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Song, Y., Rolando, D., Avellaneda, J. M., Zucker, G. & Madani Larijani, H. (2023). Data-driven soft sensors targeting heat pump systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 279, 116769, Article ID 116769.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data-driven soft sensors targeting heat pump systems
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2023 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 279, p. 116769-, article id 116769Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of smart sensors, low cost communication, and computation technologies enables continuous monitoring and accumulation of tremendous amounts of data for heat pump systems. But the measurements, especially for domestic heat pump, usually suffer from incompleteness given technical and/or economic barriers, which prevents database of measurements from being exploited to its full potential. To this end, this work proposes a data-driven soft sensor approach for compensating multiple missing information. The soft sensors are developed based on an ANN model, an integrated multivariate polynomial regression model and empirical model by considering different constrains like data and information availability during model establishing process. All the three models have been validated against the data from a field test installation, and showed good performance for all the compensated variables. Of the three models, the ANN model shows the best performance for all soft sensors, but it has the highest requirement for additional resources to collect training data. While the integrated multivariate polynomial regression model demonstrates excellent accuracy for the majority of soft sensors with manufacturers' subcomponent data which needs no extra cost. Even though empirical model is not as accurate as the other two models, it still performs good accuracy with limited information from performance map. The methods developed in the present study paves the way for available measured data in thousands of installations to be fully utilized for innovative services including but not limited to: improved heat pump control strategies, fault detection and diagnosis, and communication with local energy grids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Data driven, Heat pumps, Soft sensors, ANN, Regression, Database
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324638 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2023.116769 (DOI)000933059100001 ()2-s2.0-85147371380 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230309

Available from: 2023-03-09 Created: 2023-03-09 Last updated: 2023-03-09Bibliographically approved
Song, Y., Peskova, M., Rolando, D., Zucker, G. & Madani Larijani, H. (2023). Estimating electric power consumption of in-situ residential heat pump systems: A data-driven approach. Applied Energy, 352, Article ID 121971.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating electric power consumption of in-situ residential heat pump systems: A data-driven approach
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2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 352, article id 121971Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

International Energy Agency predicts that the global number of installed heat pumps (HP) will increase from 180 million in 2020 to approximately 600 million by 2030, covering 20% of buildings heating needs. Electric power consumption is one of the main key performance indicators for the heat pump systems from techno-economic perspective. However a common issue prevalent in many existing heat pumps is the lack of electric power measurement. The modern installations might be equipped with electric power measurement sensors but this comes at a higher system cost for the manufacturers and end-users. The primary objective of this work is to propose a virtual measurement for estimating power consumption, thereby eliminating the need for field measurement of power for heat pumps. To achieve the objective, a data-driven approach is proposed. Firstly, the in-situ data is preprocessed through data merging, cleaning, and normalization. Then, input features are pre-selected using Spearman correlation coefficients, and further refined by addressing multicollinearity problem. Following this, Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) models and polynomial models are developed by considering different features as inputs. All models are finally validated against the in-situ data from multi-units of ground source heat pump (GSHP) and air source heat pump (ASHP) installations. The results showed that the electric power consumption of GSHP can be estimated with high accuracy (99% for R2, 10 W for MAE, and 1% for MAPE) through generic data-driven models using only four easy-to-measure input features. Taking three input features as inputs for ASHP generic model, the accuracy can be reached to 83% for R2, 125 W for MAE, and 9% for MAPE. The method presented in this paper can be applied to estimate power consumption of millions of heat pumps and consequently add a significant value as well as provide different types of services, such as cost-saving benefits for manufacturers and end-users, flexibility services for aggregators and electricity grids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Data driven, Electric power, Heat pump, Heating, Machine learning, Regression model
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338357 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121971 (DOI)001086100200001 ()2-s2.0-85172678028 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231115

Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Molinari, M., Anund Vogel, J., Rolando, D. & Lundqvist, P. (2023). Using living labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study. Applied Energy, 338, 120877-120877, Article ID 120877.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using living labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study
2023 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 338, p. 120877-120877, article id 120877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The adoption of innovation in the building sector is currently too slow for the ambitious sustainability goals thatour societies have agreed upon. Living labs are open innovation ecosystems in real-life environments usingiterative feedback processes throughout a lifecycle approach of an innovation to create sustainable impact. In thecontext of the built environment, such co-creative innovation and demonstration platforms are needed tofacilitate the adoption of innovative technologies and concepts for more energy-efficient and sustainablebuildings. However, their feasibility is not extensively proven. This paper illustrates the implementation anddemonstrates the feasibility of the Living Labs Triangle Framework for buildings living labs. This conceptualframework has been used to conceive the KTH Live-In Lab, a living lab for buildings. The goal of the Live-In Labwas to create a co-creative open platform for research and education bridging the gap between industry andacademia, featuring smart building demonstrators. The Living Lab Triangle Framework has been deployed tomeet the goals of the Live-in Lab, and the resulting concept is described. This paper then analyses the meth-odological and operational results introducing performance metrics to measure the economic sustainability, thepromotion of multidisciplinary research and development projects, dissemination and impact. The results arecompleted with a SWOT analysis identifying its current strengths and weaknesses. The results collected in thiswork fill a missing gap in the scientific literature on the performance of living labs and provide empirical evi-dence on the sustainability and impact of living labs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Living labs Innovation Building industry Smart buildings Building demonstrators Built environment
National Category
Energy Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Energy Technology; Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324845 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120877 (DOI)000955580100001 ()2-s2.0-85150014674 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 47859-1Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, RIT17-0046
Note

QC 20230321

Available from: 2023-03-17 Created: 2023-03-17 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Rolando, D., Mazzotti, W. & Molinari, M. (2022). Long-Term Evaluation of Comfort, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Performance in Buildings: The Case of the KTH Live-In Lab Testbeds. Energies, 15(14), 4955
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-Term Evaluation of Comfort, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Performance in Buildings: The Case of the KTH Live-In Lab Testbeds
2022 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 14, p. 4955-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Digitalization offers new, unprecedented possibilities to increase the energy efficiencyand improve the indoor conditions in buildings in a cost-efficient way. Smart buildings are seen bymany stakeholders as the way forward. Smart buildings feature advanced monitoring and controlsystems that allow a better control of the buildings’ indoor spaces, but it is becoming evident that themassive amount of data produced in smart buildings is rarely used. This work presents a long-termevaluation of a smart building testbed for one year; the building features state-of-the-art monitoringcapability and local energy generation (PV). The analysis shows room for improving energy efficiencyand indoor comfort due to non-optimal control settings; for instance, average indoor temperaturesin all winter months were above 24 ◦C. The analysis of electricity and domestic hot water use hasshown a relevant spread in average use, with single users consuming approximately four times morethan the average users. The combination of CO2 and temperature sensor was sufficient to pinpointthe anomalous operation of windows in wintertime, which has an impact on energy use for spaceheating. Although the quantification of the impact of users on the overall energy performance ofthe building was beyond the scope of this paper, this study showcases that modern commercialmonitoring systems for buildings have the potential to identify anomalies. The evidence collectedin the paper suggests that this data could be used to promote energy-efficient behaviors amongbuilding occupants and shows that cost-effective actions could be carried out if data generated by themonitoring and control systems were used more extensively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2022
Keywords
building energy performance; indoor environmental quality; monitoring system; building system control; smart building
National Category
Building Technologies Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-315447 (URN)10.3390/en15144955 (DOI)000831565000001 ()2-s2.0-85134022043 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Cost- and Energy-Efficient Control Systems for Buildings, E2B2 programmeCLAS—Cybersäkra lärande reglersystem, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research-SSFHiSS—Humanizing the Sustainable Smart City, Digital Futures
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, project number 47859-1Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, RIT17-0046
Note

QC 20220728

Available from: 2022-07-07 Created: 2022-07-07 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Beltran, F., Sommerfeldt, N., Padovani, F., Rolando, D. & Madani Larijani, H. (2022). Solar Heat Pumps and Self-Consumption Can (and should) electricity suppliers encourage thermal storage?. In: 2022 BuildSim Nordic, BSN 2022: . Paper presented at 2022 BuildSim Nordic, BSN 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 22 2022 - Aug 23 2022. EDP Sciences, Article ID 06005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Heat Pumps and Self-Consumption Can (and should) electricity suppliers encourage thermal storage?
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2022 (English)In: 2022 BuildSim Nordic, BSN 2022, EDP Sciences , 2022, article id 06005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Heat pumps and water tanks can be used to increase PV self-consumption in buildings without any additional equipment, but there is sometimes a lack of economic incentives to maximize it that limits economic gains. Therefore, pricing conditions need to change in order to make self-consumption strategies more interesting for prosumers. This study aims at determining what, if any, unsubsidized market conditions could lead to economically motivated self-consumption control strategies with solar heat pumps. A sensitivity analysis is used on multiple pricing models based on current market conditions for a solar PV and ground source heat pump system for a single-family house in Norrköping, Sweden. The results show that control strategies aimed at maximizing self-consumption have very little impact on net costs, regardless of pricing model or variation in price. Feed-in-bonus is the most important aspect when comparing different pricing schemes, and no other sensitivity comes close.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2022
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333444 (URN)10.1051/e3sconf/202236206005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85146893366 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2022 BuildSim Nordic, BSN 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 22 2022 - Aug 23 2022
Note

QC 20230802

Available from: 2023-08-02 Created: 2023-08-02 Last updated: 2023-08-02Bibliographically approved
Molinari, M., Anund Vogel, J. & Rolando, D. (2021). Using Living Labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study. In: Technology Innovation to Accelerate Energy Transitions: . Paper presented at Applied Energy Symposium: MIT A+B, August 11-13 May 2021, MIT Cambridge USA. Applied Energy Innovation Institute (AEii)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Living Labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study
2021 (English)In: Technology Innovation to Accelerate Energy Transitions, Applied Energy Innovation Institute (AEii) , 2021Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The adoption of innovation in the buildingsector is currently too low for the ambitious sustainability goals that our societies have agreed upon. The concept of smart building, for instance, is being implemented too slowly. One of the main reasons for this is that technologies have to be proven effective and reliable before being introduced at large scale in buildings. Testbeds and demonstrators are seen as a crucial infrastructure to test and demonstrate the impact of solutions in the building sector and hence facilitate their adoption in buildings. The KTHLive-In Lab is a platform of building testbeds designed to this scope. This work describes the Live-In Lab vision,approach, technical features,provides an overview on the multidisciplinary projects that it has enabled and discusses its replicability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Applied Energy Innovation Institute (AEii), 2021
Keywords
smartbuildings, testbeds, living labs, sustainable buildings, co-creation lab, collaboration platform
National Category
Building Technologies Construction Management Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems; Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology; Architecture, Architectural Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-316637 (URN)10.46855/energy-proceedings-10088 (DOI)2-s2.0-85191022606 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Applied Energy Symposium: MIT A+B, August 11-13 May 2021, MIT Cambridge USA
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 47859-1
Note

QC 20220831

Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2024-06-19Bibliographically approved
Rolando, D. & Molinari, M. (2020). Development of a comfort platform for user feedback: the experience of the KTH Live-In Lab. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Applied Energy, Part 3, 2020 (ICAE2020): . Paper presented at ICAE 2020, International Conference on Applied Energy, Bangkok, Thailand,1- 10 December 2020, Virtual. Thailand/Virtual, 11, Article ID 385.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a comfort platform for user feedback: the experience of the KTH Live-In Lab
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Applied Energy, Part 3, 2020 (ICAE2020), Thailand/Virtual, 2020, Vol. 11, article id 385Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the comfort platform created within a research project carried out at KTH Live-In Lab in Stockholm, Sweden. The KTH Live-In Lab is a platform of buildings to test and promote innovation into the built environment. The Live-In Lab includes several buildings with state-of-the-art and expandable sensor infrastructure.The comfort platform has been created to manage user feedbacks in buildings. The comfort platform includes a user-friendly web application and a cost efficient sensor device that allow to exchange feedbacks with the building users.The comfort platform is proposed as a possible solution to bridge the gap between modern smart buildings and existing buildings with limited sensor capability.This paper describes the comfort platform and the environment where it has been tested. The paper also summarizes the preliminary findings and the potential large-scale implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thailand/Virtual: , 2020
Keywords
Energy efficiency in buildings, buildings digitalization, user feedback in buildings, smart buildings
National Category
Embedded Systems Building Technologies Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-304666 (URN)
Conference
ICAE 2020, International Conference on Applied Energy, Bangkok, Thailand,1- 10 December 2020, Virtual
Projects
https://www.liveinlab.kth.se/en/projekt/r-d-projects/kostnads-och-energi/cost-and-energy-efficient-control-systems-for-buildings-1.945916https://strategiska.se/en/research/ongoing-research/cyber-security-2017/project/9222/
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 47859-1Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0046
Note

QC 20211213

Part of proceeding: ISBN 978-91-986738-2-1

Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Molinari, M. & Rolando, D. (2020). Digital twin of the Live-In Lab Testbed KTH: development and calibration. In: Laurent Georges, Matthias Haase, Vojislav Novakovic and Peter G. Schild (Ed.), BuildSIM-Nordic 2020: . Paper presented at BuildSIM-Nordic 2020. Oslo: sintef akademisk forlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital twin of the Live-In Lab Testbed KTH: development and calibration
2020 (English)In: BuildSIM-Nordic 2020 / [ed] Laurent Georges, Matthias Haase, Vojislav Novakovic and Peter G. Schild, Oslo: sintef akademisk forlag, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the last decade, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has enabled unprecedented possibilities to tackle worldwide ambitious sustainability targets. Demonstration facilities like the KTH Live-In Lab are fundamental for the adoption of ICT solutions for energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings. The Live-In Lab monitoring infrastructure enables the creation of a digital-twin, which facilitates a cost effective development, testing and implementation of advanced control and fault detection strategies.The paper proposes a calibration methodology for the thermal model (energy and comfort) of the Live-In Lab, developed in IDA-ICE, to be deployed as a digital twin. The methodology first screens the parameters with most impact on energy use and then calibrates the model minimizing the error in both indoor comfort and energy use with a weighting parameter β. Calibration results are then validated against the measured data.The results of this paper will be instrumental to the improvement of control systems and it will facilitate the study of behavioral aspects of the energy use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: sintef akademisk forlag, 2020
Series
SINTEF Proceedings, ISSN 2387-4295, E-ISSN 978-82-536-1679-7 ; 5
Keywords
Building ICT, Smart Building, NZEB, testbed, Building automation
National Category
Building Technologies Energy Engineering Control Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology; Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-304663 (URN)
Conference
BuildSIM-Nordic 2020
Projects
https://www.liveinlab.kth.se/en/projekt/r-d-projects/kostnads-och-energi/cost-and-energy-efficient-control-systems-for-buildings-1.945916https://strategiska.se/en/research/ongoing-research/cyber-security-2017/project/9222/
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 47859-1Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, RIT17-0046
Note

QC 20211123

Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Priarone, A., Fossa, M., Paietta, E. & Rolando, D. (2017). Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate. Paper presented at 4 July 2016 through 6 July 2016. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 796(1), Article ID 012027.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate
2017 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 796, no 1, article id 012027Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017
Keywords
Air conditioning, Climate control, Computer software, Energy conservation, Energy management, Forced convection, Geothermal energy, Greenhouses, Heat pump systems, Heat transfer, Iterative methods, Thermal load, Ventilation, Crop evapotranspiration, Energy-saving strategies, Fao penman monteiths, Ground-coupled heat pump, Iterative calculation, Latent heat exchanges, Mediterranean climates, Renewable technology, Geothermal heat pumps
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208024 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/796/1/012027 (DOI)000403941600027 ()2-s2.0-85016227556 (Scopus ID)
Conference
4 July 2016 through 6 July 2016
Note

QC 20170602

Available from: 2017-06-02 Created: 2017-06-02 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4387-806x

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