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  • Wang, Zesen
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Generative Adversarial Networks in Text Generation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) was firstly proposed in 2014, and it has been highly studied and developed in recent years. It has obtained great success in the problems that cannot be explicitly defined by a math equation such as generating real images. However, since the GAN was initially designed to solve the problem in a continuous domain (image generation, for example), the performance of GAN in text generation is developing because the sentences are naturally discrete (no interpolation exists between “hello" and “bye").

    In the thesis, it firstly introduces fundamental concepts in natural language processing, generative models, and reinforcement learning. For each part, some state-of-art methods and commonly used metrics are introduced. The thesis also proposes two models for the random sentence generation and the summary generation based on context, respectively. Both models involve the technique of the GAN and are trained on the large-scale dataset. Due to the limitation of resources, the model is designed and trained as a prototype. Therefore, it cannot achieve the state-of-art performance. However, the results still show the promising performance of the application of GAN in text generation. It also proposes a novel model-based metric to evaluate the quality of summary referring both the source text and the summary.

    The source code of the thesis will be available soon in the GitHub repository: https://github.com/WangZesen/Text-Generation-GAN.

  • Lama, Lisa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    FoodEd: Encouraging sustainable food waste practices through an informative app2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year 1.6 billion tons of food is thrown away corresponding to one third of all the food that is roduced. It accounts for 8 % of the global greenhouse gas emission, meaning that it has a huge negative impact on the environment. In Sweden, households account for the largest amount of food waste. Therefore, this study focuses on reducing food waste on a household level in Swedish households.

    There is a growing interest in HCI for how design can be used for reducing food waste by changing unsustainable behaviour. In this work a working mobile prototype, FoodEd, was designed, implemented and studied. FoodEd contains information of how to handle and store different food items in an optimal way. The aim was to raise awareness of good food handling practices and edibility beyond expiry dates in order to prevent unnecessary food waste in households.

    In this study, FoodEd was used by 10 participants during a week’s time. Two qualitative interviews were held with each participant during the study. The findings of the study indicate that an informative design can be effective in providing relevant information for its users leading to more sustainable food waste behaviours.

  • Golan, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    An Explorative Study of Interaction with Tracked Objects in a Virtual Reality Game2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Internet enabled objects (Internet of Things) and their augmentation through virtual reality has become both technically possible and increasingly advanced. This paper explores how interaction between physical IoTs and their virtual and digital twins can be advanced. Three virtual reality games focusing on three different interactions were created. One game focused on rotating, another on pushing and pulling, and a third on lifting and dropping. All games revolved around the use of real tracked cardboard boxes which were represented in the games by a virtual box in the same relative position and rotation to the player, allowing participants to manipulate the virtual boxes by manipulating the physical boxes. 14 participants were asked to play the games and were afterwards interviewed in regards to the games, their interactions with them, their enjoyability and their thoughts regarding them and the concept in general. The results were acquired from game performance, the reflections of the participants, and the subsequent analysis of recorded audio and video. The study presents the difficulties, challenges and opportunities of such a system, while also providing insight into lessons learned from the creation of the system and the games. The main contributions of the paper are the lessons learned in creating the games and experiences in addition to a few specific areas of interest for future research on the area, namely the importance of ergonomic consideration and affordance evaluation.

  • Schmitz, Michael Glenn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Key Tension Points of creative Machine Learning applications keeping a Human-in-the-Loop2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI), might have earlier primarily found industrial use, improving production chains, efficiency and the like but are now an integral part of private and commercial application. Many systems are using, or are claiming to use, machine learning to improve the end user's experience.

    This study aims to explore applications that are using creative ML, in which output might have a plethora of solutions instead of a single correct one. More specifically the focus is to evaluate which Key Tension Points, central lesser components of a complex and bigger issue, arise for researchers, designers and users coming into contact with this technology.

    The goal is to draw upon these Key Tension Points and attempt to frame guidelines which researchers and designers can use to further their understanding of the relationship between ML and design and how they can be accounted for to build and develop better application. The study found that these tension points (Impersonality, passive consumers & transparency) vary considerably depending on the application and presents how designers can account for them.

  • Lindroos, Miriam
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Framgångsfaktorer inom digital livsmedelshandel: Samsyn och skillnader mellan konsumenter och aktörer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this research the differences and consensus between the consumers and the actors perception of the crucial success factors within Swedish online grocery shopping are being analyzed.

    Online grocery shopping is one of the fastest growing markets in Sweden. The online grocery shopping market encompasses both pure digital players and major hybrid actors with a combination of online and offline sales.

    The main result in this report show that consumers and actors agree on some of the main issues even though the actors seems to overrate the importance of making the webpages personalized with each customers favorites. At the same time they seems to underrate the importance of keeping the price at the same level as physical stores and the importance of favorable membership. There is consensus on the importance of an easy-to-use webpage and home delivery being the crucial form of delivery.

    It is of greatest importance that the actors develop strategies that make them relevant and attractive to consumers, competitive in the market and also profitable. The market is in a very interesting phase right now, experiencing high growth and there is a lot of potential for successful actors. Big strategic decisions and large investments are being made, but as this research suggests not always on things that really could make a difference for the consumers and could make them loyal to one actor and give that actor a greater part of their spend.

  • Lundius, Amelie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Initial Assessment ofManufacturing ExecutionSystems: Development of a methodology to definebusiness needs and functional requirements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A key component of the smart factories that industry 4.0 introduce is the MES (manufacturing executionsystem). The MES lies above the actual shop floor in the enterprise system hierarchy and is not in directcontact with the actual production, in the way PLC (programmable logic control) or SCADA (supervisorycontrol and data acquisition) systems are. MES guide, initiate, respond to and reports on the productionactivities as well as distribute information to other company IT systems, bridging the gap between thecontrol systems of the shop floor and the information systems on an enterprise level. MES is a class ofinformation systems built to support shop floor processes and improve the integration to other departmentsof the enterprise by incorporating these systems into the overall IT-architecture. The main goal of an MESis to improve and optimize the production management functions and increase visibility into themanufacturing process.

    The role of the MES is defined by industry standards that identify what functionalities and dataflows anMES should include, and how it is intended to be integrated with other information systems. However, littleresearch has been focused on adopting these standards in actual MES implementation projects. The MESA(manufacturing executions system association) is presenting a standardized definition of MES as well as 2models of the, according to the standard, 11 key MES functionalities. The ISA-95 (IEC/ISO 62264)standard identifies sub-systems of an MES and defines the boundaries between the ERP, MES and otherautomation and IT systems. Company parameters such as manufacturing environment, production modeland plant type all affect the business needs and what MES functionalities are of priority. Hence, for an MESimplementation project, a business-specific evaluation must be performed.

    Prior research in the area is presenting a high-level workflow and best-practices of an MES implementationproject. By combining this workflow with the general software implementation standard ISO/IEC 12588(ISO/IEC 15288: System engineering – System lifecycle process), a methodology for performing the initialassessment of a company’s MES needs and business requirements is built. In the methodology models fromMESA and ISA-95 are applied to ensure an industry-accepted terminology and process. The objective ofthe methodology is to provide a standardized way to make an initial assessment of a company’s MES needsand specify system requirements. The methodology is validated through a study performed at discretemanufacturing line.

    The overall needs and specific functional requirements are identified through the methodology and arepresented according to a URS (user requirements specification) for an MES. The requirements areprioritizing according to MoSCoW analysis. Additional validation of the methodology must be performedto further evaluate the suitability of using the methodology for initial assessments of businesses’ MES needs.

  • Arnet, Christian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Conceptualization anddevelopment of a standardizedframework for virtualcommissioning of modularassembly control systems2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s industries are challenged by an ongoing trend of more product variantsto meet differing customer needs. This leads to efficiency losses within traditionalproduction systems using fixed cycle times within an assembly line. Contrarily,flexible modular assembly systems are seen as a promising solution. These are characterizedby offering flexible routes of the products throughout the production system.Utilizing the capabilities of cyber-physical production systems, automated guidedvehicles are performing the transports of workpiece-carriers in-between decoupledworkstations. In order to manage the complexity, sophisticated control approachesare required to coordinate all involved entities. These are organized either in acentralized or decentralized manner. For the performance evaluation of both types ofalgorithms concerning parameters characterizing the factory layout, no standardizedframework exists.

    Following the principles of virtual commissioning, this work presents a frameworkcomposed of three elements: a flexible simulation model representing a modularassembly system, a multi-agent system incorporating the logic of centralized ordecentralized control approaches, and an interface for data exchange.The framework has been successfully validated by incorporating a centralized approachfollowing a global schedule and a decentralized approach using a negotiationbasedagent-system which controls the production flow.

  • Mirza, Helen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Nikolic, Rade
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hur förändrar smart teknik resurseffektiviteten i fordonsbranschen?: En studie av hur Cyber-Physical Systems och Internet of Things påverkar resurseffektiviteten i personbilsbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is much talk about smart technology and it is said that the fourth industrial revolution is on its way. The revolution is called Industry 4.0 and involves two technical improvements, the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). IoT allows physical devices to be interconnected in a system with other devices using electromagnetic waves and CPS provides the opportunity to get information from the outside world and implement the information in digital form. When it comes to implementation in the manufacturing industry, the concepts Industrial Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Production Systems are used.

    The thesis consists of an in-depth literature study and investigates what implementation of IoT and CPS in the automotive industry's manufacturing system can lead to and how they work in practice. The theory is based on scientific articles, paper and journals, and a study by Atlas Copco. Because smart technology is a broad topic and we needed to relate to a time limit of 18 weeks, the work was limited to IoT and CPS only in manufacturing passenger car companies. The industry for passenger cars was chosen so that, in comparison with other industries, both the quality and the quantity are decisive. While many passenger cars are being produced, each passenger car must meet a variety of requirements and each unit constitutes a significant part of the capital of the company.

    The result shows how IoT and CPS work as a whole and what positive and negative consequences the implementation of the concepts gives. The result also shows that the factors of production, economy and humanity should be analysed as a whole and not individually in order for the implementation to be successful in manufacturing passenger car companies.

    The opportunities that IoT and CPS entail are faster and more precise decisions, system monitoring and collection, exchange and analysis of data for the automotive industry's companies. The biggest challenge that the implementation of the concepts entails is data management. There is a risk that unwanted recipients will have access to confidential information through, among other things, data leakage and hacking. Thus, the focus should be on preventing this in order to get the benefits and at the same time reduce the disadvantages.

    The conclusion that can be drawn from the result is that IoT and CPS in the automotive industry's manufacturing system create a communication network among heterogeneous units that enable systems to communicate and exchange data with each other in an efficient manner. Implementation of the concepts leads to a reduction of defects, introduction costs, energy use and training for workers, as well as increased tool operation and productivity.

  • Ronnedahl, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Åström, Sophie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Resurseffektiv produktion i tillverkande företag: -Ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv i en kvalitativt hantverksproducerande verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing global population in combination with finite resources places demands on how resources are used. Mass production was a consequence of the assembly line introduced by Henry Ford in manufacturing processes, and in order to enable product variation, Toyota developed the production process by introducing the Toyota Production System and Lean Production, which focuses on reducing waste.

    The concept of Lean Retail is becoming increasingly common in the retail industry, where the benefits of the concept are being implemented in business strategies and manufacturing processes. Cradle to Cradle (C2C) and circular economy are inspired by nature’s own cycles, and concerns eliminating waste. The purpose of this report is to evaluate how a high-quality manufacturing company, which mostly works with craftmanship, has implemented its own sustainability philosophy and to what extent they work with the Lean Retail concept. The company is Svenskt Tenn, and an interview with production and quality manager Johanna Asshoff in combination with a visit at one of their subcontractors is the basis for the empirical study. In combination with that, a literature study was carried out with the help of KTH’s databases, which concerns the topics sustainability, Lean production and circular economy.

    As a company, Svenskt Tenn has a clear picture of how they work with their sustainability philosophy. In their own book, ”Svenskt Tenns hållbarhetsfilosofi”, several different dimensions are presented by the company and it is also mentioned that the C2C philosophy has been implemented throughout the process by their linen supplier. There is a sustainability focus behind many of the company’s strategic decisions and since the company has been active for many decades, they have also been involved in how sustainable development and the climate issue have been dealt with over time. As a consequence, they have faced a number of challenges regarding their production process, and they constantly ask themselves the question ”What is sustainable after all?”. Cooperation with subcontractors is long-term and important, and the preservation of crafts is the main focus. Manufacturing processes and selection of materials are carefully evaluated – There is a thought behind every decision.

  • Snygg, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Torberger, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Vilka nya marknadsmodeller kan få producerande företag att gå mot cirkulär ekonomi?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental awareness in the world is increasing. The social debate is increasingly formed by an environmental perspective on several fronts. More and more people are beginning to understand that the earth's resources are finite and we must think about how we live today. The producing industry accounts for a large part of the use of raw materials, but how will the industry change in the future?

    The industry of the future is often described as a circular economy where minimal amounts of raw materials are broken and the majority of the material that is in use goes back to production. The reality we live in today is another, the greater part of the world's industry continues with linear production where raw materials are used in manufacturing and products are deposited at the end of its lifecycle. The project group examines the building blocks of circular economy and where we are today in the development towards sustainable management of raw materials.

    The purpose of the report is to investigate the economic advantages for companies to change to circular economy in the form of new business models. Opportunities for these business models often grow with the help of new technology from Industry 4.0 like Internet of Things and Big Data.

    We have the conclusion that business models such as pay-per-use where companies maintain ownership of the product, often are easy to implement in circular economics, since the company itself can control the entire circuit for the product. They make it easier to base their production on return of products if they control the volumes of the returned products themself. These models are often based on selling services that are dependent on the Internet of things and Big Data.

  • Fredstrand, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hanna, Yacoub
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Vilka metoder och mätetal som företag använder sig av för att utveckla sin befintliga resurseffektivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a consequence of the rapid technology development around the world, large manufacturing companies in Sweden face great challenges in order to keep up with development, and to compete with others. Achieving a resource-efficient production is one of the biggest challenges that companies strive to achieve.

    The purpose of this thesis is to answer the question "What methods and measures is used by companies to develop their existing resource efficiency?” It was done by first making a broad research about the particular subject in order to find scientific articles and thereafter all the information was narrowed down. In addition, two case studies was executed at Scania and Octapharma to investigate what types of methods and measures they use. The results of the interviews at the two companies were to be compared with the findings in the scientific articles to see how they complete each other.

    The thesis provided the following results: The different parts within Lean is practiced as methods in order to achieve a resource-efficient production in the companies that were interviewed and in the selected scientific articles. There is a correlation between the size of a company and its ability to fully implement Lean. A larger company is usually able to implement Lean to a larger extent than a smaller one. OEE and OPE are two measures that were used by Scania, while Octapharma did not use any measures because they measure the efficiency manually. Moreover, communication is a necessary factor in order to achieve a efficient production. The size of the company has an impact on the level of the communication as well. A larger company has a better overall structure and puts in more time and resources to make the communication as effective as possible.

  • Arnestrand, Frida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Nilsson, Stina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hur används operatörens kunskap och kompetens för utveckling av produktionen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important part of the Lean production system is the elimination of waste of various kinds. One of these wastes is unused creativity and competence, which was also the basis for this report and we landed in the issue "How is the operator’s knowledge and competence handled in development of the production?". The work is based on a literature study of knowledge management and Lean principles, as well as interviews with an operator and production manager at Scania and Sandvik Coromant.

    Theory shows that there are a variety of ways to look at knowledge and how it is handled in the best possible way. This theoretical subject is called knowledge management and discusses different ways of approaching knowledge transfer and management in business. The subject is based on the fact that there are two ways of looking at knowledge, as an object or as a process linked to action. There is also two kinds of knowledge, explicit which is concrete knowledge such as an instruction and implicit knowledge which is personal knowledge and often comes from experience.

    Both Scania and Sandvik Coromant are currently incredibly proficient in knowledge transfer and working with Lean, which is evident through their well established methods and systems. They both have a great focus on improvements and let no deviations pass without discussion. Employees are highly involved in the companies and are given opportunities to influence and develop their workplace. Scania and Sandvik Coromant use different methods to attempt to gather and save implicit knowledge from their experienced employees, but it is a challenge.

    The analysis shows that the knowledge management depends on many different parts of the production. In summary it is about the understanding of knowledge, good leadership, well functioning teams and the usage of knowledge management tools. The knowledge that the companies manages to capture is currently used to improve the working environment and safety, but also to develop the companies and keeping them competitive.

  • Hajiakbar, Abtin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Svenson, Arvid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Lean Production System: En redogörelse av resurseffektiv produktion och hur det implementeras inom Scania2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to gain a better understanding of what Lean Production entails, with its basic foundations such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), and how it is implemented practically in the industry, where the theory behind Lean Production is put into operation. Lean Production is a philosophy in which you work to achieve as resourceefficient production as possible, by among other things reducing various forms of waste.

    To limit the scope of the work, Scania's engine department is specifically investigated and how their implementation of Lean Production and interpretation of the Toyota Production System looks. The work was carried out both as a literature study, with scientific sources from KTH's database and literature within Lean Production and Toyota Production, and field study in the form of an interview with an employee in the engine department at Scania, a tour of the production and a lecture on the Scania Production System.

    Toyota is the founder of the Toyota Production System, where they developed a unique system that gives results in terms of quality and efficiency. From being a small company, they were developed into the world's largest car manufacturer and are one of the main reasons why Lean and TPS were noticed. Toyota has 14 principles that address their philosophy, people, processes and problem solving, where these principles are of benefitial to companies seeking to develop their business, both in service and manufacturing. Lean Production is a philosophy that originates from TPS, where it mainly focuses on eliminating seven different types of waste and instead adding more value to the customer.

    The result of this work has generated an overall picture of what Lean Production and its foundations are and how it has been implemented in Scania's engine department, where they developed their own production system SPS, the modular system and individual management. In the SPS, many of the concepts discussed in TPS and Lean Production are found and are also the main similarity between these three production systems. What distinguishes Scania from TPS and Lean Production is primarily individual management and the modular thinking.

    The conclusion is that Scania is better adapted to Lean than we previously thought and that their work fits well with what Lean Production is today.

  • Månsson-Perrone, Tristan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Holistic Sustainability Transformation & Addressing Impacts on Global Biodiversity Integrity: Incumbent Nordic Media Companies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growing ecological challenges [1][2][3] can be addressed by the media industry through proactive engagement with holistic sustainability transformation that covers all activities within their value-chain. With at least 60% of vertebrate species already lost [1] and 40% of insect species at risk of the same [2], the time for business-as-usual has past [4][5][6][49]. In order to mitigate negative, and accelerate positive, impacts on global biodiversity integrity, media companies need to look beyond direct impacts, carbon, and segmented actions to a more holistic understanding and approach of sustainability transformation.

    This study focused specifically on the Nordic region (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland) and the largest incumbent companies within that region (Schibsted, MTG, Bonnier, Egmont and Sanoma) [7][8], to find what actions and pathway are necessary to protect both people and planet [10]. Through understanding the drivers of biodiversity loss, as well as the proposed sustainability transformation roadmaps from the research community, and by quantitatively analyzing how these five companies understand and prioritize sustainability, this study developed a visual Pathway Lens consisting of Seven Focus Areas (SFAs) to enable media companies to look holistically at their activities and value-chain. The SFAs need to be approached holistically, similar to the 17 SDGs (Agenda 2030) [4].

    Since incumbent Nordic media companies are not currently looking at impacts on biodiversity integrity, nor focusing on a holistic approach to sustainability, the SFAs of the Pathway Lens are a tool to better understand their unique opportunity to accelerate sustainable lifestyles through their content, marketplaces, products and events, which in turn address impacts on biodiversity integrity. The media industry also shares in the collective opportunity to accelerate sustainable value-chains through prioritizing self-transcendence values, resources, responsible operations, circular business models, iterative stakeholder engagement, and external partnerships. Since the drivers of biodiversity loss are complex and interconnected [3], protecting both people and planet requires complex and interconnected solutions.

  • Moritz, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Winkelmann, Albin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Stuck state avoidance through PID estimation training of Q-learning agent2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement learning is conceptually based on an agent learning through interaction with its environment. This trial-and-error learning method makes the process prone to situations in which the agent is stuck in a dead-end, from which it cannot keep learning. This thesis studies a method to diminish the risk that a wheeled inverted pendulum, or WIP, falls over during training by having a Qlearning based agent estimate a PID controller before training it on the balance problem. We show that our approach is equally stable compared to a Q-learning agent without estimation training, while having the WIP falling over less than half the number of times during training. Both agents succeeds in balancing the WIP for a full hour in repeated tests.

  • Nguyen, Duy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Shu, Le
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Resurseffektivisering för ökad lönsamhet inom tryck & förpackning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be well prepared for the competitive market in commercial printing, today's companies must direct their production towards becoming more resource-efficient and profitable. It is known that the current market requires ever-increasing production capacity, but the customer is willing to pay less for the products. It is therefore critical that a company keep its productivity high and eliminate unnecessary losses in the production.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how resource efficiency affects the profitability of a company. The concept of key figures will be introduced and used primarily to measure and study profitability for a printing company. The project's work takes place in two phases. At first, a literature study, which is used to identify the most important key figures and study how they can be related to resource efficiency and profitability. The second phase involves a field study carried out at Eson Pac Ljungberg, a printing company that produces pharmaceutical packaging. The goal is to locate the largest assets and how they should be managed to extract the greatest possible profitability.

    There are many ways to measure and benchmark the performance of a production line. Today's technology provides opportunities to perform complex measurements using computer sensors and telecommunication equipment. However, the challenge is to apply these metrics and use them in practical implementation. All employees in the company must take part in these measurements and understand how they can be used to improve production. These metrics are turned into key figures when a company has successfully found a method of merging its production strategy with the metrics. The method is based on choosing the most relevant metric, considering the company's objectives. the company will then set up an effective communication channel where the management and manufacturers can quickly exchange information about the production and feedback quickly when errors and changes occur.

    The result shows that the main resources that contribute to increased profitability are materials, equipment and personnel. By compiling the key figures and an example measurement of OEE value (Overall Equipment Effectiveness), it is shown that low utilization of resources can have negative consequences for profitability. Field study at Eson Pac AB shows that the company's management has an active list of key figures and objectives that they are constantly working towards. The company, on the other hand, shows deficiencies in following up their key figures, since communication between management and production staff lacks mutual understanding of each other's tasks and many of the key figures are not used to their full potential. Eson Pac AB formulates its key figures mainly according to the customer's perception, unlike the versatile factors of the literature study. Customer relationship seems to be the company's focus and has a great impact on the company's view of resource access. The two key figures that the company agrees with the literature review are delivery precision and customer complaints, i.e. the two main key figures to indicate customer satisfaction.

  • Michelson, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Michelson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Making production more efficient through modernisation and increased automatization.: A case study at a potato production line2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As labour prices are rising, and automation gets more advanced, it is important for all process industries to get involved with automation to be able to survive on the open market. Large companies in the process industry have been dealing with automation for decades, thereby making the technology more available and affordable. Smaller companies might not have had the financial strength to invest in such technology in the past, but as the equipment needed becomes more user friendly and affordable, the time for smaller companies to invest in automated systems has come. The cost of buying new automated equipment is high, but the systems in use might not be outdated if machine control and monitoring are modernized.

    Process technology has in many cases not been changed radically over the last decades, so modernizing of older equipment might be a more affordable way to automize production. In this report, installation and testing of both modernizing and used equipment has been done, and the results are quite convincing. Labour costs are reduced by investing a fraction of the cost compared to new equipment. The modernized machines might not be as future proof as newer machines, but it gives companies without the financial strength to invest in new machines the possibility to compete with modern automated production lines.

    We took a close study at a potato production line at Glomma Potetpakkeri AS, where we installed and tested a robot palletizer. We also discussed possible upgrades with the manager at the plant and calculated some profitability of the possible investments.

    A conclusion has been made, and in our perspective, a reasonable amount of automation can be achieved without large investments, and the market for these services do exist.

  • Lind, Annakarin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Morberg, Caroline
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hållbar produktion inom mejeriproducerande företag: En studie av hållbarhetsarbetet hos ett mejeriproducerande företag i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a notion that is always present in the society, but in recent times has become more in question due to the increased awareness of the earth’s limited resources. An area sustainable development can be applied to is sustainable production; sustainable production within companies producing physical products. This work studies the sustainable development work within a dairy producing company in Sweden; Skånemejerier. The purpose with the study was to investigate how the work of sustainable development is carried out and valued within one of the greatest dairy producing companies in Sweden, and compare this to how sustainable development is carried out in conventional milk production.

    The work was accomplished through a literature study of sustainable production within the food industry, conventional milk production, and sustainability as a term, and how Sweden in generals works with sustainability. A case study of how the sustainable development work looks like in Skånemejerier was then carried out based on, among other things, the latest sustainability report of Skånemejerier. Also an interview with the environmental coordinator of Skånemejerier was done. At last the sustainability work within Skånemejerier was compared to how sustainability is valued and present in conventional milk production, and the material that came up was then analyzed with respect to sustainable development.

    The result that rose through the investigations was that Skånemejerier has a strong focus on sustainability in their milk production. They work actively with a selection of FN:s global sustainability goals and has also come in fifth place of sustainable trademarks in the food industry in Sweden. Skånemejerier works with all the areas that are judged as risk areas within conventional milk production. They follow up their sustainability work continuously and also creates own goals and detailed plans of how they are going to achieve the global sustainability goals.

    Even though Skånemejerier has a strong focus on sustainability there is always room for improvement; suggestions of further implementations to increase the sustainability in their production could be cooperation with other dairy producing companies with the purpose to reduce the overall transports in Sweden. Another implementation is to investigate the sustainability work even more in the beginning of the food supply chain for the milk; that is, within the farming. It can also be discussed whether the dairy producing companies in Sweden should perhaps localize their selling more locally to reduce transports. Another perspective is whether milk production is to be promoted at all. Milk is not essential for the majority of the population and in some cases it could be replaced with herbal foods. There are both advantages as well as disadvantages with milk production from a sustainability view. However, since it is complicated to completely erase the milk production, due to human psychology, it is relevant to instead investigate possible improvements to increase the sustainability work within productions.

  • Khan, Areeba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Vaseigaran, Ajanth
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hur används datoriserade beställningssystem på frukt- och gröntavdelningen i livsmedelsbutiker för resurseffektivisering?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers how automated ordering systems are used within the department in grocery stores that account for the largest share of waste in relation to the quantity delivered, i.e. the fruit and vegetable department. In this report, the term automated ordering system is defined as a system that can collect data on the amount ordered, sold and wasted, and based on that automatically put new orders. The purpose was to determine how resource-efficient the system is. The resources we focused on were staff, money, time, energy and inventory.

    The study was conducted using a literature study, personal communication with Whywaste and visits to four different grocery stores where the managers of produce department were thoroughly interviewed. Based on the results of the interviews, it was concluded that automated ordering system saves both money and time. The workload on the staff is facilitated and more energy can be spent on creating value for the customers. For example, focusing more on the appearance of the fruit and vegetable department, as the structure and quality of the goods are of great importance. The system also helps new staff to adapt by making it easy to order according to statistics. Some suggestions on how the automated ordering system could be improved have been presented in the report, such as having a scale under the inclined shelves to get the weight in real time. The report also draws attention to automated grading system, a system that classifies the degree of maturity of fruits and vegetables, as well as Whywaste computerized solution for the management of date-labeled goods.

  • Wadstein, Victor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Circular Economy in Plastic Production: The recycling challenges and solutions in plastic production2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of the linear economy of plastic production has started to show. Media reports of "plastic seas," beaches full of waste, and habitats and environments destroyed. The question on how to make plastic production more circular have been a hot topic. Every year 311 million tonnes of plastic gets produced around the world. The plastics that can be recycled are thermoplastics. 70% of all produced plastic is made from five different plastic materials, PVC, PET, EPS, PP, and HDPE. Of the total of 311 million tonnes 87 million tonnes of that plastic is plastic packages for household consumers. Of that 87 million tonnes 32% of that is never collected, ending up in the oceans. Sweden is doing well compared to most countries, 99% of all plastic in Sweden is collected. The number is much thanks to all the regulations, recycling organs, and producer requirements that are active in Sweden compared to many other countries. This report is going to point out some important challenges and its solutions to move towards a globally circular economy.

    Sweden still faces challenges. Of all plastic collected only 50% goes into recycling while the other 50% ends up for incineration to energy recovery, to warm up houses and give electricity to cities.

    There are four different methods of recycling in facilities today.

    • Closed - loop
    • Open - loop
    • Chemical recycling
    • Energy recovery through incineration

    Closed - loop recycling is when the recycled product ends up as the same product after the recycling process while open - loop is when something gets recycled to a plastic product with a lower value than the original product. Chemical recycling is when chemicals in the plastic are extracted and recycle these, usually for fuels. Energy recovery through incineration is when plastic waste is burnt down to recover the energy stored in the plastic. The most common recycling methods in Sweden are open-loop recycling and energy recovery through incineration.

    One plastic container differs from the rest. The PET - bottles. Of all plastic bottles 85% are collected and recycled in Sweden much thanks to the deposit-refund system available in Sweden. Plastic bottles often follow a process called URRC process, which is a full process from collecting plastic bottles to selling clean plastic flakes that can be renewed to new plastic bottles. Sweden is building the largest recycling facility in Europe, with a technology called "Near-echnology" which is a technology with Near-infrared light to efficiently sort out coloured and clear plastic as well as type of material and chemical compound. This technology will help the facility sort out more than 50% plastic waste compared to other facilities in Europe, an essential step toward a circular economy. Another meaningful action is in the form of global and international producer recommendations, where strict regulation regarding production, design, and materials are agreed upon that favours packaging improving its recycling abilities. These regulations come from the recycling companies such as Returpack and Plastkretsen.

  • Wong, Lai-Yan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Barriärer för implementation av cirkulär ekonomiska affärsmodeller som ett verktyg för resurseffektiv produktion: – en fallstudie på förpackningsföretaget Nefab AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society lives by a linear economic system that produces a big quantity of products every day. For each product produced it’s also packaged. The package can be due to protection or commercial use, either way a package will also be produced. Transporting products in today’s globalized world is something necessary, hence packaging for transportation purposes is something inevitable. A consequence of this is that a whole amount of package waste is generated at the same pace.

    Circular economy is a model that advocates to systematic design products to minimize waste. Its business model is supposed to be a tool to increase resource efficiency in companies, due to reusing through return flows. Circular economy is therefore a model with potential and possibilities to attain a high resource efficient production, but in reality something that is still not yet applicable in many fields.

    The purpose of this study is therefore to identify which challenges and difficulties there are to applying circular economic business models on companies selling packaging solutions to increase their resource efficiency. This leads to the formulation of the following question that should be answered through this study:

    ”Which barriers is there to implement circular economic business model in a packaging solution company to increase its resource efficiency?”

    To answer this question a literature study has been conducted. Therefore this starts off with reviewing relevant parts of the literature study as well as defining what resource efficient production means in general and what linear economy and circular economy entail. Furthermore it will contain the concept of how circular economy could be interpreted into material flows, “closing loops” and how such are translated into circular economic business models. More over both the benefits of circular economy and it’s theoretically barriers will be analyzed.

    From this literature study a solid ground of information was built to create relevant topics and interview questions to gather information to answer the question above. The interview questions were then applied to the packaging solution company Nefab AB. Through two interviews that were conducted, five barriers were identified; technical, logistical, regulatory, cultural and financial barriers. Within these five identified barriers there are two barriers that were found to be the most critical ones; and those are logistical and the financial ones.

    Each identified barrier has logical explanations like cultural behavior in society, economical drives in society and infrastructures. These explanations means that it is not specified to the company itself and could be applied to other packaging solution companies as well. The two critical barriers were somehow expected. The logistical and financial barriers are fundamental into creating the possibility of return flows. However the barriers identified in this study came to differ from the theoretical ones. This is due to the different circumstances this study had as compared to the studied ones.

    Return flows can in some cases be applied in the packaging field, but what is the next step to take towards circular economy? Is it really that resource efficient to make return flows? It would be interesting to do more analyzes within this field and circular economic business model, because packages is something inevitable in todays globalized society.

  • Hassen, Esam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Cirkulära möbelflöden och digitalisering: En studie om möjligheterna digitaliseringen innebär för cirkulära möbelflöden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish furniture industry is huge and has always been an important industrial sector in Sweden. It’s now experiencing a transition from linear to circular furniture flows. The driving force of the traditionally linear furniture flows is massive and direct flows that are replaced long before their technical life has ended. Circular furniture flows aim to focus on expanding the life of the furniture by changing to production and consumption systems where the driving force is to get revenue flows over as many life cycles as possible. This is done through re-use and repair of entire or parts of furniture.

    Sweden is generally known as a leading country when it comes to sustainability and innovation and it has become a more and more obvious development that Swedish companies/customers in their sustainability work are demanding used and repaired furnitures. At the same time, we are experiencing a digitalisation of whole industries, which is known as Industry 4.0, where the rapid development generates more efficient solutions for both industries and individuals.

    The idea of Internet of things (IoT) is aimed at internet connection embedded in physical products and object. Computers, people and products can communicate with each other in real time through embedded electronics, internet connections and sensors in order to increase value and service by exchanging data and creating new information.

    This bachelor thesis is based on business models for circular furniture flows and aims at investigating whether and, if so, how Industry 4.0 can contribute with improvements in the development of business models that support a circular economy for the furniture industry. Delimitations have been made to more closely investigate how cloud-based platforms and IoT, which are part of Industry 4.0, can streamline business models for circular furniture flows. The study has been compiled though a literature study and interviews with two representatives from two different municipalities in Skåne.

    The result shows that the establishment of business models for circular furniture flows provides incentives for using cloud-based platforms and that more research is necessary to motivate the usage of sensors in those business models.

  • Malmberg, Nore
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Kortspel, mer än bara ett tidsfördriv?: En fallstudie om gymnasieelevers resonemang vid spel av ett kortspel med matematiskt innehåll2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that in the traditional forms of mathematics education there is a lack of opportunity for students to improve their reasoning ability in a meaningful way (Sidenvall, Lithner och Jäder, 2015; Tranbeck, 2010; Jäder, 2015). This flaw has been identified as one reason for why students have troubles following the mathematics education at university level (Lithner, 2011). This has led to alternative methods being studied in regard to how they provide opportunities for the students to utilise their reasoning ability (Liljekvist, 2014; Brunström, 2015). The purpose of this study is to examine what the students’ reasoning looks like and its content when they play a game with mathematical content in high school mathematics courses. Understanding this can, among other things, enable an assessment of how relevant this type of games is for use in high school mathematics education. In this study, two groups of high school students reasoning are observed when they play a card game that has mathematical content. Two structured content analyses are used in this study. The first one applies categories that have been created through the combination of three other frameworks, while the second one applies categories of engineering skills that have been selected from Conceive Design Implement Operate (CDIO) syllabus. The result shows that many different forms of reasoning and engineering skills were present in the students’ reasoning. It is most common that the students’ reasoning incorporates knowledge of general mathematical rules and relations in an imitative way that also includes the interaction between two variables. The proportion of creative reasoning was higher than those found in previous studies. Furthermore, the students’ reasoning mostly reveals engineering skills related to taking initiative and decision making under uncertainty. With regards to the result the assessment is that the game that was studied in this study can be regarded as relevant for use in mathematics education, with some limitations. More generally, the result shows that when games of the type that has been studied here are used the students show the ability to reason in a nuanced way and engineering skills are also present.

  • Faraj, Dina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Shihab, Saad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    How can Beema Bamboo Plantations Benefit Islands and Farmers in the Philippines?: A study in Manila, Marinduque and Romblon, the Philippines2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted as a bachelor thesis at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in the spring of 2019. The study was carried out as a Minor Field Study (MFS) funded by the Swedish agency SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

    The study focuses on the potential economic- & ecological benefits of farming bamboo on small islands in the Philippines. Few other countries are so vulnerable for natural disasters as the Philippines. Majority of the farmers in the Philippines live on a day to day payment where the life of a family can be destroyed when a disaster strikes and ruins the crops. Bamboo could be intercropped and supply farmers with a more stable and higher income on the long term. This project examines previous Beema bamboo plantations, the characteristics of Beema bamboo and explores future implementations.

    The main type of bamboo that is explored is Beema bamboo, a modified and improved version of Bambusa Balcooa. The Philippines have optimal growth conditions for Beema bamboo and could develop industries which can provide job opportunities. Since the research of Beema bamboo is still in early stages in the Philippines this goal is still years away.

  • Hedström, Isabella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Implementering av Cirkulär Ekonomi: Ett verktyg för en mer hållbar produktion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demands regarding sustainable production for Swedish industries are getting higher and the raw materials of the earth are becoming less and less. Today’s industrial structure since the starting point of the industrial revolution in the mid 1700s is based on the principle of linear production, that is to say “take-make-dispose”. Recourse efficiency in this type of production is therefore difficult to improve.

    Circular economy (CE) is a relatively new concept which implies that the whole value chain of a product is taken into account from raw material to its end of use. The word “circular” implies that the product should be kept within in a circular flow where as much possible of the products value is taken care of by the help of for instance, maintenance, repair and reuse.

    The implementation of CE is currently lucking in many of today’s industries and there are not many companies which have chosen this way in their work towards sustainable production. This report intends to show what important aspects that should be focused on while implementing CE in the business.

    A literature review has been conducted with the aim of finding to what extent CE is applied in manufacturing industries. On addition to literature survey, an interview with the company Nefab has been conducted where the main purpose was to analyze the company’s business model and its attitude towards CE.

    It has been concluded that most important aspects for the industries to take into consideration when beginning the transformation into CE are:

    • Design, the process after a products end-of-life, the importance of cooperation and the business model. Those parts in combination with each other are considered to increase the company’s competitiveness because of the now even more environmental aware customers.

    • Keep the product within the company’s circular flow. The resource efficiency will increase due to less needs of raw materials when focusing on design and the EOL management.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-19 10:00 D3, Stockholm
    Högström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Lost in translation?: A process-oriented view on municipal spatial planning practice2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As urban areas are developing and becoming increasingly important for responding to sustainability goals and challenges, it is necessary to understand the conditions for local spatial planning practices who play a key role in shaping urban environments. This thesis aims to explore and analyze municipal spatial planning practices and spatial planning processes in the Stockholm region, Sweden. More specifically, the thesis aims to contribute to the development of municipal spatial planning practice by creating knowledge of the organization and application of the municipal spatial planning process. Based on the results of the four included studies, planning processes at different levels are used to organize embedded processes of contextualization, translation, concretization and formalization, which all play a key role for governing the municipal spatial planning process. Planners engage with processes of contextualization, translation, concretization and formalization to pursue an understanding of how to shape urban environments across unique planning situations. The use of these four processes are of importance for the cross-level interaction in local planning practice. To strengthen the cross-level interplay in municipal spatial planning, it is necessary to pay attention to the relevance of strategic plans, and the influential role of protocol (e.g. the project manuals) in shaping conditions for process participation. Moreover, the cross-level interplay can be strenghthened by designing a process which ties the different levels together and creates conditions for learning and capacity building.

  • Uma, Ketaki
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    User Centred design of Conversational UI for Wealth Management Customers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conversational UI (CUI) like voice assistant and chatbot are being introduced to provide 24x7 enquiry response, advice and technical support. This study aims at assessing User Experience related factors, which reinforce Trust between Wealth Management customer and the CUI in tasks normally performed by Relationship Managers.

    Given the financial and resource constraints of the thesis, semi structured interviews and Wizard of Oz experiments were chosen as the methods of study. These methods helped in delving deep into user issues within limited time period. The study finds that investors were happy to get response in text and graphics mode but not in voice since the information was considered confindential. There were apprehensions in using chatbot for getting investment advice.

    Findings of this study may be helpful to wealth management organisations in designing conversation UI strategy. However, the study was conducted with clients in India, hence the findings are more relevant to countries with similar socio-cultural conditions.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-19 10:00 Room nr: B4:1026 Code: FB42, Stockholm
    Zakomirnyi, Vadim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. Siberian Federal University : Krasnoyarsk , RU.
    Multicomponent Resonant Nanostructures: Plasmonic and Photothermal Effects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, plasmonic nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to localize electromagnetic energy at a scale much smaller than the wavelength of optical radiation. The study of optical plasmon waveguides (OPWs) in the form of chains of nanoparticles is important for modern photonics. However, the widespread use of OPWs is limited due to the suppression of the resonance properties of classical plasmon materials under laser irradiation. The study of the influence of nanoparticle heating on the optical properties of waveguides and the search for new materials capable of stable functioning at high temperatures is an important task.

    In this thesis, the processes occurring during heating of plasmon nanoparticles and OPWs are studied. For this purpose, a model was developed that takes into account the heat transfer between the particles of an OPW and the environment. The calculations used temperature-dependent optical constants. As one of possible ways to avoid thermal destabilization of plasmon resonanses, new materials for OPWs formed by nanoparticles were proposed. I show that titanium nitride is a promising thermally stable material, that might be useful for manufacturing of OPWs and that works in high intensity laser radiation.

    Another hot topic at present is the study of periodic structures of resonant nanoparticles. Periodic arrays of nanoparticles have a unique feature: the manifestation of collective modes, which are formed due to the hybridization of a localized surface plasmon resonance or a Mie resonance and the Rayleigh lattice anomaly. Such a pronounced hybridization leads to the appearance of narrow surface lattice resonances, the quality factor of which is hundreds of times higher than the quality factor of the localized surface plasmon resonance alone. Structures that can support not only electric, but also magnetic dipole resonances becomes extremely important for modern photonics on chip systems. An example of a material of such particles is silicon. Using the method of generalized coupled dipoles, I studied the optical response of arrays of silicon nanoparticles. It is shown that under certain conditions, selective hybridization of only one of the dipole moments with the Rayleigh anomaly occurs.

    To analyze optical properties of intermediate sized particles with N = 103-105 atoms and diameter of particle d < 12 nm an atomistic approach, where the polarizabilities can be obtained from the atoms of the particle, could fill an important gap in the description of nanoparticle plasmons between the quantum and classical extremes. For this purpose I introduced an extended discrete interaction model where every atom makes a difference in the formation optical properties of nanoparticles within this size range. In this range are first principal approaches not applicable due to the high number of atoms and classical models based on bulk material dielectric constants are not available due to high influence from quantum size effects and corrections to the dielectric constant. To parametrize this semi-empirical model I proposed a method based on the concept of plasmon length. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, I performed calculations of optical properties of nanoparticles with different shapes: regular nanospheres, nanocubes and nanorods. Subsequently, the model was used to calculate hollow nanoparticles (nano-bubbles).

  • Unander, Marcus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Keeping the User and User Data in Mind: A Study on Empathy and Personas2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One method to create and work with personas is to abstract the user data into a character with a background story and a set of goals. This method has been argued against as the method is argued to lead to, for example, stereotyping users and for not exposing User Experience (UX) designers to user data. User data has been argued to be used by UX designers to make design decision. This study examines the possibility for UX designers to empathize with a persona that have additional accessible representations of user data. The results from this study imply that it is possible for UX designers to empathize with a persona while having access to representations of user data. Additionally, the results indicate that the persona design methods used in this study need further development.

  • Pan, Chengyang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Application of volatile fatty acids from waste as an external carbon source for the denitrification process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The gap between resource demand for the industrialized world and non-renewable feedstock like fossil fuels, essential agricultural fertilizer is getting increasingly severe, which has resulted in alarming-increasingly impacts on worldwide environmental problems. Meanwhile, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as an essential facility for urbanization, is also confronting new rising challenges such as energy consumption and operation costs rather than only improving effluent wastewater quality. It is thereby important to develop new approaches for next-generation WWTPs with less energy consumption and costs in a sustainable way.

    The objective was to study the application of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from waste as an external carbon source on denitrification by manometric tracking method in the lab-scale. Food waste and primary sludge were used for anaerobic fermentation to produce VFAs, which was then used as a sole external carbon source with various C/N ratio in denitrification batch test. The results were compared with traditional external carbon sources, acetate and methanol. It was found that the maximum denitrification rate with VFAs as an external carbon source was 15.73 ± 0.95 mg NOx-N/g VSS h, faster than those with acetate and methanol as external carbon sources. When C/N ratio ≥ 4.5 nitrate removal efficiency and the highest maximum denitrification rate were reached, the optimum C/N ratio for dosing VFAs as an external carbon source was thus determined as 4.5. In addition, denitrification capacity experiments with addition of VFAs produced from three different pH-controlled digestion reactors as an external carbon source were then conducted under an optimum C/N ratio of 4.5. As a result of the composition difference between VFAs produced from different pH environment, it was observed that, with VFAs from pH-10 digestion reactor denitrification rate was slightly higher than those with VFAs from pH-5 and none-pH-controlled digestion reactors. Furthermore, denitrification batch test using chemical tracking method was conducted to compare with manometric tracking method, and it was proven that the results obtained from manometric denitrification tests were reliable and valid.

    The overall results show that VFAs produced from anaerobic fermentation are an excellent external carbon source for denitrification, and it realizes the utilization of carbon resource recovery from WWTPs, which is crucial for next-generation wastewater treatment.

  • Tjernlund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Wretljung, Magdalena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Värmeöverföring till kallvatten i flerbostadshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor thesis is based on a request from Säker Vatten AB, a company that develops industry regulations within the HVAC line of business regarding safe installation of water systems. In addition, they hold responsibility to approve of and authorize HVAC-corporations that follow these regulations. Säker Vatten AB also provide education and training of HVAC-workers, all this to ensure that water installations shall be performed as risk free as possible.

    This project aims to validate a method of calculation developed by Säker Vatten AB, that claims to be able to determine the temperature of the water in the cold water pipes in apartment buildings. This calculation model is based on the lumped capacity method, which is a simplified heat transfer method to calculate how the temperature of a body changes over time. The water supply in apartment buildings is provided by so called tap water shafts installed in the bathrooms. In this project the calculation model is tested in practice through a self constructed tap water shaft prototype to determine whether the calcuation model is accurate enough to be applied to the real world.

    Boverket is an authority responsible for building regulations, which include one regulation regarding bacterial growth of legionella in water. The temperature of the cold water pipes cannot exceed 24 ◦C in 8 hours.

    The results from this project indicates that Säker Vatten’s calculation model is relatively adequate to use for calculation of the average cold water temperature. It generally showed a higher value than what was measured out in practice, where the model itself possesses an incertitude of approximately ± 0,5 ◦C. Although, if the highest emerged temperature at any point in the pipe is the most important factor to consider to avoid bacterial growth, the model cannot be used for that purpose since it assumes that the cold water temperature is homogeneous everywhere in the pipe. This assumption turned out to not quite apply to the tests performed in this project. The test results also pointed to insulation thickness being a crucial factor for the prevention of heating up the cold water.

    To conclude, when used to calculate the average temperature of the cold water in tap water shafts, Säker Vatten’s calculation model overall generates a higher value than what the practical measurements showed. As long as it generates a value below 24 ◦C the shaft installation should be approved.

  • Thinsz, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Algorithms for Short-Term Building Cooling Load Predictions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for a large part of the total energy demand in the world. The building energy demand increases every year and space cooling is the main contributor for this increase. In order to create a sustainable global energy system it is therefore of great importance to improve the energy efficiency in buildings. Cooling load predictions are an essential part of improving the building energy efficiency. The widespread use of Building Automation Systems (BAS) in modern buildings makes it possible to use data-driven methods for such predictions.

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to compare the performance of five different machine learning algorithms by analyzing their accuracy and robustness; and to examine what effect different versions of a data set have on these algorithms. The data that is used in this study is one-year operational data from a building in the city of Shenzhen in China. This data set is engineered in multiple different ways and is used to test the algorithms.

    This study show that the predictive accuracy of machine learning models can be improved by introducing time-lag variables into the data set, especially if the original data set is very low-dimensional. It is also shown that some algorithms benefit from a binary representation of calendar variables instead a decimal representation. All algorithms in this study show quite similar results which suggests that they are all capable of capturing the relationships in the data. The accuracy of all models that are developed in this study are considered good enough for engineering purposes.

  • Algarp, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Svanfeldt, Astrid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Optimal configuration for a bio-solar-wind polygeneration system in Klintehamn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project concentrates on the energy flows of Klintehamn and examines if it is possible for Klintehamn to be self-sufficient in the future. To reach this goal, the energy flows in Klintehamn must be analyzed. Subsequently, a new improved energy flow has been designed, where other renewable energy sources are included.

    Klintehamn is an urban area on the Swedish island of Gotland. An industrial park is established in the harbour of Klintehamn, and currently a sawmill, a fodder production facility and a few wind turbines are located in the area. A program, Program Klintehamn 2030, outlines opportunities to develop Klintehamn in many areas. The goals for Klintehamn are to increase the use of renewable energy sources and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. More specifically, this includes building a biogas plant by evolving the already established sewage treatment plant, and increasing the use of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy.

    Models of the Current Energy System and the Improved Energy System have been designed during the project. Calculations of the Current Energy System have been made and for the Improved Energy System, seven scenarios have been constructed. The calculations program, Matlab, has been used for all calculations. The following scenarios have been modeled in this project:

    • Scenario 1 - Development of biogas

    • Scenario 2 - Increased wind power

    • Scenario 3 - Development of solar park

    • Scenario 4 - Development of solar panels

    • Scenario 5 - Combination 1, scenario 1-4 added into one system

    • Scenario 6 - Combination 2, 100% renewable energy

    • Scenario 7 - Combination 3, development of Scenario 5, with more renewable energy

    In the Current Energy System, the total yearly energy demand is 3.423 TWh, where 3.405 TWh is electricity and 18.2 GWh is heat. The future demand of electricity and heat will be 3.407 TWh and 265 GWh per year, respectively. Scenario 5 is the first combined scenario, where the current energy and all renewable energy sources are included. The generated electricity in that scenario is not enough to satisfy the electricity demand. Scenario 6 consists of 100% renewable energy sources. To achieve the energy demand of Klintehamn all the renewable energy sources have been maximized in order to become self-sufficient. It generated an absurd result, which was far from realistic. Scenario 7 is an expansion of Scenario 5 but with more renewable energy. All energy sources have been expanded and Scenario 7 generates 108 GWh of electricity. Scenario 5 and Scenario 7 are two reasonable scenarios with reasonable amounts of renewable energy installed, but with different levels of ambition.

    The conclusion of the project is that, it is possible to improve the current energy system. The energy system can become more sustainable and fossil energy sources can be removed and replaced by renewable energy sources. In order for Klintehamn to be self-sufficient, more energy sources must be included, for example wave power.

  • Ankre, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Sietses, Samantha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Jämförelsestudie: mätning av luftkvalitet och upplevd luftkvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was made at the request of REQS as a part of their project “IOTs möjligheter till bättre besiktningar och kontroller i fastigheter och byggnader”. Data from their specially developed sensors was compared with the perception of the air quality in the locations where the sensors were placed. The purpose was to investigate whether how good data could guarantee a positive perception of the indoor climate and ensure good health. The sensors recorded temperature, relative humidity and TVOC, and it also presented equivalent carbon dioxide.

    A literature study was completed to evaluate the significance and effect these key values have on the human. Recommendations and requirements regarding the air quality was compiled into a table, where the eventual symptoms and side effects was listed in case the recommendations were violated.

    Interview questions were written, whereupon interviews were conducted at three different companies. The interviewees were to answer questions regarding their general opinion of the air quality and temperature, as well as if they experienced some kind of symptom like headache, tiredness, dryness etc. The sensor data was later collected from the same location. This data was compared to the interview results, and eventual conclusions were discussed. Below are the conclusions presented briefly:

    ● The result in this study shows that the majority of the employees are satisfied with the air quality when the sensor data is satisfactory.

    ● The temperature is decisive for the opinion of the air quality. If the temperature rises above 25 °C the air quality will be experienced as bad, no matter how clean the air actually is. Increased temperature will also result in symptoms like headache and tiredness.

    ● A relative humidity below 20 % will result in some experience of dryness among the employees.

    ● Discomfort such as breeze and stiff neck occur despite the sensor data is satisfactory. A calm environment can thereby not be guaranteed with the help of the sensors.

  • Ranjith, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Thermal Energy Storage System Construction2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of 2020 PUPM HEAT project three different types of thermal energy storage (TES) systems are being constructed and analyzed at a demonstration site set up at the power plant IREN in Moncalieri, Italy. KTH will assist this project by setting up a validation rig where three TES systems in smaller dimensions will be constructed and analyzed for its performance, to use as guideline for the demonstration site rig. The first TES system that is being constructed is the submerged parallel spiral heat exchanger which is a completely new version of latent heat storage to be tested. For this idea, parallel layers of spiral copper coils will fill up a tank shell which in turn will be filled with phase change material. By injecting high temperature heat transfer fluid, phase change material will change its state and energy will be stored in the system. When injecting low temperature heat transfer fluid, the energy will be extracted. This BSc thesis will present detailed design solutions for the tank shell and the spiral copper coils that will be used for the heat exchanger. Presented solutions are then used to order parts needed to initiate the construction phase.

  • Moberg, Agnes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Toft, Josefine
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Utveckling av laboration i mätteknik: Mätning av temperatur, tryck och volymflöde2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the development of a new laboratory exercise in the course Measurement Techniques, MJ2440, for last year students at KTH, Royal Institute of Technology. The report focuses on constructing a meaningful laboratory exercise were students get to measure flow, pressure and temperature. The laboratory exercise’s structure was based on a literature study that examined pedagogy and didactic principles concerning learning and laboratory work as well as the measurement techniques that are part of the course MJ2440. A state-of-the-art of existing laboratory exercises was used as a basis for the structure of the laboratory exercise. The literature study addresses several perspectives on learning that can be the basis of a laboratory exercise. This report focuses on the pragmatic perspective on learning.

    The laboratory exercise that was constructed contains measuring temperature, flow and pressure, focusing primarily on temperature and flow measurements. The laboratory exercise is meant to be conducted by twelve students, in groups of four, during a two-hour exercise. The measurement instruments that are used in the laboratory exercise already exists, in spring 2019, in the laboratory planned to be used for the laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercise aims to let students try several types of measurement methods and encourage reflection about the measurement method’s uses and shortcomings.

    The testing of the laboratory exercise showed that the timeframe for the exercise was reasonable but that several changes, primarily concerning the wording of the instructions and the placement and use of the pictures, were needed. After the relevant changes were made the laboratory exercise was considered to fulfil all requirements. It contains measurement of temperature, pressure and flow and can be performed in two hours. The goal was therefore considered to have been achieved.

    Further work with the laboratory exercise should include creating instructions for the teachers assisting the laboratory exercise as well as further investigations regarding the ideal number of students in groups during laboratory exercises.

  • Dittrich, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Lillieroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    The role of bioenergy for achieving a fossil fuel free Stockholm by 20402019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy is extracted from biomass. What counts as biomass is generally quite diverse, but broadly speaking, it is material that previously lived. Today, energy extracted from biofuels make up around 23% of Stockholm city's total energy consumption. Stockholm city has set a goal to be a fossil-free city by 2040, i.e. zero emissions from energy use. Two sectors have been identified where emissions occur and these are the transport sector and the electricity and heating sector. This thesis will only address the electricity and heating sector. This includes all energy consumption within Stockholm city municipality. When Stockholm is developing towards a fossil fuel free city, it’s interesting to look at how important bioenergy will be as an energy source in the future. This thesis has scrutinized the role of bioenergy in reaching a fossil fuel free city. Three major policies have been investigated. The carbon dioxide tax and the emission rights system have promoted the bioenergy and its deployment in a positive way. The system of electricity certificates has shown to indirectly affect the bio energy in a negative way. The key finding is that bioenergy will have a great impact in reaching the goal mainly through its contributions with negative emissions, but it is also an important substitute to fossil fuels.

  • Liljenberg Olsson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Litiumjonbatterier - kartläggning och hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, different aspects of the production of lithium-ion batteries has been studied. Additionally, how these batteries compare to the conventional fuels from an environmental standpoint is also included. This has been done to assess the future of these batteries as well as to see whether it is preferable to establish a lithium-ion battery factory in Sweden or not.

    The emissions from the fossil fuel, from well to the point where it is consumed has been compared to the emissions that are created in the process of making the lithium-ion battery as well as the emissions that are generated in the creation of the electricity that later on is being used to charge these batteries.

    The resources of lithium and cobalt has been studied to grasp how durable the future of these specific batteries are. The conclusion is that in the long term, these batteries, as they are manufactured today, are not a final solution since the resources are finite and the demand of cars does not seem to decrease in the future. However, an establishment of a factory in Sweden is preferable when compared to other countries. This is because the emissions generated in the production of these batteries are high and Sweden’s methods of creating electricity are relatively environmentally friendly.

  • Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Norrman, Filip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Life cycle analysis on phase change materials for thermal energy storage.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable energy sources and utilization is a large area of interest and the developments are moving fast. Recently, thermal energy storage in the form of phase change materials other than water have caught more interest and a need of analysis for the entire life cycle of the materials have appeared. Previous work in the area shows that health and safety aspects of the products’ life cycle have been neglected and comparisons between different phase change materials other than water are sparsely researched. The objectives for this report are to compare three different phase change material intended for thermal energy storage in a life cycle analysis point of view with both environmental and health and safety aspects. A screening process of materials was subsequently performed in order to find suited materials given the objective (Octadecane, Xylitol and Manganese Nitrate Hexahydrate), taking into consideration the relevance in the scientific community amongst other criteria. The life cycle is in this work bounded from cradle to grave without recycling and for a thermal energy storage heating system operating in Scandinavian climates assuming 52 cycles per year. The results indicate that Octadecane are preferable in terms of global warming potential over 100 years (ca 4.5 kg CO2/kg Octadecane produced) and Xylitol more preferable in terms of cumulative energy demand (ca 21.5 MJ per kg Xylitol produced) and energy payback time (1.17 years). The health and safety aspects are difficult to evaluate in terms of working conditions and ecotoxicity but a simple scale have been put to use to give an overview of the health risk associated with each material. In the health and safety aspects Xylitol also show the most promise but further development of a methodology for evaluating these terms are recommended.

  • Gürsac, Paulina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Kronström, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    En undersökning av prestandan på en ny typ av värmepumpssystem för enfamiljshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is stored in nature which can be used in heat pumps. The energy extracted by a heatpump from heat is high compared to the electrical energy required to run it, thus it is a clever choice and also good from an environmental point of view. Different types of heat pumps extract energy from different elements of nature. In this report the main focus will be on an air-to-water heat pump that heats the house by utilizing both the outdoor air and the air being ventilated from inside the house that has already been heated. The system that has been examined is called BAS and consists of a heat pump, an exhaust-and-supply-air-ventilation-with-heat-recovery (FTX) and two subcoolers. The main purpose of this investigation is to find the best configuration of the subcoolers that provides the best coefficient of performance (COP).

    Measurements were made at three outdoor temperatures with three different temperatures of the water in the house’s radiator system. Additionally, each temperature combination will be measured with the subcoolers turned on or off individually. The useful heat supplied by BAS can be calculated from the measurement data and the coefficient of performance can be computed.

    The results from the experiments yielded a COP that ranged from 2,0 to 3,5 which are low values compared to similar experiments made on other heat pumps. A leakage in the FTX-construction was discovered during the experiments. Furthermore the heat pump was suspected to be defective based on the results. This may be the cause for the low COP values. The best configuration for the subcoolers were either subcooler 1 or a combination of both subcoolers. Due to uncertainties in the measurements it couldn’t be decided which of the aforementioned configurations that were optimal. The conclusion is that one must reach a sufficiently low outdoor temperature in order for subcooler 2 to function effectively for the construction BAS.

  • Bäckman, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Willén, Mathilda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Tesla Valve for Hydrogen Decompression: Fluid Dynamic Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last couple of years, the footprint of humankind on the greenhouse effect has been a highlighted and debated topic. There are many contributing factors to the negative impacts on the environment, one of them being the sector of automobile. Today, most cars are driven on fossil fuel energy which produces toxic emissions. The search for replaceable alternative fuels is hence of importance and keys of demands are renewable energy and energy-friendly resources. Hydrogen as a fuel, in particular the hydrogen gas, is one of the options considering the only residues to be water and hot air, provided that the energy used in the hydrogen production comes from renewable sources.

    In the storage tank of cars fueled by hydrogen gas, a high pressure is set due to its advantages of opportunities of more storage and thus increased mileage of the tank. A decompression process is necessary to supply the fuel cell with hydrogen gas at the right pressure, and thus achieve highest possible degree of efficiency. The concept offers a wide set of application opportunities in industrial situations and understanding the valve is important for characterizing the performance on the device. Given correct and optimal geometry on the Tesla valve, a high pressure-drop could be achieved, in other words a high performance.

    In this study three geometric parameters were investigated in order to conclude their ideal value for optimizing the performance. The parameters of interest were the inner curve radius, the valveto-valve distance in a multi-stage Tesla valve and the cross-section of the valve. In order to obtain the results, a numerical study was conducted using simulations in a Computational Fluid Dynamics program, ANSYS Fluent. The results denoted that a small inner curve radius yielded the highest pressure-drop when comparing to larger radius’. The performance was enhanced with a large valveto-valve distance of the multi-stage Tesla valves and the findings of the cross-sections, which were chosen to be rectangular and circular of interest, displayed a superior performance for the circular cross-sections. Conclusions were drawn that circular cross-section is to prefer and that a small inner curve radius and large valve-to-valve distance yield an enhanced performance of the device.

  • Hemgren, Dan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Fuzzy Content-Based Audio Retrieval Using Visualization Tools2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Music composition and sound design in the digital domain often involves sifting through large collections of audio files to find the right sample. Traditionally, this involves searching through metadata such as filenames and descriptors either via text search or by manually searching through folders. This paper presents a fast, scalable method for implementing a search engine in which the contents of audio files are used as queries to retrieve similar audio files. The presented approach applies visualization tools to speed up retrieval time compared to a simple KD-Tree algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative results are presented and benefits and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. While the qualitative results show promise, they are deemed inconclusive. Via the quantitative results, it is found that the application of UMAP yield an order-of-magnitude speed-up at a loss of accuracy and that the approach scales well with larger datasets.

  • Broms, Arvid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Vad kan man göra för att på hållbart sätt minska värmekostnaderna för bostäder?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic cells, can capture the sun's light and convert this light into electric current. Its current can be used to operate systems that have a need for electric energy. This is what can create savings for the examined properties when it comes to heating, which in this case is what 60 percent of the total cost for the properties accounts for. The problem to be solved is thus a cost problem that the property owner wants to solve with the help of solar cells. By looking at existing solutions and screening out those that were not reasonable, it turned out that no solutions that were addressed in this report passed the requirements that the client had, but a recommendation to look more closely at an exhaust air system has been given to the property owner. Solar cells on roofs with several families below probably do not provide the amount of energy required for heating, this quantity may only be used for household electricity or stairwell lighting, but the future looks bright and hopefully solar cells will be on each rooftop to jointly work towards a fossil-free future.

  • Artursson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Jacobson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Framtagande av metodik för att svara på frågan: Hur mår mina byggnader?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating and presenting a way to evaluate how a building perform is the primary purpose of this study. In the present report a method to determine parameters relative effect on the surroundings in regards to other parameters is the main focus. The secondary focus is how to use the method in practise. The method is such that it produces a Total Building Score (TBS) which is an indicator of how well the building in question performs. Three areas are considered: Human, Building and Cost. In short Human is based on how the indoor environment affects both the health and experience. Building is rather a measurement of how bad components deteriorate the structure and the interior of the building. Cost is simply the amount of spending on a given component. Throughout the thesis three fields of subgroups containing components is studied: Elevators, Energy usage and Air quality.

    Elevators is a unique aspect of a building which is only attended to if they do not work. For the synthetic analysis two components for describing the indicator function1 is used, the first component being how long in between an error complaint is issued and until it is corrected, the other is in regard to the amount of errors occuring during a set period of days.

    Energy usage for a building only affects the cost of the buildings maintenance. The energy usage is evaluated for the whole building as one unit, it is not evaluated for the usage of energy from every separate function in a building.

    Air quality is in the present study composed by three components Humidity, Temperature and eCO2 . These are all well defined and their consequences are well known. An analysis between the components to determine their individual level of relevance for a given building is central and therefore focused on in the thesis.

    The three areas of interest is given an indicator value by how each of the subgroups are preforming in that area, those are then combined in such a way to give a fair representation of the performance of a building, the TBS.

    The method that has been created in the report has been evaluated using synthetic data to display a proof-of-concept. The model uses data from components with varying effect on a building and turn the data into one value. It is possible to distinguish a good and a poor TBS which gives the property owner a holistic oversight of the buildings well-being and an opportunity to make adjustments to manage the property.

  • Ahmed, Rabbu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Gopi Sripathy, Arun
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Kvantifiering av den samlade miljöbelastningen av tomgångskörning i Sverige samt förslag till beteendepåverkande åtgärder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The accelerating climate change today comes mainly from human activities. Emissions from humans are disturbing the balance of nature today and even more in the future. The biggest problem is carbon dioxide which, among else, is emitted from cars with internal combustion engines. Statistics show that carbon dioxide emissions are decreasing for newer cars, but unfortunately, the number of cars increases over time. Part of the problem lies in idling. Idling refers to running a vehicle's engine when the vehicle is not in motion. In Sweden, it is only allowed to have the car idle for a maximum of one minute in most municipalities, except for vehicles that may have the engine running longer to operate a plant. The amount of idle driving in Sweden was determined using calculations based on literature study and statistics. Reasons for idle driving and driver attitudes to idle driving in different population groups were examined using a questionnaire survey. The conclusion that could be drawn is that idle driving constitutes about 25% of all carbon dioxide emissions from passenger cars. The most common situations when motorists had the car idle were at heavy traffic, queuing at drive through, heating the car and when they were waiting for someone. The majority had the car idle for longer than two minutes, which exceeds the local health protection regulations. The survey showed that lack of knowledge regarding the health and environmental impact is a crucial reason for idling.

  • Herlaar, Sjoerd
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Exploring Consumer Expenditure And Environmental Impacts Across European Nations: A Data-Mining Approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the pressures on the environment created by humanity increase, understanding how products influence a person’s overall impact becomes more important in order to make choices about how a person chooses to consume. Recent literature shows that household consumption is responsible for 51% to 81% of a nation’s total emissions (Ivanova, Stadler, et al. 2016). This study investigates whether expenditure is a viable proxy measurement for consumer impacts in Europe. Without knowledge about the relative impacts of consumer expenditure on the environment, European citizens cannot make conscious choices regarding their expenses and how they relate to environmental impact, while policy-makers have no basis to develop tailored environmental policy mechanisms. This study combined Input-Output Analysis, Data Mining, and Regression Analysis to check if a correlation between expenditure and impact exists. The results are contextualised in consumption categories. Results from Input-Output Analysis suggest that Housing, Food, and Transport are the largest categories of expense throughout Europe. While expenses vary significantly throughout Europe, common trends emerge. Pattern Recognition and Cluster Analysis algorithms show that expenditure habits differ especially between north-west, east, south, and coastal Europe. Each of the four groups consists of between six and eleven nations. In general, lower economic development indicates higher expenditure in Housing and Food, while higher economic development indicates higher expenditure in Recreation & Culture, and Goods & Services. Coastal Europe spends more on Restaurants & Hotels, and Education. The expenditures were translated to four environmental impacts; Global Warming Potential, Land Use, Material Use, and Blue Water Consumption. Next, correlation between expenditure and environmental impact was checked using Regression Analysis. The analysis showed that out of the twelve expenditure categories, Clothing & Footwear and Furnishing & Household, showed a significant correlation between expenditure and the four impact categories. Food, Alcohol & Tobacco, and Recreation & Culture showed significance in two impact categories, and Transport showed significance in one category. In total 15 out of the 48 (31%) tested impact categories showed significance. Using the identified groups, the amount of impact categories that show correlation with expenditure grows to 44%, and up to 68%. Unfortunately, given the size of these groups, these results are not statistically significant. That said, the method shows promise, and further research with a larger scope could produce statistically significant results.

  • Hamilton, Philip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Holmskov, Rasmus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Automatic Wire Cutter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis project in mechatronics involved making a working prototype of an automatic wire cutter and evaluating its accuracy. The accuracy of the machine was increased by analysing measurements of the machine’s initial precision and thereafter performing a calibration to diminish the eect of unwanted errors. Before calibration the machine’s accuracy was ± 0.73 cm and after calibration it was calculated to be ± 0.06 cm in its intended operating range of 5-20 cm. The main limitations of the machine’s accuracy were determined to be slippage in the feeding mechanism, the mathematical model that was used, the step resolution of the stepper motors, the oset between the blades in the cutting mechanism as well as the wires bending when being fed.

  • Nordqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Svensson, Olle
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Electrification of valve system2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is going to investigate the possibility to save energy by converting a valve opening mechanism in a waste disposal system from a pneumatic system to an electric system. To power the system, which mainly consists of an electric actuator and a valve control module, a solar panel system was designed. The valve system was controlled by the lightweight messaging protocol MQTT.

    To be able to choose an electric actuator the needed force was measured and data regarding maximal stroke was taken from the data sheet of the existing setup.

    For developing an optimal solar panel system a program was written in Google Spreadsheet. The program takes input regarding power, cycles, solar panel system specifications and environmental factors. The output from the program is energy consumption for the system, specification for solar charger, solar panel setup and charge data.

    The result was that the solar panel system needed to consists of four 12 V VRLA batteries with a capacity of 90 Ah each and four solar panels with a rated power of 300 W each. The solar charger must be able to handle 900 W and provide an output current of 25,5 A to fulfil the demands.

    The new electric actuator will consume four times less energy than the old pneumatic actuator. Most of the energy savings are consequences of reduced energy consumption at idle of the system.

    A demonstarator was built to test the system.

  • Anderson, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Granlöf, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Get a Grip: Dynamic force adjustment in robotic gripper2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous mobile robots are on the rise and are to be expected on the market in about 5-10 years. Several challenges need to be solved for this to happen, and the most crucial ones are to develop versatile and safe robots.

    The Get a Grip robot is a dynamic force adjustment gripper using inputs from two different sensory systems. The construction of the robot consists of two parallel gripper plates moved by a rack and pinion gear attached to a direct current (DC) motor. Embedded into one of the plates is a Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) for input of the gripper’s exerted force. Mounted to the other plate is a self constructed Slip sensor used for measuring the occurrence of slip and slip rate. A surrounding crane for mounting of the gripper and lifting was also constructed.

    The idea of this bachelor’s thesis project is to enable lifting of objects with unknown weight without the gripper exerting more force than necessary. This is something that will be useful in both industrial applications and in household robots in the future.

    In order to realize the concept two different methods for calculating the gripper’s applied force were tested, one using motor current and the other using a FSR sensor. Through testing it was concluded that the FSR sensor was the method giving better accuracy and consistency.

    Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) controllers were then tested for both setting force references for the gripper using the Slip sensor as input, and controlling the exerted force in the gripper using the FSR as input. The results led to two PID controllers thought to be sufficient as starting points for further testing of the complete system.

  • Bodén, Rikard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Pernow, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    SORTED: Serial manipulator with Object Recognition Trough Edge Detection2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is an increasing demand for smart robots that can make decisions on their own and cooperate with humans in changing environments. The application areas for robotic arms with camera vision are likely to increase in the future of artificial intelligence as algorithms become more adaptable and intelligent than ever. The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to develop a robotic arm that recognises arbitrarily placed objects with camera vision and has the ability to pick and place the objects when they appear in unpredictable positions.

    The robotic arm has three degrees of freedom and the construction is modularised and 3D-printed with respect to maintenance, but also in order to be adaptive to new applications. The camera vision sensor is integrated in an external camera tripod with its field of view over the workspace. The camera vision sensor recognises objects through colour filtering and it uses an edge detection algorithm to return measurements of detected objects. The measurements are then used as input for the inverse kinematics, that calculates the rotation of each stepper motor. Moreover, there are three different angular potentiometers integrated in each axis to regulate the rotation by each stepper motor.

    The results in this thesis show that the robotic arm is able to pick up to 90% of the detected objects when using barrel distortion correction in the algorithm. The findings in this thesis is that barrel distortion, that comes with the camera lens, significantly impacts the precision of the robotic arm and thus the results. It can also be stated that the method for barrel distortion correction is affected by the geometry of detected objects and differences in illumination over the workspace. Another conclusion is that correct illumination is needed in order for the vision sensor to differentiate objects with different hue and saturation.