, within each five engine types are analysed: gasoline, diesel, HEV, PHEV and BEV. Also, a petrol and a diesel version of a used car that is considered to be common in the used market is analysed. The intention is to get an indication of which type of fuel has the lowest emissions in a life cycle, and to examine whether a new or used car has the lowest emissions. According to the results in this report, at an average mileage and lifetime and for the chosen vehicles, BEV is proven to be the vehicle with the lowest CO2e emissions over its entire life cycle. This is the true both for the sedan- and the SUV-category, assuming a maximum of one battery change. Then, in ascending order regarding the emission of CO2e follows PHEV, HEV, used diesel, new diesel, used gasoline and new gasoline. At an annual mileage above the average, and with the chosen vehicles within this report, the used diesel is proven to be the vehicle with the lowest emissions. For an annual mileage higher than the average, the vehicle within the selected vehicles with the lowest emission of CO2e is instead the BEV. This applies to both categories. One of the strengths of this reports method is its simplicity; With a few data points that can easily be adapted to a specific vehicle and driving habit, an approximation of the vehicle's net emission can be produced. Its main drawback is that many simplifications is made throughout the calculations, so the approximation becomes rough. However, this can be counteracted by replacing the general data used in the function with specific data for a particular vehicle, where such data is known. One problem is that the data used is sometimes old enough to be considered not completely accurate and usually not explicitly applicable to Sweden. More research in the field, and more locally specific research, is therefore desirable. A label similar to the energy label which ranks a vehicle's climate impact in the various life-parts separately would facilitate consumers to make a more climate-smart choice based on their own driving habits and would provide a more fair verdict regarding the emissions than just, as it is today, the energy use during the vehicles use phase.

  • From, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lindén, Lasse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Samverkan mellan entreprenör och underentreprenör: En studie ur underentreprenörens perspektiv i byggbranschen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has a major impact on a country's economic growth. The subcontractors account for a large part of the total value for construction projects. The study examines how collaboration between contractor and subcontractor can promote problem solving during the production phase.To answer the questions created, eight subcontractors' site managers have been interviewed. The interviews have then been compared and analyzed together with information from the literature study of articles, reports and other texts.The result shows that problem-solving methods are used for the usual problems on the construction projects today, but there is the possibility of improvement. Planning, information sharing and unpredictability are the factors that characterize the most common problems. The contractor and subcontractor should focus on creating a good relationship with each other and have a mindset that the work should be done together. The contractor's site manager should ensure that there are structured meetings that help both subcontractors and the contractor with planning. The form of compensation on a current contract causes the subcontractors to focus more on the main project objective and create solutions together.

  • Ghalandar Zehi Jalalabad, Toomaj
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Design Quality in Architecture and Construction Research2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of design quality in construction projects has long been a major concern for designprofessionals (Gann et al. 2003). The emphasis on improvement of processes in constructionin order to manage or reduce “cost, time and waste” in projects, at times has led to concernsthat the design of a building could become a matter of less importance due to such processimproving measures (Gann et al. 2003, p.319) “Design Quality” in architecture andconstruction is an ambiguous and “dynamic concept” in relation to its context, continuouslygoing through changes (Rönn 2010, p.48; Slaughter 2004).Quality itself is related to value and multiple definitions of it (Rönn 2010). It is often possiblefor both people and professionals to feel and experience design quality in buildings ratherintuitively, but to frame it in a recognizable manner has always proved challenging (Rönn2010). Essentially, human behavior apart from being influenced by the physical environmentis also influenced by the social context existing within the physical environment (Vischer2008).These challenges further extend to judgement, assessment and measurement of design quality,and setting out the relevant criteria for them (Rönn 2010, Slaughter 2004). Therefore, it’sdifficult for building designers, to structure design solutions that could guarantee theachievement of such ambiguous concept (Rönn 2010).

  • Gustafsson Rydell, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hult, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Blockchain: fundamentet i en ny fastighetsmarknad?: En studie om digitala identiteter och tokens som verktyg för en likvid och transparent fastighetsmarknad2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real estate is defined as a relatively illiquid asset, with a rather opaque and inaccessible flowof information. The result is long and costly acquisition and divestment processes, in whichinformational asymmetries is to be erased during the due diligence process. Real estate is thuscharacterized by a partially unwanted inefficiency caused by traditional and conservativeprocesses. However, in a time of rapid and extensive technological change, we seem to find anever-increasing amount of creative solutions to problems we previously could not manage.Among these alleged solutions we find blockchain, which by many has been identified as meanto improve both liquidity and transparency in real estate as an asset class. More specifically, thetopics of discussions have been digital identities and tokenization of real estate. Two termspossessing the potential to create standardized information management and fragmentedownership, which would enable instantaneous trade. These terms remain rather unchartedterritory and hence constitutes the subject of this study. The aim of this study is therefore todepict how the liquidity and transparency problems may be redressed by a fragmented andtransparent ownership structure placed on blockchain.The academic anchoring of the study is grounded in an extensive literature study aimed to definethe terms liquidity and transparency, but also define the meaning of due diligence andblockchain technology as a whole. The results were gathered through qualitative studies, inwhich semi-structured interviews constituted the instrument from which the information wascollected. The study identified liquidity and transparency as two cornerstones of a functioningand effective market. The evident problems related to liquidity and transparency in real estate,are to a great extent expressed via slow paced due diligence processes and non-disclosed rentalinformation. The study may be concluded as a broadly agreed upon view on the potential ofboth tokenization of real estate, as well as digital identities as effective means to enhanceliquidity and transparency. The respondents did however emphasize the current uncertaintyregarding blockchain as a severe hindrance for having enough confidence to whole-heartedly embrace the technology as a key element of the real estate market. With this being said, theydo not doubt its potential, rather inquiring an increased number of applied and successful usecases accompanied by a distinct regulatory framework for the conducting a transaction in thenew market environment. This would be an essential factor to instill the level of trust intransacting that investors require.

  • Gäfvert, Felix
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Virtual Design and Construction: En studie av VDC:s påverkan på entreprenörers verksamhetssystem2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry's technological development has in the recent decades introducedmany technical instruments, for example Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and BuildingInformation Modeling (BIM). In 2001, Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) was introducedas a new way of working by CIFE at Stanford in response to the declining productivity in theconstruction industry. VDC is defined as the use of multidisciplinary models to achieve projectgoals (Fischer and Kunz, 2004). Techniques from BIM, Integrated Concurrent Engineering(ICE) and Lean Construction are all used within the VDC-process (Mandujano et al, 2015).This study aims to investigate the connection between VDC and contractors’ operationalsystems, and to examine the implementation process and its challenges. To do this, thecontractors' own definitions of VDC must also be defined. The work has been carried out as acombination of a literature study and an interview study to cover the established knowledgewithin the academic arena and the contractors’ own knowledge in the field. The interview studyhas included two companies and one external expert.The result shows that the view of VDC is different among the contractors. For example, it’sdescribed as a methodology, a tool or a utility to achieve a high-performance building. Thecontractors use VDC practically in the form of ICE-like meeting structures or 3D and 4Dmodels. The cumulative implementation process of the companies has been conducted throughpilot projects and continuous VDC-training of employees. The companies have used twodifferent implementation strategies for VDC into their operational system. One company useda explicit strategy where VDC was entered directly into the operational system as a separatesubject area. The second strategy is called implict where VDC is not mentioned at all in theoperational system, but instead it’s descriptions, guides and routines that have been changed tointegrate VDC as a standardized working method within the organization.

  • Haegerstrand, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Knutsson, Emelia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Attractive Workplace: Are the Site Offices Meeting the Employees´Needs?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research have shown a possible relationship between the indoor work environmentand the impact it has on the employees’ performance. Different factors can affect theperformance; physical parameters, such as ventilation and air quality, noise levels, thermalclimate, lighting and access to daylight, as well as the level of flexibility of the work, furnitureetc. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the quality of the indoor work environment at siteoffices within Company AB in Sweden. Further, how the physical and the psychologicalenvironment play an important role regarding the attractiveness of the workspace. The studywill only focus on four physical parameters affecting the physical functionality of an office; airquality, noise, temperature and lighting. The following research questions were asked: 1) Whatdifferent types of site offices can be identified in Sweden and what are the commonly usedoffice layouts? 2) How well does the actual indoor work environment at site offices align withthe restrictions by the Swedish Work Environment Authority? 3) How is the indoorenvironment of the site offices perceived by the people utilizing the workspace? 4) Which arethe most important parts to look at to improve the attractiveness of the site offices at CompanyAB? The study is both qualitative and quantitative including measurements, interviews,meetings, and a questionnaire as the main sources of information used to answer the researchquestions.According to the results, the two most commonly used site offices are construction trailers andrented premises. The visited offices had varied layouts since they are designed to fit the needsof the specific project organizations. Out of the four parameters, noise was the only one thatentirely fulfilled the requirements in the six site offices visited.The employees perceived the physical parameters in the site offices differently. The air qualitywas generally perceived to be sufficient in the office spaces but quite bad in the meeting rooms.Multiple employees thought noise was one of the most problematic parameters and it wasshown to possibly depend on work role or task. Employees expressed the need of a versatileoffice layout, with both open office areas and smaller secluded rooms combined, which couldincrease their concentration level and decrease disturbance. Another problematic parameterwas the temperature and generally, the need was to stabilize it throughout the year. Regardingthe lighting, many expressed the desire to be able to adjust it on their own.People perceive things differently which is why a more varied and flexible office might fulfillmore people’s needs. If these needs are fulfilled, it could improve not only the physical workenvironment but also the psychological work environment and therefore increase theattractiveness and job satisfaction of the employees.

  • Hanna, Jacoub Jack
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Purasell, Michael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Det långsiktiga investeringsstödet – Ett bostadspolitiskt misslyckande?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish housing market is flawed. The supply of affordable housing is limited throughoutthe country. The available apartment stock consists of either expensive condominiums or newlyproduced rental apartments with high rents. The limited stock has resulted in subsidies toincrease the availability of rental apartments. The investment support was implemented as anattempt to increase the stock of affordable housing for low- to mid-income households and topressure real estate developers to minimize buildings costs.The essay aims to describe the current housing situation and to evaluate the investment support.Both a quantitative and qualitative study will be conducted where the qualitative parts consistof a theoretical literature review and semi-structured interviews with experts within the subjectarea. The quantitative segment of the essay consists of an area-based cash-flow simulationwhere the key figures and assumptions are dependent upon the chosen area.The results show that the investment supports feasibility is highly dependent on location. Theinterviewees consider the subsidy to be a short-term solution. In the long-term the intervieweesbelieve that innovation in the building sector is necessary to reduce building costs.The literature review and the results show that there is a clear housing supply shortage as aresult of the dysfunctionality that has emerged from the lack of a clear housing policy. This hasled to the need of housing subsidies. Whether the investment support is the right way tosubsidize housing is questionable. The subsidy has not had a notable effect on the housingsupply and decreases the profitability for real estate developers that have achieved low buildingcosts. Furthermore, it is quite difficult to achieve the goals that have been set when the subsidyis addressed towards the supply-side. For these reasons the investment support is not a goodsolution for the current housing supply shortage. The subsidy should be carried out in a differentmanner, possibly by subsidizing the demand-side.

  • Magne, Sofie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Stenswed, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Revenue Management Applicability on Coworking Space: Operator Perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the potential use and implementation of a revenuemanagement model for coworking operators. With a critical realism philosophyand abductive approach, a quantitative study using primary data from a coworkingoperator has been conducted. Based on a comprehensive literature review, wehave found that much research is done on revenue management in the airline andhotel industries. However, we found no research on revenue management modelsthat intend to optimize revenue for coworking operations. Hence, this thesis aimsto fill this gap in existing academic research. Features from revenue managementmodels used in the hotel and airline industries are identified and analyzed with theobjective of implementing these in the coworking industry to efficiently maximizerevenue. The paper proposes the use of multinomial logit (MNL) model in theprocess of market segmentation; this method allows one to determine whichfactors influence the different segments. Moreover, the MNL model is used todefine the demand function from which a probability (probable?) distributionof total demand can be separated into demands representing each product class.Furthermore, the demand is used to calculate protection limits according to theExpected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR) model, with the objective of allocatingcapacity to the highest-yielding customers.Results indicate that the MNL regression is an effective tool to analyze themarket segmentation and demand allocation for coworking operators. Afterour successful analysis, we are prepared to argue with confidence that revenuemanagement models are applicable to coworking operations.

  • Melander, Elvira
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ekeroth, Linn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Att producera kulturbärare: En undersökning av hur traineer har formats för att sprida ett bolags företagskultur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational culture is a success factor for a company's economic as well as social sustainability and has a direct impact on employees' motivation and satisfaction. The culture is strengthened and disseminated by culture carriers, role models which show the way in uncertain or critical situations. Earlier studies about the ability of prominent leaders to influence the organizational culture exist, but the theory suggests that culture carriers can exist within all levels of a company, irrespective whether that employee has a leading position or not. This essay therefore intends to examine which employees that are considered to be culture carriers, what they are characterized by and how employees without leading positions may have been formed into cultural role models.In order to obtain the necessary information, a contracting company's organizational culture and culture carrier, in this case trainees, have been investigated. A large number of shorter interviews were carried out to obtain data about which employees that are considered to be culture carriers. The characteristics of culture carriers, and how they were formed into cultural role models were then examined through a fewer in-depth interviews, with both white collars and representatives from the company's management. This, with a focus on those culture carriers who are not considered prominent leaders, which in these cases turned out to be the company's trainees. The result, together with previous research and theories, provides the basis for the study's conclusion.The study shows that prominent leaders are often regarded as culture carriers, but that other employees at other levels also can be seen as cultural role models. Culture carriers are characterized by the ability to influence other employees' perception of the company, are proud of their work and possess qualities that the culture value. A new discovery is that culture carriers can have a negative effect on the culture, something not described in theory. Furthermore, new observations have been made regarding how a culture carrier, without leading position, can emerge. Some necessary factors have been found, as being part of a distinct group and the combination of lacking previous experience together with supervision of other clear culture carriers and / or prominent leaders. Signs showing that companies deliberately can produce culture carriers have been found.

  • Müller Löfvenberg, Madeleine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sörensson, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Coworking Companies Leading the Way for a Change on the Office Market: A Study About Profitability and Perseverance in the Business Model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancements that have taken place in technology the recent decades, it is nowpossible to work anywhere and at any time. Coworking space is the type of flexible workplacethat is currently growing the fastest and comprises a workplace shared between severalcompanies and individuals with emphasis on collaboration and knowledge sharing. Withbenefits such as cost efficiency for members, it is now questioned how the companies that offercoworking make it work financially. This thesis investigates the profitability of coworkingcompanies and whether they are persevering enough to survive an economic downturn orrecession.By examining the Stockholm market’s nine largest coworking companies' annual reports,interviewing them and experts from different areas on the market, these questions have beenanswered. In order to further assess the potential of the new market segment, the currenteconomic climate has been compared with the IT-bubble in 2001. Further, the financial positionof the coworking companies has been set against the business model of hotels. Through a datacollection that is both qualitative and quantitative, the results have been discussed thematically.From the study it was concluded that coworking operators are economically weak with low orno profitability. By developing their business model in accordance with the one of hotels,companies are expected to improve their financial position. This is done by overbookingflexible workplaces and in detail work with profit per workplace to increase the total return.The coworking companies' rental cost to their property owners one of the largest expenses andthus also decisive. For companies to be able to operate in the long run, revenue sharing rent isrecommended. Experience, strong ownership, central location and diversification of membersare recognized as success factors. Regarding the coworking companies' sustainability ineconomic downturns, they are also considered weak. Given their deficient financial statementsand balance sheets, they lack the margins and qualifications to endure an economic downturnor recession. A consolidation is expected to take place where survival of each coworkingoperator depend on new customers to leave conventional leases and prioritize flexibility. 

    Furthermore, the study has shown the economic climate today to resemble with what led to theIT-bubble in 2001, which in turn signals for a coworking bubble. A pattern of increased demandfor service in the office market has also been discovered. What we are seeing today is thebeginning of a change on the office market - a servicification that requires a fundamental changein the office sector's business model.

  • Norman, Stina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ericson, Ebba
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Uppdragsledarrollen: Konsultens relation och förhållningssätt till olika beställartyper2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In  an  attempt  to  increase  innovation  and  productivity  in  the  construction  sector,  Trafikverket  changed the work procedure to include a larger share of design-­‐build contracts. This was done in an effort to give the contractors a greater overall responsibility as to how the projects would turn out. This  change  in  work  procedure  has  also  had  an  effect  on  the  consulting  business  within  the  same  sector. The change in type of contract results in a larger share of contractors as clients to the consulting firms. This report has been written in collaboration with a consulting firm which operates in  the  Civil  Engineering  sector,  on  the  department  Construction.  The  department  has  three  major  types of clients; Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration), municipalities and contractors, with the last one mentioned being more prevalent since the change in work procedure from Trafikverket. The relationship between consultant and client is crucial for a project to be successful. The project manager  has  an  essential  role  in  this  matter.  The  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  portray  how  the  relationship between the project manager and the three different client types looks, with the contract as a foundation for the relation. This is expected to result in guidelines for the future, both concerning project management and how to retain a reliable collaboration between consultant and client. Relational  Contract  Theory  has  been  used  as  the  foundation  to  study  the  aforementioned  relationship. To properly answer the purpose, a literary study has been done, followed by an interview  study  where  the  respondents  have  a  long  history  concerning  project  management.  The  questionnaire used for the interviews has been based on the Relational Contract Theory, with focus on the relational contract norms.  From the interviews, four themes important to the collaboration  between client and consultant emerged; the Role of the Project Manager, the Assignment, the Contract and the Relation. The relationship between the project manager and its counterpart on the client side is complex. It is because of this complexity hard to generalize the approach based solely on the type of client. Other parameters also relevant are the scope of the project, the client’s ability to estimate the scope and what phase the project itself is in. There is a significant difference when working with contractors as opposed to Trafikverket or municipalities. This type of client has a larger focus on the cost and often a project planning closer to the production. To build a relationship with every type of client is of great importance, since a successful project is based  on  the  cooperation  between  the  people  involved  in  the  project.  This  effort  to  build  a  relationship is often more comprehensive when working with new clients as opposed to older ones where a mutual trust has already been built.

  • Olsson, Kimberly
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How Have the Amortization Requirements Affected Housing Prices in Stockholm?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the amortization requirements of 2016 and 2018 haveaffected the housing prices in Stockholm county, using an event-study approach and a regressionanalysis. Furthermore, the paper studies how the regulations have affected single-family housescompared to tenant-owned apartments, if the effect was different for tenant-owned apartments ofdifferent sizes and if existing housing compared to newly produced housing were affected differently.The reasoning behind the introduction of amortization requirements was to regulate and decreasegrowing household indebtedness that was making Swedish households vulnerable to changes in theoverall economy. The second requirement aimed to further regulate household indebtedness and wasexpected to lower housing prices, which it received criticism for. The report is limited to thedevelopment of house prices for single-family houses and tenant-owned apartments betweenDecember 2013 and February 2019.The primary findings of this report are that the amortization requirements have resulted in decreasedexpected returns. Consistent with previous literature, the introduction of macroprudential policiesreduced the price growth for existing tenant-owned apartments and decreased the housing prices ofsingle-family houses and newly produced homes. The amortization requirements accomplished theFinancial Supervisory Authority’s aim of reducing household indebtedness, but increased the averageloan-to-value ratios for households. Lastly, it has become increasingly difficult for younger householdsto finance their housing purchase due to increased monthly payments and thereby failing to pass theleft-to-live-on computations created by lenders. At the same time, the rental housing market remainslimited.

  • Péter, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Nguyen, Minh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Återbruk av byggmaterial: En studie om effektivisering och avfallsminimering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world population is growing while the planets resources are decreasing, and the climate changeis becoming increasingly acute. The construction and real estate industry accounts for a significantamount of the total waste in the world. To reverse this trend, reuse of building materials mustincrease. There are few established systems today for reusing materials that have served theirpurpose in a building. However, several actors begin to understand the importance of changingthe flow of materials within their organization and applying methods adapted to circular economy.In order for as much material as possible to be reused, more extensive changes are required at thesocietal level.There are actions that each party can change in order to increase material reuse and therebyminimize the amount of waste. The aim of the degree project is therefore to create an image of theperception and work on reuse in a large Swedish real estate company and other actors in closecooperation with the Real Estate Company. Existing development opportunities have also beenidentified for reducing the amount of construction and demolition waste by increasing the reuseof building materials. Furthermore, solutions have been proposed for how a developerorganization can expand their work with reuse of building materials. The purpose of the thesis isto increase the knowledge of reuse in order to streamline its implementation, thus improvingresource use in a long-term perspective.The study shows that there is a lack of knowledge about the meaning of reuse and a variation inthe definition of the concept. These are two important factors that make the implementationprocess difficult. The lack of knowledge means that it is difficult to motivate and increase reuse inan already established working method. In order to increase the reuse of building materials in theconstruction and real estate industry, knowledge of the subject must increase and be spread, eg.through education or good communication within the industry. The proposed strategies forincreasing motivation are that management teams clearly communicate the goals they want toachieve and how these goals will be achieved. Furthermore, the study proposes more practicalalternatives on how reuse can be made more efficient by planning for reuse at an early stage whendesigning a building, using standardized solutions, building with demountable materials,introducing digital tools for inventory and documentation and implementing rental systems forgoods where a return system for the material manufacturer enables a later reuse.

  • Sandgren, Marie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Att leda projekteringsgruppen: En studie om projekteringsledares förmågor att leda projekteringsgruppen och vilka utmaningar som ställs på projekteringsledare med digitala arbetssätt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry is facing many challenges. Notleast, the focus has been on reducing time and increasing the quality of construction projects. Inaddition, there is a development within digitizing. New digital tools and building techniquesrequire new working methods and now challenge the industry that has long been considered bothconservative and characterized by low productivity.A construction project involves actors of several kinds, where clients, project managers, designmanagers and production managers are some of the most obvious roles. To meet new challenges,changes in working methods and attitudes for these positions are required. In this thesis, an indepthstudy takes place within the role of the design managers’ abilities in order to be able to leadthe design team, which also faces new digital working methods. The design process is studied asthe process where input is transformed into output during a constant flow of informationexchange, which ultimately results in a value-creating product for the client. These three conceptsare the roots within the leadership of the design management.This thesis is carried out as a qualitative study, the purpose of which is to investigate the designmanagers’ abilities to lead the design team and how the role and leadership are affected by thedigitizing with BIM and VDC. The study studies the role of design managers when it comes toleading, coordinating and managing people and information. BIM is studied as collected andshared digital information in a virtual model that can be used as a working method. VDC is beingstudied as a strategy for integrating virtual models and a working method within the designprocess which implicates facilitating and making all actors’ tasks more efficient by using BIMand following ICE.Based on the results of the study, it can be said that there are generally six different areas withabilities that a design manager should possess in order to lead the design team; 1) experience indesign or production, 2) leadership skills, social skills and engagement, 3) decision-making skills,4)generalist, 5) organized, clear and well-grounded and 6) responsive. The thesis shows thatcollaboration and interactivity are very important parts for a successful design process. 

    Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a forum is requested where the design team can designtogether. Therefore, design managers should gather the design team to a greater extent for asuccessful design process. This thesis demonstrates that design managers are faced withchallenges to plan and manage the design process from BIM and VDC. They experience changesin roles and responsibilities and difficulties in controlling ICE meetings. Design managers need tobe “awake of new professions” and keep the design team towards the final goal instead of thedigital model.

  • Singh, Paulin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ex-dagseffekten: En litteraturstudie kring ex-dagseffektens uppkomst och existens2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The stock market is perceived as efficient under the presumption that stock prices falls in parity with the dividends on the ex-dividend day. Earlier researches establish that stock prices rather falls with less than the amount of the dividend. The phenomen that the stock prices falls with less than the dividend constitutes the ex-div effect and implicate an abnormal return on the ex-dividend day. The existence of the ex-div effect has been examined through the history and there are shared opinions about its origin and existence. The tax hypothesis, the short-term trading hypothesis, the microstructure hypothesis and the disposition effect are four different explanations of the ex-div effect that forms the basis of this study. The hypotheses are analyzed in conjunction with earlier researches and the conclusion of the study is that the tax hypothesis is the most common explanation for the ex-div effect.

  • Sjölund Jurado, Lucas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Bergström, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Är coliving en framtida väg för fastighetsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One common denominator for all major cities around the world is that housing costs as a share ofdisposable income has increased dramatically. Urbanization has resulted in a sharp increase in demandfor housing, a trend that is expected to accelerate in the coming decades. Coliving, the new trend in thefield of alternative assets, is a form of housing that combines private space with shared facilities. Theidea is based on creating a community-centered environment with the possibility of both integrity andsocial contact. While communal housing is not a new phenomenon, this form of living is attracting agrowing number of people for whom the current housing market does not offer any alternative.The purpose of this thesis is to map coliving in Sweden and identify the main target group andexamine what advantages and disadvantages investors see in this new housing form. The essay islargely based on previous studies internationally, where coliving gained a greater foothold. Inaddition, interviews have been conducted with Swedish established actors as well as knowledgeablewithin the subject.Demand for coliving is driven by megatrends such as urbanization, the aging population and thegrowing gig-economy. From these trends, it is possible to break out several concepts with associatedtarget groups, of which the largest is the millennial generation, followed by seniors and the corporatemarket. From an investment perspective, the business model is solid and offers an alternative assetclass with the possibility of both increased returns and risk diversification. These properties normallyhave a higher return per square meter than a traditional rental property. The property is also not asfragile to vacancy and does not affect the last row in the same way as conventional rental home. InSweden there are currently two established companies, Tech Farm and COLIVE, but according to theanalysis, several companies are expected to introduce their own concepts in the near future.The uncertainty of the unknown is always a risk and today’s regulations are not adapted for coliving,something that all actors agree on. On the other hand, all actors are convinced that coliving can be analternative to the rental and contribute to a more efficient housing market with increased utilization ofthe existing stock and increased mobility in the moving chain.

  • Smedberg Svensk, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Höglund, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hur påverkas hyresnivån av miljöcertifieringen Miljöbyggnad?: En studie inom Akademiska Hus fastighetsbestånd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate industry accounts for a significant proportion of theemissions that are directly hazardous to the environment. Environmental certificationsof buildings are part of the work to reduce the human impact on the environmentwithin the real estate industry.Akademiska Hus is a Swedish and state-owned property company that managesuniversity premises. The company works actively to reduce its environmental impactand one of the tools in this process is that the company certifies all new constructionand major renovations with the Swedish certification system Miljöbyggnad.This study reports on how the rent level within Akademiska Hus real estate portfolio isaffected by the fact that a building is certified. This study has been carried out bycreating a statistical model based on a variety of variables that explain the rent level.The data used is based on rental contracts and attributes for the buildings to which thecontract belong.The result shows that an environmental certified building within Akademiska Hus realestate portfolio has a ten percent higher rent level compared to other buildings. Theresult was in line with both expectations and what previous similar studies have shown.

  • Snögren, Michelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Tallskog, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Fastighetsinriktat investmentbolag som diversifierad portfölj: Analys av ett noterat aktiebolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has had a booming economy during the recent years. The Swedish Riksbank however believes that the economy will slow down in the near future. During times of uncertainty stable assets are often preferable where real estate assets are one interesting option with a low correlation to many other asset classes. This study examines the portfolio the real estate investment company Fastator consisting of companies active in the real estate sector. Fastator's ownership share in the companies are between 50 to 100% and their level of activity in each investment depends on whether they are acting as an active owner, on a project basis or keeing the investment as a financial asset.The study has analyzed Fastator's portfolio to see if it, based on modern portfolio theory and theories around diversification, could be considered as being diversified. Earlier studies in the field have also been examined to assist in answering the question. The evaluation of the portfolio's diversification is based on geographical locations of the underlying assets as well as the property types in the portfolio. Knowledge on the various property types that exist was obtained by looking at the portfolios of the largest real estate companies in Sweden.It is concluded that Fastator's portfolio cannot be considered diversified since the portfolio is not evenly weighted as required in the theory of modern portfolio.

  • Sten, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Höjdefors, Jakob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ledning av internt förändringsarbete: En studie på ett konsultföretag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have problematized changes in companies through how leaders implement change. Further, studies have also shown that changes can affect those who are involved in the change process by a resistance towards the new change. Therefore, the study in this report focuses on understanding how a consultancy company works with internal development-changes. By analysing formal leaders' approaches to implementing changes, the study can propose standpoints and potentials for development too be more effective within change management.Qualitative data has been collected through interviews with formal leaders who have previously led changes at the company. The interviews were semi-structured, and the questions were designed through the theoretical framework that the report highlight. The empirical result shows how the formal leaders were leading change. By analysing the findings through the theory that the writers choose as framework they found out what is important for the formal leaders when leading change and what they can do better.The conclusion should contribute to how leaders at a consultancy company works with change, what is important for them and what they can do better for a more effective change management. The results show that four standpoints and one potential of development have been discovered in the formal leaders' approach to implementing internal development-changes. The four positions are, ‘Communication’, ‘Attending the concerned’, ‘Flexibility’ and ‘Attitude’. Where each position is a generalization of what the formal leaders consider to be important during the implementation process. The potential of development is ‘Planning’ and the conclusion highlights how and why a formal leader could apply this. The potential of development is a generalization of what the formal leaders together believe is important and what the theory reinforces.The theoretical implications say that all activities within the theoretical framework are not as relevant to this typical company. It has also been found that the formal leaders' attitude towards change is important for the company, which the theoretical framework does not elucidate. The practical implications describe that a company can understand their most important standpoints and which areas they need to develop within the implementation of internal development-changes.

  • Svanberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Max, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Moat of Finance: Does Complexity Reward the Private Investor?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the ability of single and multi-ratio investment strategies, such as P/E, P/B, Magic Formula and Piotroski F-score, to generate excess returns and positive alpha values on the Stockholm Stock Market. Performances of the strategies tested are compared to the Stockholm Stock Market as a whole, also known as the index “OMXSPI”. In this paper, three single-ratio strategies are investigated along with three multi-ratio strategies, chosen on the basis of popularity among private investors, according to our observations. We also compare these strategies’ returns to the returns of the ten best performing funds, over the last ten years, found on SEB’s and Handelsbanken’s fund lists. We find that both multi and single-ratio strategies generated alpha values and that single-ratio strategies performed well, relative to multi-ratio strategies, considering their simplicity. The current portfolio composition from screening stocks based on low P/E, P/B and high dividend yield alone are also associated with less risk, expressed in volatility, than portfolios that would be composed based on the multi-ratio methods. We even find that one of the more complex strategies, Graham Screener, underperformed single-ratio strategies, when comparing yearly alpha values over 15 and 17 years, respectively. The funds’ alpha values are also very poor compared to both single and multi-ratio strategies considering the managers’ likely investment experience and complex investment systems. In sum, our empirical data suggests that excess returns were indeed attainable during the investigated time-periods by following a rule-based investing philosophy in conjunction with single or multi-ratio strategies, and unless the investor has sublime experience and knowledge, he or she is probably better off using this type of investing rather than making investment decisions in a discretionary manner.We also conclude that the Stockholm Stock Market probably suffered from lower market efficiency, from the perspective of the Efficient Market Hypothesis, and lower screening abilities and tools, such as Börsdata, among investors in the beginning of the testing periods, which could be one reason as to why these ratio strategies worked as well as they did. However, the results are still interesting because complexity does not seem to imply value (extra alpha generation) of significant magnitude, if at all. What does seem to imply value, are the minimization of human interactions with investment models and emotional stability.

  • Finnson, Anton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Molnö, Victor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Djupinlärning på Snake2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement learning algorithms have proven to be successful at various machine learning tasks. In this paper we implement versions of deep Q-learning on the classic video game Snake. We aim to find out how this algorithm should be configured in order for it to learn to play the game as well as possible. To do this, we study how the learning performance of the algorithm depends on some of the many parameters involved, by changing one parameter at a time and recording the effects. From this we are able to set up an algorithm that learns to play the game well enough to achieve a high score of 66 points, corresponding to filling up 46\% of the playing field, after just above 5 hours of training. Further, we find that the trained algorithm can cope well with an obstacle being added to the game.

  • Tuneld, Carl Otto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Diffusion av blockkedjeteknologi i den Svenska finansiella sektorn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization impact all parts of society and not least the financial sector. One technologythat is considered to have a large impact on the financial industry is blockchain technology.In this thesis, participants in the financial industry are examined with the purpose to examinetheir progress in implementing blockchain technology in their organization and how there areworking with the technology from a perspective of the Everett. M. Rogers theories ofDiffusion of Innovation. The Decision-Innovation Process and the organizations progresswith blockchain technology is particularly examined as well as concepts as communicationchannels, change agencies and opinion leaders.Representatives from SEB, Bankgirot, Skatteverket and Riksbanken have been interviewedabout their progress in implementing blockchain technology from a diffusion of innovationperspective.The result shows that all participants have some form of blockchain related project active,either in form of internal experiments or market intelligence. SEB has had the most progressin their work, probably because of their large resources. The participants mainly gatherknowledge from organizations or initiatives they consider to be opinion leaders. The opinionsleaders are for the private organizations considered to be research initiatives where theparticipating members businesses are similar to their own. For the public organizations, theopinion leaders seems to be other public organizations similar to their own. The publiccompanies have in larger extent been approached by change agencies, mainly with theintention to find a business partner for a collaboration.The progress of Bankgriot and Riksbanken are considered to be in the “persuasion stage”(stage two) while the progress of SEB and Skatteverket seems to be in the “decision stage”(stage three). None of the examined organizations progress has reached stage four or five.Future studies would include a larger number of participants from different parts of thefinancial sector. This study is proposed to be re-done in approximately five years to comparethe results.

  • Ullström, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Medelvärdesåtervändande egenskaper i aktiekurser: En utfallsstudie på svenska fastighetsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates mean reversion in publicly traded property stocks with respect to the company’s extraordinary discounts to the net asset value; furthermore, to what extent this knowledge can be applied to investment strategies.The result of the empirical survey shows that there is a relationship between the stock prices and the net asset value, also, that an investment strategy utilizing mean reversion in these two variables works. Of the three dynamic portfolios, aiming to allocate the largest portfolio weight to the fundamentally cheapest stocks, based on their current discounts and premiums to the net asset value with respect to the company average, all three outperform an index of the same companies.

  • Vogt Thorell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Barriers for Wide Adoption of LCA in the Swedish Construction Sector: An Interview Study on Bbarriers and How They Differ Between Big and Small Actors2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the construction industry plays a crucial role in the fight against climate change and global warming. In 2010, the building sector answered for 30% of the global CO2 emissions and 32% of the total energy use. By adopting life-cycle assessments (LCA), the construction companies have a chance to improve indicators for economic, social and environmental sustainability. The Swedish government is in the process of making climate declarations of buildings, through LCA, a requirement to steer the industry towards more sustainable development.This study aims to show what barriers there are for wide adoption of LCA in the Swedish construction sector today and how these barriers are related to the rate of adoption. Furthermore, the study aims to investigate if there are differences in barriers between big and small actors in the industry. The study is guided by the theory “Diffusion of Innovations” by Everett Rodgers. The main method for data collection has been semi-structured interviews with people in the Swedish construction industry.The main barriers identified were lack of demand and lack of regulation. The study shows that the relative advantage of LCA is not perceived as high enough for it to be widely adopted without an increase in demand. It is also shown that high demand on a wide front is unlikely to happen without regulation. Furthermore, this study shows that the barriers are the same for actors of different sizes. The difference is the ability to deal with the barriers. Much of that ability can be ascribed to how much resources are available within the company.

  • Westerberg, Tim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Karadja, Riad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Price Development of Residential Assets in the Stockholm Inner City Areas: Regression Analysis of Macro Prudential Policies, Construction Levels and Determination of Price in the Tenant Owned Market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the financial crisis in 2008 Sweden implemented a stricter monetary expansionary enforcement trying to stabilize the overall economy of the country. These measures have led to discussions about secular stagnation and an increased savings glut when the interest rate is lowered.Between 2013 and 2018, Stockholm has seen an increase of construction levels trying to meet the market demand of a somewhat neglected supply of housing. The import of the new tenant-owned assets has shown indications of not fulfilling the market demand as after stricter amortization requirements was implemented, the possibilities to purchase these assets has been somewhat limited.The research will focus on four inner city areas in Stockholm between the timeline, aiming to determine the household effect of a larger intake of supply and implemented regulations onto the price point of tenant-owned assets.Regression analysis is utilized to statistically determine the effects of these market conditions together with an overall analysis of the imposed dataset with a theoretical framework capitalizing models of the Stock-flow theory, Tobin’s Q and the four-quadrant model.Statistically the research regression model is built up with newly imposed variables such as user cost and new supply together with a variation of other independent variables determining effects the variables have had on the price development of tenant-owned assets. The empirical analysis then researches the mentioned scenarios together with individual area analysis in all of the specific research areas imposed by a hedonic cross-sectional method.The results of the paper indicate the amortization requirements as having a large part of the declining price development within the research areas. The new supply entering the market has had a small effect. Nevertheless, the intake of new supply has been greater than previous years, amounting to 30% over thetransaction volume at the end of 2018 indicating a large supply of tenant-owned assets that are not being sold.We conclude that the market is not in equilibrium and together with a large intake of new supply in a certain segment and strict amortization requirements, the price development has decreased indicating myopic and herd behavior by construction firms and developers that are advised to further increase and advance their strategies as well as tactics with deeper market analysis before processing new construction.

  • Wisén, André
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Integrating IFC Models and Virtual Reality for Indoor Lighting Design2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has studied the use of Building Performance Simulations (BPS) tools withBuilding Information Modeling (BIM). BPS can be used to visualize and evaluate the designof buildings. Virtual Reality (VR) can be used as a BPS tool for designing indoor lighting.The problem is that previous research still has difficulties with data interoperability. That isthe integration of VR with BIM. Many studies suggest using the file format IFC to mitigatethis problem.The aim of this study is to investigate how to increase data interoperability by using a fileformat IFC. A prototype system will be developed to test this. The research question is if openBIM formats can improve the quality of design solutions? The study will try to answer howVR can be integrated with BIM and how VR can be used for indoor lighting design.The result from this thesis is in part a prototype system called FooBar. FooBar shows how VRcan be integrated with BIM. However, the file format IFC was not used throughout the wholedesign process. Instead, IFC is only used at the beginning and the end of the process. Thisstudy shows how VR can be used as an alternative BPS tool. Users can manipulate lights inthe building model. These changes are then updated in the original BIM model.This means that VR can be used to improve the quality of design solutions. In other words,FooBar can help to cope with multidisciplinary design processes. Users can immersethemselves into the virtual environment and see different design alternatives for themselves.Different design alternatives can easily be rendered in VR. With a system like FooBar, userscan easily define, propose, and analyze different design ideas to reach design goals.

  • Árnandóttir, Kristrún Helga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    BIM Maturity in Iceland: A Study of Contractors and Sub-contractors2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, BIM has provided the construction industry with countless tools that canbe used during all construction phases (Kam et al., 2016). Implementation of BIM in Icelandat the beginning was driven by the heroic’s individuals. In recent years leadership within theAEC has recognized the opportunities BIM can provide.The aim of this thesis is to map BIM maturity of contractors and sub-contractors in Iceland.The results found that there is a lack of awareness about BIM among small to medium sizedcontractors as well as among sub-contractors. Among the larger contractors and designersmaturity is higher then found in the last study performed for GDDA 2013 (Valdimarssonand Kjartansdóttir, 2013). Recent requirement from large public project owners that requiresBIM has speed up implementation.

  • Örtevall, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kommunala markanvisningar: Logik och transparens i anbudsutvärderingen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population in Sweden continues to increase and a majority of the municipalities state thatthey are experiencing a housing shortage. To meet the need for more housing, there isconsequently a need for continued exploitation of municipal land, where the municipalities'process for allocating land to builders is called land allocation. However, until 2015 this hasbeen unregulated, which has also led to large variations in the allocation process between themunicipalities and few studies have been carried out in the field.The purpose of this study is to describe the land allocation process in different municipalitieswith a focus on transparency in the tender evaluation and the logic that governs this. The aimis to discuss different approaches including its predictability and transparency with regard toprevious studies and theories for the rational decision-making process. The empirical materialwas collected primarily through interviews with respondents from selected municipalities incombination with information from public control documents.The results of the study confirm the variations between the municipalities, which werepreviously identified, but give a new insight into how the evaluation processes are implementedin practice. The study proposes an alternative categorization of allocation methods, while theresults show a general lack of clarity and standardized evaluation processes. The lack of generalguidelines reduces transparency towards market actors and a trend towards more iterativedecision-making processes also reduces predictability. In order to improve these aspects withinthe land allocation process, further research is needed which studies the municipal conditions,increased knowledge dissemination and exchange of experience together with a discussionabout suitable methods for achieving the highest socio-economic benefit.

  • Dag, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Garg, Apoorv
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Production Planning With the Last Planner System on Construction Projects in Sweden: An Exploratory Case Study of Challenges and Improvement Measures2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main assumptions in conventional production process is that each component or part of the production process can be controlled separately as if they are not dependent on anything. This assumption gives rise to problems such as need of effective collaboration with different actors and constraints in budgets. Conventional planning process also causes delay as well as cost overruns which ultimately leads to reduction in productivity.The Last Planner system, LPS, is a tool used in the construction sector with the goal of streamlining production. The tool has several advantages, for example, to make collaboration between different actors more efficient, achieve a better workflow and increase production efficiency. The purpose of this masters’ thesis is to explore how two construction projects in Stockholm work with LPS. Apart from the fact that LPS provides many advantages in the production planning of the projects, this study aims to explore the challenges that they face while working with LPS. The goal of this study is to be able to suggest improvement measures for the challenges that the projects are facing.Semi-structured interviews were conducted on both projects to understand how they work with LPS and what challenges they face. The results section contains the information from the interviews. That is then discussed against the theory on which the Last Planner system is built.The conclusion of this study is that the production planning in the projects differs from how the tool should be used according to the framework of LPS. Learning, which emphasizes what has been done during the project, is a phase in LPS's framework. According to one of the founders of the LPS system, ‘learning’ is the most important phase. However, due to the lack of time, the studied projects were not able to involve the learning phase into their production planning. The projects faced several challenges, including repeated changes from the design teams, which entailed new actions during the project. Also, the involvement of the construction workers in the planning phases came out as a big challenge for the managers. Furthermore, communication problems and lack of cooperation with subcontractors is also present. Some of the improvement measures suggested to meet the challenges are that managers should increase commitment to involve especially construction workers in the planning phases, create nucleus teams, create a standard protocol for how production planning should be implemented, and improve visual planning to enhance communication.

  • Krantz, Evelina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Agila arbetsmetoder inom stadsutveckling: En utforskande fallstudie av arbetssättet i Nacka Stad2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a qualitative method, the study investigates the agile working methods within projectmanagement for urban development projects through a case study of Nacka municipality'sproject Nacka Stad. The study aims to identify and clarify problems and obstacles anapplication of an agile way of working can lead to and how the working method differs fromthe literature in manuals and scientific articles - with the hope of giving a deeperunderstanding of agile working methods within project management of urban developmentprojects.The study describes the agile manifesto and its core principles, the methods Scrum andKanban, and explores what it means to have an agile mentality. By this it is formulated thatthe essence of an agile working method is that the work is divided in short, regular andfrequent cycles of clear tasks, where the participation of the customer and the employees inthe planning process is fundamental and the structure of the organization is in teams.The case study showed that although some agile methods are applied, this is done withoutclear structure. What could be identified as agile was that project results in the form oftimetables were often delivered and the new way of working gave a better overview of theoverall picture for sub-project managers. A new meeting plan showed agile elements ofhaving more meetings with face-to-face communication to get faster decisions. The use of adigital Kanban board and a form of Scrum meetings was observed where a backlog ofinformation was distributed between the coordination team.However, the Scrum meetings had low energy and fundamental agile methods such as standupmeetings and Sprints were not applied. Full application of agile methods proved to bedifficult as decision processes were slow and the organization still had a clear hierarchicalstructure.Four semi-structured interviews were conducted which confirmed the observations.Experienced obstacles with agile methods and implementing them were described as thelacking of motivation and structure.The study concludes that the agile way of working needs to be managed and that it in practicedoes not work to apply agile methods in an agile way, that it instead needs to be structured and consistent in order to obtain the desired results of increased involvement from theemployees and a more efficient organization. The report is written in Swedish.

  • Ahnlén, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Automatic Detection of Low Passability Terrain Features in the Scandinavian Mountains2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, much focus have been put on replacing time consuming manual mappingand classification tasks with automatic methods, having minimal human interaction. Now it ispossible to quickly classify land cover and terrain features covering large areas to a digital formatand with a high accuracy. This can be achieved using nothing but remote sensing techniques,which provide a far more sustainable process and product. Still, some terrain features do not havean established methodology for high quality automatic mapping.The Scandinavian Mountains contain several terrain features with low passability, such asmires, shrub and stony ground. It would be of interest to anyone passing the land to avoid theseareas. However, they are not sufficiently mapped in current map products.The aim of this thesis was to find a methodology to classify and map these terrain featuresin the Scandinavian Mountains with high accuracy and minimal human interaction, using remotesensing techniques. The study area chosen for the analysis is a large valley and mountain sidesouth-east of the small town Abisko in northern Sweden, which contain clearly visible samplesof the targeted terrain features. The methodology was based on training a Fuzzy Logic classifierusing labeled training samples and descriptors derived from ortophotos, LiDAR data and currentmap products, chosen to separate the classes from each other by their characteristics. Firstly,a set of candidate descriptors were chosen, from which the final descriptors were obtained byimplementing a Fisher score filter. Secondly a Fuzzy Inference System was constructed usinglabeled training data from the descriptors, created by the user. Finally the entire study area wasclassified pixel-by-pixel by using the trained classifier and a majority filter was used to cluster theoutputs. The result was validated by visual inspection, comparison to the current map productsand by constructing Confusion Matrices, both for the training data and validation samples as wellas for the clustered- and non-clustered results.The results showed that

  • Alveman, Filip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Karlsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Empirical Study on the Term Structure for Stockholm Commercial Property Leases2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent years, the economic climate on the Swedish office market has been advantageous,and, as a result, both property prices and market rents have been on a constant rise for almost adecade. Moreover, an increased demand for flexibility in lease terms has been seen on themarket, which begs the question; how would changing preferences in length of tenure affectrent levels? There exist several convincing theoretical cases that leases should yield differentpricing dependent on its maturity and expectation about future market conditions. Theconceptual framework developed by Grenadier (1995, 2005) has been used for the valuation ofgeneral leasing contracts and lease terms - applying an option-pricing approach. In total, threepapers have analysed the effect length of tenure has on office equilibrium lease rates. However,the empirical evidence, to this date, has been inconclusive in its result when trying to isolatethe effects.The purpose of this report is to investigate the relationship between rent and lease maturity. Ahedonic pricing model will be developed, which allows for different shapes of the term structurecurve, building on the model created by Gunnelin and Soderberg (2003), while controlling forprice-relevant characteristics omitted in previous research – such as, building quality, qualityof office premise, location, and tenant industry. The model will be used in an empirical studyapplied to commercial office contracts in Stockholm, Sweden, concluded between 2012 and2019.The data used in the regression comprise of 1 508 office leases, contracted on the Stockholmmarket during the investigated period. The result showed a significant term structure for 4 outof 8 years for the full sample, and 5 out of 8 years for the subsample only including leasessigned in the CBD. Concludingly, giving further evidence to the reasoning that the marketadjusts the rents after lease length, according to future market expectations.

  • Andersson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Skogsbruk med restriktioner: Äganderätt och ersättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Property right is a fundamental right that protects individuals from illegal requisition of his orher property. At sometimes, however, the state, for example, need to limit the property rightand the main principle by Swedish law is that this should be economically compensated. Onearea where this is of importance is forest properties where the owner wants to fell in order tomake a profit but the where the state wants to protect lands with high ecological values.The purpose of this paper is to examine how forest property right and compensation works inpractice and if there are any problems with how the law is formulated and practiced. This willbe studied both based on the juridical aspect as well as from the point of view of representsfrom relevant authorities and privet actors. This has been made by carrying out a qualitativestudy. The extensive regulations regarding the area have been studied and complimented withdoctrine. Two legal cases which are guiding for future practice has been analyzed andinterviews with representatives from authorities and private actors has been carried out.It has shown that there exists a mutual opinion regarding the need for an investigation ofsome of the aspects of the law, but the actors have other than that very different viewsregarding the potential problems. The private representatives are generally more critical to thepractice and some parts of the law. Juridically, there are parts of the regulations that aremanly well formulated and practiced, where as other parts are more problematic. Thisspecially concerns the protection of species and compensations for non-formal protections.Drawn conclusions are that there is a need to clarify how some parts of the law should beused. This could be done either via extended practice or through government directives andmodifications of the law. Furthermore, especially the regulation for the protection of speciesis in need for a analyze that resolves how compensations should be handled concerning theregulation.