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Feng, N., Guo, L., Ren, H., Xie, Y., Jiang, Z., Ek, M. & Zhai, H. (2019). Changes in chemical structures of wheat straw auto-hydrolysis lignin by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid as a laccase mediator. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 122, 210-215
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Changes in chemical structures of wheat straw auto-hydrolysis lignin by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid as a laccase mediator
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 122, s. 210-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), as a potential natural laccase mediator, was shown to mediate the oxidation of non-phenolic lignin subunits. The problem of cost and toxicity of artificial mediators could be solved to some extent by a further study about the detailed changes of lignin chemistry structures in laccase 3-HAA system (LHS). In this work, wheat straw auto-hydrolysis lignin (AL) was prepared. Oxidations of AL by LHS and laccase 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) system were then investigated, respectively. Various structural changes of AL during the oxidation were characterized by different methods including phenolic hydroxyl group determination, nitrobenzene oxidation, ozonation, gel permeation chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy. The changes in AL chemical structures were found in LHS, including unit removal, bond cleavage and biopolymerization. Compared to laccase ABTS system, a selective removal of guaiacyl-type lignin in LHS was observed, based on the results of nitrobenzene oxidation and 2D NMR analysis. The selective removal of guaiacyl-type lignin was due to improved aromatic ring cleavage and weaken lignin biopolymerization. The selectivity of guaiacyl-type lignin removal in LHS plays an important role, especially for improving bioconversion efficiency of laccase for guaiacyl-rich lignocellulosic biomass.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Nyckelord
Laccase, 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid, Auto-hydrolysis lignin, Biopolymerization, Guaiacyl unit
Nationell ämneskategori
Organisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243943 (URN)10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.153 (DOI)000456226700024 ()30365991 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055753669 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190305

Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-05 Skapad: 2019-03-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Huang, T., Chen, C., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2019). Hydrophobic and antibacterial textile fibres prepared by covalently attaching betulin to cellulose. Paper presented at National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), MAR 31-APR 04, 2019, Orlando, FL. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 257
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hydrophobic and antibacterial textile fibres prepared by covalently attaching betulin to cellulose
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Artikel i tidskrift, Meeting abstract (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257602 (URN)000478860503101 ()
Konferens
National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), MAR 31-APR 04, 2019, Orlando, FL
Anmärkning

QC 20190919

Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-19 Skapad: 2019-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Huang, T., Chen, C., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2019). Hydrophobic and antibacterial textile fibres prepared by covalently attaching betulin to cellulose. Cellulose (London), 26(1), 665-677
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hydrophobic and antibacterial textile fibres prepared by covalently attaching betulin to cellulose
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 665-677Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Betulin, a natural compound extractable from the outer bark of birch, can be used to improve the properties of cellulosic textile fibres. Herein, oxidation was performed to prepare carboxyl-functionalized cellulose, which was subsequently covalently attached by betulin through esterification. The surface-modified cellulosic textile fibres showed a substantially improved hydrophobicity, as indicated by a water contact angle of 136°. Moreover, the material showed excellent antibacterial properties, as indicated by over 99% bacterial removal and growth inhibition, in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial assays. The method of surface-modification of the cellulosic materials adapted in this study is simple and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been carried out before. The results of this study prove that betulin, a side-stream product produced by forest industry, could be used in value-added applications, such as for preparing functional materials. Additionally, this modification route can be envisaged to be applied to other cellulose sources (e.g., microfibrillated cellulose) to achieve the goal of functionalization.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialkemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243083 (URN)10.1007/s10570-019-02265-8 (DOI)000458742600037 ()2-s2.0-85060491197 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190205

Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-04 Skapad: 2019-02-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Zheng, C., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2019). Improving fire retardancy of cellulosic thermal insulating materials by coating with bio-based fire retardants. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 34(1), 96-106
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Improving fire retardancy of cellulosic thermal insulating materials by coating with bio-based fire retardants
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 96-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable thermal insulating materials produced from cellulosic fibers provide a viable alternative to plastic insulation foams. Industrially available, abundant, and inexpensive mechanical pulp fiber and recycled textile fiber provide potential raw materials to produce thermal insulating materials. To improve the fire retardancy of low-density thermal insulating materials produced from recycled cotton denim and mechanical pulp fibers, bio-based fire retardants, such as sulfonated kraft lignin, kraft lignin, and nanoclays, were coated onto sustainable insulating material surfaces to enhance their fire retardancy. Microfibrillated cellulose was used as a bio-based binder in the coating formula to disperse and bond the fire-retardant particles to the underlying thermal insulating materials. The flammability of the coated thermal insulating materials was tested using a single-flame source test and cone calorimetry. The results showed that sulfonated kraft lignin-coated cellulosic thermal insulating materials had a better fire retardancy compared with that for kraft lignin with a coating weight of 0.8 kg/m(2). Nanoclay-coated samples had the best fire retardancy and did not ignite under a heat flux of 25 kW/m(2), as shown by cone calorimetry and single-flame source tests, respectively. These cost-efficient and bio-based fire retardants have broad applications for improving fire retardancy of sustainable thermal insulating materials.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING, 2019
Nyckelord
bio-based, cellulose, coating, fire retardant, thermal insulating material
Nationell ämneskategori
Polymerkemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246233 (URN)10.1515/npprj-2018-0031 (DOI)000460119600011 ()2-s2.0-85061101260 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190403

Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-03 Skapad: 2019-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-03Bibliografiskt granskad
Chen, C., Pettersson, T., Illergård, J., Ek, M. & Wågberg, L. (2019). Influence of Cellulose Charge on Bacteria Adhesion and Viability to PVAm/CNF/PVAm-Modified Cellulose Model Surfaces. Biomacromolecules
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of Cellulose Charge on Bacteria Adhesion and Viability to PVAm/CNF/PVAm-Modified Cellulose Model Surfaces
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A contact-active antibacterial approach based on the physical adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte onto the surface of a cellulose material is today regarded as an environment-friendly way of creating antibacterial surfaces and materials. In this approach, the electrostatic charge of the treated surfaces is considered to be an important factor for the level of bacteria adsorption and deactivation/killing of the bacteria. In order to clarify the influence of surface charge density of the cellulose on bacteria adsorption as well as on their viability, bacteria were adsorbed onto cellulose model surfaces, which were modified by physically adsorbed cationic polyelectrolytes to create surfaces with different positive charge densities. The surface charge was altered by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of cationic polyvinylamine (PVAm)/anionic cellulose nanofibril/PVAm onto the initially differently charged cellulose model surfaces. After exposing the LbL-treated surfaces to Escherichia coli in aqueous media, a positive correlation was found between the adsorption of bacteria as well as the ratio of nonviable/viable bacteria and the surface charge of the LbL-modified cellulose. By careful colloidal probe atomic force microscopy measurements, it was estimated, due to the difference in surface charges, that interaction forces at least 50 nN between the treated surfaces and a bacterium could be achieved for the surfaces with the highest surface charge, and it is suggested that these considerable interaction forces are sufficient to disrupt the bacterial cell wall and hence kill the bacteria.

Nationell ämneskategori
Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
Forskningsämne
Fiber- och polymervetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249635 (URN)10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00297 (DOI)000468120800025 ()2-s2.0-85065660991 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190611

Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-15 Skapad: 2019-04-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Zheng, C., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2019). Mechanism and kinetics of thermal degradation of insulating materials developed from cellulose fiber and fire retardants. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), 135(6), 3015-3027
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mechanism and kinetics of thermal degradation of insulating materials developed from cellulose fiber and fire retardants
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 135, nr 6, s. 3015-3027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The mechanism and kinetics of thermal degradation of materials developed from cellulose fiber and synergetic fire retardant or expandable graphite have been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The model-free methods such as Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Friedman, and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) were applied to measure apparent activation energy (Ea).The increased Ea indicated a greater thermal stability because of the formation of a thermally stable char, and the decreased Ea after the increasing region related to the catalytic reaction of the fire retardants, which revealed that the pyrolysis of fire retardant-containing cellulosic materials through more complex and multi-step kinetics. The Friedman method can be considered as the best method to evaluate the Ea of fire-retarded cellulose thermal insulation compared with the KAS and two methods. A master-plots method such as the Criado method was used to determine the possible degradation mechanisms. The degradation of cellulose thermal insulation without a fire retardant is governed by a D3 diffusion process when the conversion value is below 0.6, but the materials containing synergetic fire retardant and expandable graphite fire retardant may have a complicated reaction mechanism that fits several proposed theoretical models in different conversion ranges. Gases released during the thermal degradation were identified by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fire retardants could catalyze the dehydration of cellulosic thermal insulating materials at a lower temperature and facilitate the generation of furfural and levoglucosenone, thus promoting the formation of char. These results provide useful information to understand the pyrolysis and fire retardancy mechanism of fire-retarded cellulose thermal insulation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Nyckelord
Thermal degradation, Thermal kinetics, Fire retardant, Cellulose fiber, Thermal insulating
Nationell ämneskategori
Pappers-, massa- och fiberteknik Trävetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233485 (URN)10.1007/s10973-018-7564-5 (DOI)000462553400011 ()2-s2.0-85050669625 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forskningsrådet Formas
Anmärkning

QC 20180821

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-20 Skapad: 2018-08-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-08-27Bibliografiskt granskad
Henschen, J., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2019). Preparation of cellulose nanomaterials via cellulose oxalates. Carbohydrate Polymers, 213, 208-216
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Preparation of cellulose nanomaterials via cellulose oxalates
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 213, s. 208-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Nanocellulose prepared from cellulose oxalate has been discussed as an alternative to other methods to prepare cellulose nanofibrils or crystals. The current work describes the use of a bulk reaction between pulp and oxalic acid dihydrate to prepare cellulose oxalate followed by homogenization to produce nanocellulose. The prepared nanocellulose is on average 350 nm long and 3–4 nm wide, with particles of size and shape similar to both cellulose nanofibrils and cellulose nanocrystals. Films prepared from this nanocellulose have a maximum tensile stress of 140–200 MPa, strain at break between 3% and 5%, and oxygen permeability in the range of 0.3–0.5 cm 3 μm m −2 day −1 kPa −1 at 50% relative humidity. The presented results illustrate that cellulose oxalates may be a low-cost method to prepare nanocellulose with properties reminiscent of those of both cellulose nanofibrils and cellulose nanocrystals, which may open up new application areas for cellulose nanomaterials.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2019
Nyckelord
Cellulose, Cellulose nanocrystals, Cellulose nanofibrils, Cellulose oxalate, Nanocellulose, Oxalic acid dihydrate
Nationell ämneskategori
Polymerkemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246408 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.02.056 (DOI)000461316200023 ()30879662 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062349488 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190401

Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-01 Skapad: 2019-04-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-02Bibliografiskt granskad
Guo, L., Li, D., Lennholm, H., Zhai, H. & Ek, M. (2019). Structural and functional modification of cellulose nanofibrils using graft copolymerization with glycidyl methacrylate by Fe 2+ –thiourea dioxide–H 2 O 2 redox system. Cellulose (London), 26(8), 4853-4864
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Structural and functional modification of cellulose nanofibrils using graft copolymerization with glycidyl methacrylate by Fe 2+ –thiourea dioxide–H 2 O 2 redox system
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 4853-4864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: To graft epoxy and ester functional groups onto cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and to overcome their poor hydrophobicity, we studied the modification of CNFs using graft copolymerization with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by a Fe 2+ –thiourea dioxide–H 2 O 2 initiator system (Fe 2+ –TD–H 2 O 2 ) in aqueous solution. The synthesized poly (GMA)-grafted CNF (CNF-g-PGMA) was characterized by FTIR, AFM, XRD, water contact angle, and TGA. GMA was successfully grafted onto the CNFs by Fe 2+ –TD–H 2 O 2 , the epoxy groups and ester groups of GMA were clearly present and intact in the CNF-g-PGMA, and TD is an important component of the initiator system under relatively mild graft conditions. CNF-g-PGMA may be an important intermediate because of its epoxy and ester functional groups. The main nanostructure of the CNFs was retained after graft copolymerization, and there were no obvious effects of graft copolymerization on the crystalline structure of the CNF backbone, although the crystalline index slightly decreased with the increased percentage of grafting. Graft copolymerization significantly modifies the CNF hydrophobicity. This strategy could extend the applications of CNFs into many areas. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Nyckelord
Cellulose nanofibrils, Fe 2+ –thiourea dioxide–H 2 O 2, Glycidyl methacrylate, Graft copolymerization, Modification
Nationell ämneskategori
Polymerkemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251818 (URN)10.1007/s10570-019-02411-2 (DOI)000467057500014 ()2-s2.0-85064689002 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

QC 20190529

Tillgänglig från: 2019-05-29 Skapad: 2019-05-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-29Bibliografiskt granskad
Chen, C. & Ek, M. (2018). Antibacterial evaluation of CNF/PVAm multilayer modified cellulose fiber and cellulose model surface. Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 33(3), 385-396
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Antibacterial evaluation of CNF/PVAm multilayer modified cellulose fiber and cellulose model surface
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 385-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Earlier studies have shown that 3-layer-modified cellulose fibers with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as the middle layer between two cationic polyelectrolyte polyvinylamine (PVAm) layers have strong antibacterial efficacy in terms of both bacteria adsorption and bacterial growth inhibition. In the present work, the fossil-based PAA middle layer was replaced by sustainable wood-based cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF), i. e., the fibers were modified by a 3-layer PVAm/CNF/PVAm system. Interestingly, the antibacterial efficacy of this system was greater than that of the previous PVAm/PAA/PVAm system. A higher salt concentration and lower assembly pH in the multilayer build-up resulted in better bacterial reduction. As the surface of a cellulose fiber is heterogeneous, making it difficult to characterize and visualize at high resolution, more homogeneous cellulose model surfaces were prepared by spin coating the dissolved cellulose fiber onto a silica surface to model the fiber surface. With increasing ionic strength, more aggregated and heterogeneous structures can be observed on the PVAm/CNF/PVAm modified model surfaces. The adsorbed bacteria distributed on the structured surfaces were clearly seen under fluorescence microscopy. Adsorbed amounts of bacteria on either aggregate or flat regions were quantified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). More adsorbed bacteria were clearly seen on aggregates than on the flat regions at the surfaces. Degrees of bacteria deformation and cell damage were also seen under SEM. The surface roughness of the modified model surfaces was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and a positive correlation was found between the surface roughness and the bacterial adhesion. Thus, an additional factor that controls adhesion, in addition to the surface charge, which is probably the most dominant factor affecting the bacteria adhesion, is the surface structures, such as roughness. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2018
Nyckelord
antibacterial, cellulose fiber, cellulose model surface, cellulose nano fiber, layer-by-layer, Adhesion, Aggregates, Atomic force microscopy, Bacteria, Cell adhesion, Cellulose, Fluorescence microscopy, Ionic strength, Multilayers, Nanofibers, Polyelectrolytes, Scanning electron microscopy, Silica, Spinning (fibers), Surface roughness, Textile fibers, Cellulose model surfaces, Layer by layer, Wood
Nationell ämneskategori
Kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236681 (URN)10.1515/npprj-2018-3050 (DOI)000450923900004 ()2-s2.0-85050598779 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Export Date: 22 October 2018; Article; CODEN: NPPJE; Correspondence Address: Ek, M.; Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Science in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologySweden; email: monicaek@kth.se; Funding details: 201407930001, CSC, China Scholarship Council; Funding text: Funding: We thank the Chinese Scholarship Council (201407930001) for financial support and RISE Bioecon-omy for technical support with the nitrogen analysis. QC 20181112

Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-12 Skapad: 2018-11-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
Zheng, C., Li, D. & Ek, M. (2018). Bio-based fire retardant and its application in cellulose-based thermal insulation materials. Paper presented at 255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 255
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bio-based fire retardant and its application in cellulose-based thermal insulation materials
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Artikel i tidskrift, Meeting abstract (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240174 (URN)000435537703081 ()
Konferens
255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA
Anmärkning

QC 20190111

Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-11 Skapad: 2019-01-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3858-8324

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