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Smeds, E. (2024). Urban transport experimentation: a network or hybrid governance process?. In: Anthony Perl, Rosalie Ray, Louise Reardon (Ed.), Handbook of Transportation and Public Policy: . London: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban transport experimentation: a network or hybrid governance process?
2024 (English)In: Handbook of Transportation and Public Policy / [ed] Anthony Perl, Rosalie Ray, Louise Reardon, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Innovative sustainable transport policies are often tested through experiments or pilots. This chapter focuses on how urban transport experimentation is governed, in today’s context where collaboration and partnerships beyond government are often posited as the key to policy innovation. It critically discusses whether experimentation can be understood as a ‘network governance’ process. First, it analyses the claim that the future role of municipal government is to primarily govern by ‘enabling’ activities led by civil society and private actors. Second, it analyses whether voluntary experiment partnerships based on shared normative sustainability goals are particularly effective for co-creating policy innovations. These two propositions are examined against findings from empirical research on 108 sustainable transport experiments implemented in Bristol and New York City between 1996 and 2016. While non-state involvement and network partnerships were in many cases important for realising transformative impacts from experimentation, they were by no means a precondition. Rather than urban transport experimentation being a network governance process per se, we suggest it reflects ‘hybrid governance’ with multiple co-existing governance modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024
National Category
Public Administration Studies Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338816 (URN)
Note

QC 20231027

Available from: 2023-10-26 Created: 2023-10-26 Last updated: 2023-10-27Bibliographically approved
Ryghaug, M., Subotički, I., Smeds, E., Wirth, T. v., Scherrer, A., Foulds, C., . . . Wentland, A. (2023). A Social Sciences and Humanities research agenda for transport and mobility in Europe: key themes and 100 research questions. Transport Reviews, 43(4), 755-779
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Social Sciences and Humanities research agenda for transport and mobility in Europe: key themes and 100 research questions
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2023 (English)In: Transport Reviews, ISSN 01441647, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 755-779Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transport and mobility systems need to be transformed to meet climate change goals and reduce negative environmental and social effects. Despite EU policies having targeted such problems for more than three decades, transitions have been slow and geographically uneven. For effective change to happen, transport and mobility research needs fresh perspectives and better integration of knowledge from the Social Sciences and Humanities. Based on a Horizon Scanning approach, which allowed for a great deal of openness and variety in scholarly viewpoints, this paper presents a novel research agenda consisting of 8 themes and 100 research questions that may contribute to achieving environmentally sustainable mobility transitions within Europe. This research agenda highlights the need to not only support technological solutions for low-carbon mobility, but the importance of transformative policies that include new processes of knowledge production, civic participation and epistemic justice. We contend that the agenda points to the need for further research on the dynamics of science-society interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa UK Limited, 2023
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334232 (URN)10.1080/01441647.2023.2167887 (DOI)000923007400001 ()2-s2.0-85147030157 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Smeds, E. (2023). Moving Towards Transition: Commoning Mobility for a Low-Carbon Future [Review]. The AAG Review of Books, 11(1), 17-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moving Towards Transition: Commoning Mobility for a Low-Carbon Future
2023 (English)In: The AAG Review of Books, ISSN 2325-548X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 17-20Article, book review (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa UK Limited, 2023
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334234 (URN)10.1080/2325548x.2022.2144689 (DOI)
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Smeds, E. & Papa, E. (2023). The value of street experiments for mobility and public life: Citizens’ perspectives from three European cities. Journal of Urban Mobility, 4, 100055
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The value of street experiments for mobility and public life: Citizens’ perspectives from three European cities
2023 (English)In: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 4, p. 100055-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

‘Street experiments’ (SE) are increasingly used to reallocate street space from traffic to space for people through temporary interventions. Existing research suggests that SE can mobilise the public in favour of post-car transitions and focuses on evaluating SE from an upscaling, public acceptability, or practitioner perspective, while there are few studies that explore what citizens value about SE in the context of everyday street life in an open-ended way. To fill this gap, this paper analyses how N = 458 citizens value five SE parklets and plazas in three neighbourhoods of London, Munich, and Bologna. We develop a primarily inductive and qualitative survey method for understanding what mobility and public life dimensions of SE that citizens value, considering both use value and the broader social meanings of street transformations. Based on empirical analysis, we develop a framework for analysing the value of SE with 10 categories spanning functional, social, safety, environmental and economic dimensions. The findings show that across all three European cities, the majority of citizens value the public life dimensions of SE more highly than SE benefits for active mobility: including the added value of SE for the attractiveness of the streetscape, making public space available for stationary activities, and creating opportunities for social and civic interaction within neighbourhoods. Our analytical approach can be used to understand citizens’ qualitative evaluations of SE, while our practitioner recommendations can help inform the design of more effective and inclusive SE interventions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
City streets, Mobilities, Public space, Urban experimentation, Transitions
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334233 (URN)10.1016/j.urbmob.2023.100055 (DOI)
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Smeds, E. (2022). Municipal capacity for transformative experimentation: how much of a constraint is projectification?. In: : . Paper presented at RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, 30 August - 1 September 2022, Newcastle, UK. London
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal capacity for transformative experimentation: how much of a constraint is projectification?
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How local autonomy is shaped by structuring of funding opportunities by higher-level government is a long-established research theme. Studies of experimentation in UK and European cities have found that reliance on short-term, project-based and competitive funding is a major constraint on local actors’ capacities (Ehnert et al. 2018, Schwanen 2015, Hodson et al. 2018). Hodson et al. (2013) have shown how this may lead to ‘piecemeal’, rather than ‘systemic’, modes of urban energy innovation. Recently, these debates have been recast as ‘projectification’ of urban experimentation (Smeds 2018, Torrens and von Wirth 2020): the increasing reliance on temporary organising within the public sector (Godenhjelm et al. 2015). 

This paper engages this debate with a focus on municipal government capacity for experimenting with urban mobility innovations in ways that are transformative and may contribute to transitions towards post-car cities (Smeds 2021). We extend Hodson et al.’s (2013) framework by drawing on organisational studies literature (Lundin and Söderholm 1995). We argue for a distinction between two dimensions of projectification: 1) forms of organising experiments, e.g. as a fixed-term project; and 2) funding that is awarded on a project, short-term and/or competitive basis. Mobility funding landscapes are examined as a driver that may cause experimentation to be organised in project-based, piecemeal forms. 

We ask: how much of a constraint is projectification on municipal capacity, compared to other constraints on local autonomy in the context of state restructuring and austerity urbanism (Peck 2012)? This is answered through a comparative analysis of Bristol City Council and New York City government from 1996-2016, as contrasting cases with high and low degrees of fiscal autonomy, and representative cases of UK and US multi-scalar governance contexts. The study draws on large-N databases on the outcomes of 108 experiments, 48 interviews, and analysis of funding and municipal budget data. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: , 2022
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334972 (URN)
Conference
RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, 30 August - 1 September 2022, Newcastle, UK
Note

QC 20231023

Available from: 2023-08-30 Created: 2023-08-30 Last updated: 2023-10-23Bibliographically approved
Torrens, J., Westman, L., Wolfram, M., Broto, V. C., Barnes, J., Egermann, M., . . . von Wirth, T. (2021). Advancing urban transitions and transformations research. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 41, 102-105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing urban transitions and transformations research
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2021 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 41, p. 102-105Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban transitions and transformations research fosters a dialogue between sustainability transitions theory an inter- and transdisciplinary research on urban change. As a field, urban transitions and transformations research encompasses plural analytical and conceptual perspectives. In doing so, this field opens up sustainability transitions research to new communities of practice in urban environments, including mayors, transnational municipal networks, and international organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
UTT, Urban Transitions and Transformations, EIST, Environmental Innovations and Societal Transitions, STRN, Sustainability Transitions Research Network
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334243 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2021.10.026 (DOI)000730434700024 ()2-s2.0-85118755766 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Kahlmeier, S., Boig, E. A., Castro Fernandez, A., Smeds, E., Benvenuti, F., Eriksson, U., . . . Nazelle, A. d. (2021). Assessing the Policy Environment for Active Mobility in Cities—Development and Feasibility of the PASTA Cycling and Walking Policy Environment Score. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 986
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Policy Environment for Active Mobility in Cities—Development and Feasibility of the PASTA Cycling and Walking Policy Environment Score
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2021 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 986-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of setting a policy focus on promoting cycling and walking as sustainable and healthy modes of transport is increasingly recognized. However, to date a science-driven scoring system to assess the policy environment for cycling and walking is lacking. In this study, spreadsheet-based scoring systems for cycling and walking were developed, including six dimensions (cycling/walking culture, social acceptance, perception of traffic safety, advocacy, politics and urban planning). Feasibility was tested using qualitative data from pre-specified sections of semi-standardized interview and workshop reports from a European research project in seven cities, assessed independently by two experts. Disagreements were resolved by discussions of no more than 75 minutes per city. On the dimension “perception of traffic safety”, quantitative panel data were used. While the interrater agreement was fair, feasibility was confirmed in general. Validity testing against social norms towards active travel, modal split and network length was encouraging for the policy area of cycling. Rating the policy friendliness for cycling and walking separately was found to be appropriate, as different cities received the highest scores for each. Replicating this approach in a more standardized way would pave the way towards a transparent, evidence-based system for benchmarking policy approaches of cities towards cycling and walking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
cycling, walking, active travel policy assessment, scoring, transport planning
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334238 (URN)10.3390/ijerph18030986 (DOI)000615204800001 ()33499420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85099697052 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Smeds, E. & Jones, P. (2021). Developing transition pathways for mobility in European cities: challenges and new approaches. In: Abdullah, H; Serrano Robles, E (Ed.), Urban Mobility after COVID-19: Long-term strategies for the sustainable mobility transition in European cities. Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing transition pathways for mobility in European cities: challenges and new approaches
2021 (English)In: Urban Mobility after COVID-19: Long-term strategies for the sustainable mobility transition in European cities / [ed] Abdullah, H; Serrano Robles, E, Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB) , 2021Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Meeting the European Union’s 2050 climate-neutrality target will require a 90% reduction in transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A large proportion of these reductions will need to come from Europe’s city-regions, and urban mobility in Europe will need to change fundamentally as a result. The question for European municipalities is how they can pursue mobility planning that ensures GHG emissions decline at sufficient scale and speed to meet the EU’s 2030 and 2050 climate targets.

The European Commission’s current policy framework for supporting urban mobility transitions includes the Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning (SUMP) approach as one of its cornerstones, with the SUMP practitioner guidelines currently in their second iteration and EU funding for municipalities likely to become conditional on adherence to these planning principles. Based on our work within the H2020 SUMPPLUS project, we argue that new long-term planning approaches to developing transition pathways are needed that complement existing SUMP planning focused on a five- to ten-year time horizon (Smeds & Jones, 2020). In this chapter, we make reference to the cities of Barcelona and Stockholm as illustrative examples, based on conversations with representatives of the respective city governments during the webinar “Urban Mobility after COVID-19” hosted by CIDOB in April 2021.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), 2021
Series
Monografia CIDOB ; 82
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334236 (URN)
Note

Part of book ISBN 9788492511969

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Jones, P., Smeds, E. & Dean, M. (2021). Initial conceptual framework to map and establish cross-sector Links between major trip-generating sectors of the economy. H2020 CIVITAS SUMP-PLUS project
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial conceptual framework to map and establish cross-sector Links between major trip-generating sectors of the economy
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transport is largely a derived demand and serves the needs of producers and consumers acrossthe various sectors of the economy. Hence, business decisions taken by these non-transport sectorscan have a major influence on passenger and freight travel patterns (particularly in terms of then umbers and location of trips); yet these transport consequences and the impacts on traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and CO2 emissions, are rarely taken into account when these sectors develop their models for (public) service delivery and business models. This deliverable provides an initial conceptual framework to help address this problem.

It first presents (Chapter 3) an international review of locational and service delivery decision-makingin several sectors, with a more in-depth analysis of case studies from the health sector. It concludes that, while there is a credible academic literature, there is limited public documentation about actual business decision-making processes and no underpinning conceptual framework.

The latter issue is addressed in Chapter 4, where seven conceptual cornerstones are introduced, as inputs to aproposed conceptual framework. Chapter 5 considers the applicability of this embryonic conceptual framework to four sectors (health, education, retail and tourism), while Chapter 6 explores existing forms and degrees of cross-sectorcoordination in each of the six SUMP-PLUS cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
H2020 CIVITAS SUMP-PLUS project, 2021
Keywords
transport, policy integration, travel demand, cross-sector collaboration, sustainability
National Category
Public Administration Studies Economic Geography Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334244 (URN)
Projects
SUMP-PLUS
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Smeds, E. & Cavoli, C. (2021). Pathways for accelerating transitions towards sustainable mobility in European cities. In: Abdullah, H (Ed.), Towards a European Green Deal with Cities: The urban dimension of the EU’s sustainable growth strategy. (pp. 75-91). Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways for accelerating transitions towards sustainable mobility in European cities
2021 (English)In: Towards a European Green Deal with Cities: The urban dimension of the EU’s sustainable growth strategy. / [ed] Abdullah, H, Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB) , 2021, p. 75-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Meeting the European Green Deal’s (EGD) target of climate-neutrality by 2050 will require a 90% reduction in emissions from the transport sector, as formulated in the European Commission’s Communication on the EGD in December 2019 (EC, 2019a). “Accelerating the shift to sustainable and smart mobility” is identified as one of eight thematic priorities in the Communication and places an emphasis on:

  • shifts from road transport to rail and inland waterways;
  • automated and connected multimodal mobility;
  • phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and extension of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to aviation and maritime transport;
  • increased production and deployment of alternative transport fuels, specifically zero- and low-emission vehicles;
  • transport becoming “drastically” less polluting “especially in cities”, including more stringent air pollutant emissions standards and CO2 emission standards for vehicles.

It is notable that the urban context is not given much emphasis in the Commission’s priorities for future mobility: beyond emphasising the need to reduce air pollution in cities, the Communication does not mention walking, cycling, public transport or new mobility services that are central to daily mobility in urban areas. The formulation of new sectoral policy instruments linked to the EGD is still in its infancy, but the omission is nevertheless surprising, considering that tackling urban emissions is critical for meeting the 90% reduction target for transport. Road transport accounts for approximately 72% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU (EC, 2019b), with urban areas contributing 40% of total road transport CO2 emissions (EC, 2020). Overall, urban areas are estimated to account for 23% of CO2 emissions from transport in the EU (EEA, 2019).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), 2021
Series
Monografia CIDOB ; 80
National Category
Public Administration Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334242 (URN)
Note

Part of book ISBN 978-84-92511-88-4

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8968-3500

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