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Feindt, K., Rossi, M., Esfandiari-Baiat, G., Ekström, A. G. & Zellers, M. (2023). Cues to next-speaker projection in conversational Swedish: Evidence from reaction times. In: Interspeech 2023: . Paper presented at 24th International Speech Communication Association, Interspeech 2023, Dublin, Ireland, Aug 20 2023 - Aug 24 2023 (pp. 1040-1044). International Speech Communication Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cues to next-speaker projection in conversational Swedish: Evidence from reaction times
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2023 (English)In: Interspeech 2023, International Speech Communication Association , 2023, p. 1040-1044Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present first results of a study investigating the salience and typicality of prosodic markers in Swedish at turn ends for turn-yielding and turn-keeping purposes. We performed an experiment where participants (N=32) were presented with conversational chunks and, after the audio ended, were asked to determine which of two speakers would speak next by clicking a picture on a screen. Audio stimuli were manipulated by (i) raising and (ii) lowering f0 over the last 500 ms of a turn, (iii) speeding up or (iv) slowing down duration over the last 500 ms, and (v) raising and (vi) lowering the last pitch peak. In our data, out of all manipulations, increasing the speech rate was found to be the most disruptive (p < .005). Higher speech rate led to longer reaction times in turn-keeping, which were shorter in turn-yielding. Other manipulations did not significantly alter reaction times. The results presented here may be complemented with eye movement data, to further elucidate cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Speech Communication Association, 2023
Keywords
conversational dynamics, gaze, paralinguistics, prosody, Swedish, turn-taking
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-337870 (URN)10.21437/Interspeech.2023-778 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171547649 (Scopus ID)
Conference
24th International Speech Communication Association, Interspeech 2023, Dublin, Ireland, Aug 20 2023 - Aug 24 2023
Note

QC 20231010

Available from: 2023-10-10 Created: 2023-10-10 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. & Edlund, J. (2023). Evolution of the human tongue and emergence of speech biomechanics. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1150778.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of the human tongue and emergence of speech biomechanics
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1150778Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The tongue is one of the organs most central to human speech. Here, the evolution and species-unique properties of the human tongue is traced, via reference to the apparent articulatory behavior of extant non-human great apes, and fossil findings from early hominids - from a point of view of articulatory phonetics, the science of human speech production. Increased lingual flexibility provided the possibility of mapping of articulatory targets, possibly via exaptation of manual-gestural mapping capacities evident in extant great apes. The emergence of the human-specific tongue, its properties, and morphology were crucial to the evolution of human articulate speech.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2023
Keywords
evolution of speech, speech articulation, human evolution, speech production, primatology, articulatory phonetics, coarticulation, speech motor control
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-330517 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1150778 (DOI)001004893900001 ()37325743 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162047256 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230630

Available from: 2023-06-30 Created: 2023-06-30 Last updated: 2023-06-30Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. (2023). Predicting linguistic universality through reverse engineering. Nature Reviews Psychology, 2(10), 587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting linguistic universality through reverse engineering
2023 (English)In: Nature Reviews Psychology, E-ISSN 2731-0574, Vol. 2, no 10, p. 587-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338654 (URN)10.1038/s44159-023-00228-2 (DOI)001156831800001 ()2-s2.0-85167835050 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231023

Available from: 2023-10-23 Created: 2023-10-23 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. (2023). Viki’s First Words: A Comparative Phonetics Case Study. International journal of primatology, 44(2), 249-253
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Viki’s First Words: A Comparative Phonetics Case Study
2023 (English)In: International journal of primatology, ISSN 0164-0291, E-ISSN 1573-8604, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 249-253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-329996 (URN)10.1007/s10764-023-00350-1 (DOI)000933983400001 ()2-s2.0-85148362264 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230629

Available from: 2023-06-29 Created: 2023-06-29 Last updated: 2023-09-21Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. (2022). Ape Vowel-like Sounds Remain Elusive: A Comment on Grawunder et al. (2022). International journal of primatology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ape Vowel-like Sounds Remain Elusive: A Comment on Grawunder et al. (2022)
2022 (English)In: International journal of primatology, ISSN 0164-0291, E-ISSN 1573-8604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323656 (URN)10.1007/s10764-022-00335-6 (DOI)000884930400002 ()2-s2.0-85149218712 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230208

Available from: 2023-02-07 Created: 2023-02-07 Last updated: 2024-01-01Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G., Nirme, J. & Gardenfors, P. (2022). Motion iconicity in prosody. Frontiers in Communication, 7, Article ID 994162.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motion iconicity in prosody
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Communication, E-ISSN 2297-900X, Vol. 7, article id 994162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence suggests that human non-verbal speech may be rich in iconicity. Here, we report results from two experiments aimed at testing whether perception of increasing and declining f(0) can be iconically mapped onto motion events. We presented a sample of mixed-nationality participants (N = 118) with sets of two videos, where one pictured upward movement and the other downward movement. A disyllabic non-sense word prosodically resynthesized as increasing or declining in f(0) was presented simultaneously with each video in a pair, and participants were tasked with guessing which of the two videos the word described. Results indicate that prosody is iconically associated with motion, such that motion-prosody congruent pairings were more readily selected than incongruent pairings (p < 0.033). However, the effect observed in our sample was primarily driven by selections of words with declining f(0). A follow-up experiment with native Turkish speaking participants (N = 92) tested for the effect of language-specific metaphor for auditory pitch. Results showed no significant association between prosody and motion. Limitations of the experiment, and some implications for the motor theory of speech perception, and "gestural origins" theories of language evolution, are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2022
Keywords
voice perception, gesture, paralinguistics, motor theory of speech perception, evolution of language
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-321406 (URN)10.3389/fcomm.2022.994162 (DOI)000874197600001 ()2-s2.0-85139657836 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221115

Available from: 2022-11-15 Created: 2022-11-15 Last updated: 2023-06-27Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. (2022). Motor constellation theory: A model of infants’ phonological development. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 996894.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motor constellation theory: A model of infants’ phonological development
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 996894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Every normally developing human infant solves the difficult problem of mapping their native-language phonology, but the neural mechanisms underpinning this behavior remain poorly understood. Here, motor constellation theory, an integrative neurophonological model, is presented, with the goal of explicating this issue. It is assumed that infants' motor-auditory phonological mapping takes place through infants' orosensory "reaching" for phonological elements observed in the language-specific ambient phonology, via reference to kinesthetic feedback from motor systems (e.g., articulators), and auditory feedback from resulting speech and speech-like sounds. Attempts are regulated by basal ganglion-cerebellar speech neural circuitry, and successful attempts at reproduction are enforced through dopaminergic signaling. Early in life, the pace of anatomical development constrains mapping such that complete language-specific phonological mapping is prohibited by infants' undeveloped supralaryngeal vocal tract and undescended larynx; constraints gradually dissolve with age, enabling adult phonology. Where appropriate, reference is made to findings from animal and clinical models. Some implications for future modeling and simulation efforts, as well as clinical settings, are also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2022
Keywords
phonological development, biology of speech, child development, reinforcement learning, neurolinguistics, speech acquisition
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323657 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.996894 (DOI)000886254800001 ()36405212 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142138368 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230208

Available from: 2023-02-07 Created: 2023-02-07 Last updated: 2023-02-09Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G., Niehorster, D. C. & Olsson, E. J. (2022). Self-imposed filter bubbles: Selective attention and exposure in online search. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 7, Article ID 100226.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-imposed filter bubbles: Selective attention and exposure in online search
2022 (English)In: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 7, article id 100226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is commonly assumed that algorithmic curation of search results creates filter bubbles, where users’ beliefs are continually reinforced and opposing views are suppressed. However, empirical evidence has failed to support this hypothesis. Instead, it has been suggested that filter bubbles may result from individuals engaging selectively with information in search engine results pages. However, this “self-imposed filter bubble hypothesis” has remained empirically untested. In this study, we find support for the hypothesis using eye-tracking technology and link selection data. We presented partisan participants (n = 48) with sets of simulated Google Search results, controlling for the ideological leaning of each link. Participants spent more time viewing own-side links than other links (p = .037). In our sample, participants who identified as right-wing exhibited a greater such bias than those that identified as left wing (p < .001). In addition, we found that both liberals and conservatives tended to select own-side links (p < .001). Finally, there was a significant effect of trust, such that links associated with less trusted sources were attended less and selected less often by liberals and conservatives alike (p < .001). Our study challenges the efficacy of policies that aim at combatting filter bubbles by presenting users with an ideologically diverse set of search results. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Eye tracking, Filter bubble, Ingroup bias, Online search, Selective exposure, Trust
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326798 (URN)10.1016/j.chbr.2022.100226 (DOI)001026238300001 ()2-s2.0-85135800361 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230515

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-08-03Bibliographically approved
Ekström, A. G. (2022). What's next for size-sound symbolism?. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What's next for size-sound symbolism?
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Language Sciences, E-ISSN 2813-4605, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This text reviews recent research in phonetic size-sound symbolism – non-arbitrary attributions of size properties to speech acoustic properties. Evidence from a wide range of research works is surveyed, and recent findings from research on the relationships between fundamental frequency, vowel articulation, consonant articulation, phonation type, mora count, and phonemic position, are discussed. It is argued that a satisfactory explanatory model of phonetic size-sound symbolism should meet two criteria: they should be able to explain both (1) the relationship between size and speech acoustics (Association criterion), and (2) the inconsistent findings observed across languages in the relevant literature (the Inconsistency criterion). Five theories are briefly discussed: The frequency code, Embodied cognition, Sound-meaning bootstrapping, Sapir-Whorf hypotheses, and Stochastic drift. It is contended that no currently available explanatory model of size-sound symbolism adequately meets both criteria (1) and (2), but that a combination of perspectives may provide much of the necessary depth. Future directions are also discussed.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2022
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323658 (URN)10.3389/flang.2022.1046637 (DOI)
Note

QC 20230208

Available from: 2023-02-07 Created: 2023-02-07 Last updated: 2023-02-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6739-0838

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