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Franzen, J., Infantes, E. & Gröndahl, F. (2019). Beach-cast as biofertiliser in the Baltic Sea region-potential limitations due to cadmium-content. Ocean and Coastal Management, 169, 20-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beach-cast as biofertiliser in the Baltic Sea region-potential limitations due to cadmium-content
2019 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Macroalgal mass blooms and accumulating beach-cast are increasing problems in many coastal areas. However, beach-cast is also a potentially valuable marine bioresource, e.g. as a biofertiliser in coastal agriculture. One limiting factor in use of beach-cast as a fertiliser is uncertainty regarding the cadmium (Cd) concentration depending on beach-cast composition and location. In this study, chemical analyses were performed on beach cast from Burgsviken Bay off Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. The results revealed large variations in cadmium concentration depending on sampling location and beach-cast composition, with levels ranging between 0.13 and 2.2 mg Cd/kg dry matter (DM). Of 15 beach-cast samples analysed, one had a cadmium content above the Swedish statutory limit for sewage sludge biofertiliser (2 mg Cd/kg DM) and four had values above the limit suggested by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for 2030 (0.8 mg/kg DM). Species-specific analysis revealed that eelgrass (Zostera marina) contained significantly higher cadmium concentrations than filamentous red algae species (Ceramium and Polysiphonia spp.). Avoiding eelgrass-rich beach-cast by seasonal timing of harvesting and monitoring differences in cadmium concentrations between harvesting sites could thus facilitate use of beach-cast as biofertiliser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Beach-cast management, Macro algae, Seagrass, Zostera marina, Marine bioresources, Cadmium-levels, Biofertiliser, Species composition
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246247 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.11.015 (DOI)000459518700003 ()2-s2.0-85058051876 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190403

Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Thomas, J.-B., Ramos, F. S. & Gröndahl, F. (2019). Identifying Suitable Sites for Macroalgae Cultivation on the Swedish West Coast. COASTAL MANAGEMENT, 47(1), 88-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying Suitable Sites for Macroalgae Cultivation on the Swedish West Coast
2019 (English)In: COASTAL MANAGEMENT, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Special attention has been paid to sustainable macroalgae cultivation in Europe. The question on where suitable cultivation areas lie, without conflicting with current marine socio-economic activities and respecting the environment, remains a great challenge. Considering 13 criteria critical to seaweed farming such as depth, shipping traffic, and distance to ports, this paper aimed to identify suitable and sustainable offshore areas on the West Coast of Sweden for the cultivation of the Sugar Kelp, Saccharina latissima. An integrated approach with the tools geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was used to aggregate the criteria by means of Boolean and weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques. The Boolean method singled out 544 km(2) as suitable, whereas the WLC method indicated 475 km(2) as highly suitable. Both techniques complement each other in finding optimal sites. Furthermore, the integrated models excelled in providing an overview for effective spatial decision-making that fosters sustainable development of macroalgae cultivations within marine and coastal systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019
Keywords
Aquaculture, Boolean, macroalgae cultivation, site selection, weighted linear combination
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248105 (URN)10.1080/08920753.2019.1540906 (DOI)000460642700005 ()2-s2.0-85060955467 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190429

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Hasselström, L., Visch, W., Gröndahl, F., Nylund, G. M. & Pavia, H. (2018). The impact of seaweed cultivation on ecosystem services - a case study from the west coast of Sweden. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 133, 53-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of seaweed cultivation on ecosystem services - a case study from the west coast of Sweden
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2018 (English)In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 133, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seaweed cultivation attracts growing interest and sustainability assessments from various perspectives are needed. The paper presents a holistic qualitative assessment of ecosystem services affected by seaweed cultivation on the Swedish west coast. Results suggest that supporting, regulating and provisioning services are mainly positively or non-affected while some of the cultural services are likely negatively affected. The analysis opens for a discussion on the framing of seaweed cultivation – is it a way of supplying ecosystem services and/or a way of generating valuable biomass? Exploring these framings further in local contexts may be valuable for identifying trade-offs and designing appropriate policies and development strategies. Many of the found impacts are likely generalizable in their character across sites and scales of cultivation, but for some services, including most of the supporting services, the character of impacts is likely to be site-specific and not generalizable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Aquaculture, Ecosystem services, Environmental impact, Kelp, Saccharina latissima, Seaweeds
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228713 (URN)10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.05.005 (DOI)000441853600006 ()2-s2.0-85046836690 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchSwedish Research Council Formas, 2013-92
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved
Thomas, J.-B., Nordstrom, J., Risen, E., Malmström, M. & Gröndahl, F. (2018). The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast. Ambio, 47(4), 398-409
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast
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2018 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Aquaculture, Bioeconomy, Blue growth, Macroalgae, Perception survey, Social acceptability
National Category
History of Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228116 (URN)10.1007/s13280-017-0945-3 (DOI)000429250600003 ()28940171 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85029741170 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Sterner, M., Ribeiro, M. S., Gröndahl, F. & Edlund, U. (2017). Cyclic fractionation process for Saccharina latissima using aqueous chelator and ion exchange resin. Journal of Applied Phycology, 29(6), 3175-3189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyclic fractionation process for Saccharina latissima using aqueous chelator and ion exchange resin
2017 (English)In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 3175-3189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new approach to process Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed using sodium citrate and a polyvalent cation-specific resin to sequentially extract the alginate into several usable fractions. The fractionation was performed in a cyclic manner, utilizing a stepwise removal of the native polyvalent ions present in the algae to isolate fractions of alginate with different solubility in the presence of these ions. Sodium citrate was used in different concentrations in the extraction solution to remove polyvalent cations to adjust the alginate liberation while AMBERLITE IRC718 resin was added to further remove these ions and regenerate the extraction solution. Alginate was recovered by acid precipitation and analyzed for its uronic acid composition and molecular weight, and the carbohydrate compositions of the insoluble and soluble parts of the algal biomass residue were determined. Finally, the fractionation method was assessed with a life cycle analysis to determine the energy and water efficiency as well as the greenhouse gas emissions and the results were compared to conventional alkaline extraction. The results indicate that the energy and water use as well as the emissions are considerably lower for the cyclic extraction in comparison with the conventional methods.

Keywords
Extraction, Fractionation, Alginate, Saccharina latissima, Phaeophyceae, Chelation, Ion exchange resin
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220268 (URN)10.1007/s10811-017-1176-5 (DOI)000416446400042 ()2-s2.0-85020641776 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180111

Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
van Oirschot, R., Thomas, J.-B., Gröndahl, F., Fortuin, K. P., Brandenburg, W. & Potting, J. (2017). Explorative environmental life cycle assessment for system design of seaweed cultivation and drying. Algal Research, 27, 43-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explorative environmental life cycle assessment for system design of seaweed cultivation and drying
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2017 (English)In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 27, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seaweeds are presently explored as an alternative source to meet the future protein demand from a growing world population with an increasing welfare level. Present seaweed research largely focuses on agri-technical and economic aspects. This paper explores directions for optimizing the cultivation, harvesting, transport and drying of seaweed from an environmental point of view. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and detailed sensitivity analysis was made for two different system designs. One system design is featuring one layer of cultivation strips (four longlines side by side) interspaced with access corridors. The other system design is featuring a doubling of cultivation strips by dual layers in the water column. Impact profiles and sensitivity analysis showed that the most important impacts came from drying the harvested seaweed, and from the production of the chromium steel chains and polypropylene rope in the infrastructure. This indicates that caution should be used when designing cultivation systems featuring such materials and processes. Furthermore, the high-density productivity of the dual layer system decreases absolute environmental impacts and so found to be a little more environmentally friendly from a life cycle perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2017
Keywords
Algae cultivation, Environmental impacts, Life cycle assessment, Macroalgae
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218642 (URN)10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.025 (DOI)000413256800005 ()2-s2.0-85027514694 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171129

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Risén, E., Nordström, J., Malmström, M. & Gröndahl, F. (2017). Non-market values of algae beach-cast management – Study site Trelleborg, Sweden. Ocean and Coastal Management, 140, 59-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-market values of algae beach-cast management – Study site Trelleborg, Sweden
2017 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 140, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eutrophication is one of the most serious global threats to coastal areas. One effect of eutrophication is seasonal macroalgal blooms. As a consequence, large amounts of beach-cast algae are today reported from coastal areas worldwide. In this study, we analyze nonmarket benefits by capturing local residents’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) for an environmental program to regularly remove and utilize beach-cast algae to produce bioenergy and biofertilizer. Results indicate a considerable WTP among local residents in the Baltic Sea study site. This WTP estimate together with a potential increase in non-resident beach tourism amounts to potentially substantial welfare benefits from the environmental program. These benefits could encourage similar environmental programs in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
Keywords
Baltic sea, Beach cast, Macroalgae, Non-market values, WTP, Algae, Coastal zones, Commerce, Eutrophication, Bio fertilizers, Environmental programs, Macro-algae, Macroalgal blooms, Market values, Non-market benefits, Willingness to pay, Beaches
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207332 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.02.009 (DOI)000399846600006 ()2-s2.0-85014272611 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170607

Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2017-06-07Bibliographically approved
Gröndahl, F. & Franzén, D. (2016). A Practical Approach to Integrating Research and Education: A Course Experiment from KTH, Sweden. In: Walter Leal Filho, Susan Nesbit (Ed.), New Developments in Engineering Education for Sustainable Development: (pp. 69-79). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Practical Approach to Integrating Research and Education: A Course Experiment from KTH, Sweden
2016 (English)In: New Developments in Engineering Education for Sustainable Development / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Susan Nesbit, Cham: Springer , 2016, p. 69-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we evaluate a project-based learning course called Applied Ecology, within the master program Sustainable Technology at the Division of Industrial Ecology, at KTH—Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. The case study in the course is focused on the effects of a relatively large Bay, “Burgsviken”, situated on the island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea, that has changed due to the eutrophication in the area. The eutrophication of the Bay has initiated bottom up processes of discussion and engagement among the stakeholders in the area, for the enhancement of the water quality and biological services of the bay, that would in turn improve fishing, swimming, biological diversity and tourism. There are several stakeholders involved in the project: a local non-profit organisation, farmers, entrepreneurs, authorities, permanent and seasonal inhabitants, researchers and others. The course is evaluated according to the methodology of Brundiers and Wiek (2013). Student evaluations have been conducted and analysed in relation to four phases: (1) Orienting phase, formulation of research question. (2) Framing phase, methodology and study planning. (3) Research phase, field study and other examinations. (4) Implementation phase, communication of the results with different stakeholders. The Applied Ecology course shares many of the positive features of other PPBL courses in the sustainability field—namely that it focuses on a real sustainability problem and that the student-centred learning approach and interactions between students and stakeholders make the student partnership in the project feel real, thus providing a practical insight of complex societal challenges. There are potential ways of improving all four phases of the course that were studied, but especially in the research phase and the implementation phase more efforts are needed. Feedback and reflections in the research phase could be improved by a clearer communication and to some extent changed pedagogical process through the course. All phases will be improved by increased communication before, during and after fieldwork between student, teachers and stakeholders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2016
Series
World Sustainability Series, ISSN 2199-7373, E-ISSN 2199-7381
Keywords
Applied ecology, Course evaluation, Engineering education, Project and problem-based learning, Sustainable development
National Category
Educational Sciences Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262424 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-32933-8_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071491415 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-32932-1 (ISBN)978-3-319-32933-8 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20191024

Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Pechsiri, J. S., Thomas, J. B., Risén, E., Ribeiro, M. S., Malmström, M. E., Nylund, G. M., . . . Gröndahl, F. (2016). Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 347-355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Biorefinery, Economy of scale, Energy return on investment (EROI), EURED GHG savings, Saccharina latissima, Swedish macroalgae cultivation, Anaerobic digestion, Biofuels, Biogas, Economics, Fertilizers, Gas emissions, Investments, Refining, Seaweed, Biorefineries, Energy return on investments, Macro-algae, Greenhouse gases
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195182 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.220 (DOI)000390071000032 ()2-s2.0-84983638479 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-11209-24630-54
Note

QC 20161118

Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-02 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Risén, E., Tatarchenko, O., Gröndahl, F. & Malmström, M. E. (2014). Harvesting of drifting filamentous macroalgae in the Baltic Sea: An energy assessment. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6(1), 013116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Harvesting of drifting filamentous macroalgae in the Baltic Sea: An energy assessment
2014 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 013116-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eutrophication combined with climate change has caused ephemeral filamentous macroalgae to increase and drifts of seaweed cover large areas of some Baltic Sea sites during summer. In ongoing projects, these mass occurrences of drifting filamentous macroalgae are being harvested to mitigate eutrophication, with preliminary results indicating considerable nutrient reduction potential. In the present study, an energy assessment was made of biogas production from the retrieved biomass for a Baltic Sea pilot case. Use of different indicators revealed a positive energy balance. The energy requirements corresponded to about 30%-40% of the energy content in the end products. The net energy gain was 530-800 MJ primary energy per ton wet weight of algae for small-scale and large-scale scenarios, where 6 000 and 13 000 tonnes dwt were harvested, respectively. However, the exergy efficiency differed from the energy efficiency, emphasising the importance of taking energy quality into consideration when evaluating energy systems. An uncertainty analysis indicated parametric uncertainty of about 25%-40%, which we consider to be acceptable given the generally high sensitivity of the indicators to changes in input data, allocation method, and system design. Overall, our evaluation indicated that biogas production may be a viable handling strategy for retrieved biomass, while harvesting other types of macroalgae than red filamentous species considered here may render a better energy balance due to higher methane yields.

Keywords
Life-Cycle, Biogas Production, Greenhouse-Gas, Transportation Sector, Exergy Analysis, Common Reed, Net Energy, Efficiency, Biomass, Algae
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-144008 (URN)10.1063/1.4862783 (DOI)000332320200032 ()2-s2.0-84901831992 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Formas, 229-2009-468
Note

QC 20140404

Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3745-4092

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