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Kristoffersson, I., Engelson, L. & Börjesson, M. (2017). Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges. Transport Policy, 60, 99-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges
2017 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 60, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses the trade-off between equity and efficiency in the design of the Stockholm congestion charging systems. Comparing different designs for Stockholm, the paper shows that the most efficient system is the least equitable. Indeed, we show that moving towards a more efficient system design favours high-income-users most. The reason is the uneven distribution of workplaces and residential areas, combined with richer socio-economic groups living in areas with more workplaces. Hence, the conflict between efficiency and equity of this policy arises from the spatial mismatch of residential areas and locations of employment, and the spatial separation between low-income and high-income groups that characterise most cities. This paper shows that these spatial patterns have a large effect on the distribution effects of the congestion charges and that the system design can have a major impact on equity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Congestion charging, Efficiency, Equity, Welfare effects
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218308 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2017.09.006 (DOI)000418970300010 ()2-s2.0-85033704828 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationVINNOVA
Note

QC 20171127

Available from: 2017-11-27 Created: 2017-11-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
West, J., Börjesson, M. & Engelson, L. (2016). Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 94, 266-277
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges
2016 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Congestion charges, Decision support, Transport model, Validation, Value of time, Volume delay function
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-190863 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2016.09.016 (DOI)000389089700019 ()2-s2.0-84989328016 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170201

Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Hjorth, K., Börjesson, M., Engelson, L. & Fosgerau, M. (2015). Estimating exponential scheduling preferences. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 81(1), 230-251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating exponential scheduling preferences
2015 (English)In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 230-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily distributed independent random variables: Assuming smooth preferences, this holds only for specifications with a constant marginal utility of time at the origin and an exponential or affine marginal utility of time at the destination. We apply a generalized version of this model to stated preference data of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability is proportional to the variance of travel time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-115992 (URN)10.1016/j.trb.2015.03.014 (DOI)000366237700012 ()2-s2.0-84956604239 (Scopus ID)
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20160420

Available from: 2013-01-15 Created: 2013-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Engelson, L. & van Amelsfort, D. (2015). The role of volume-delay functions in forecasting and evaluating congestion charging schemes: the Stockholm case. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 38(6), 684-707
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of volume-delay functions in forecasting and evaluating congestion charging schemes: the Stockholm case
2015 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 684-707Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

This paper uses observations from before and during the Stockkholm congestion charging trial in order to validate and improve a transportation model for Stockholm. The model overestimates the impact of the charges on traffic volumes while at the same time it substantially underestimates the impact on travel times. These forecast errors lead to considerable underestimation of economic benefits which are dominated by travel time savings. The source of error lies in the static assignment that is used in the model. Making the volume-delay functions (VDFs) steeper only marginally improves the quality of forecast but strongly impacts the result of benefit calculations. We therefore conclude that the dynamic assignment is crucial for an informed decision on introducing measures aimed at relieving congestion. However, in the absence of such a calibrated dynamic model for a city, we recommend that at least a sensitivity analysis with respect to the slope of VDFs is performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2015
Keywords
congestion charging; transport model; volume-delay functions; cost-benefit analysis; Stockholm
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-71700 (URN)10.1080/03081060.2015.1048948 (DOI)000359699600006 ()2-s2.0-84938421005 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

TSC import 496 2012-01-30. QC 20170206

Available from: 2012-01-31 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, P. O. & Engelson, L. (2015). Tolled multi-class traffic equilibria and toll sensitivities. EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, 4(2), 197-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolled multi-class traffic equilibria and toll sensitivities
2015 (English)In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 197-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We review properties of tolled equilibria in road networks, with users differing in their time values, and study corresponding sensitivities of equilibrium link flows w.r.t. tolls. Possible applications include modeling of individual travellers that have different trip purposes (e.g. work, business, leisure, etc.) and therefore perceive the relation between travel time and monetary cost in dissimilar ways. The typical objective is to reduce the total value of travel time (TVT) over all users. For first best congestion pricing, where all links in the network can be tolled, the solution can be internalized through marginal social cost (MSC) pricing. The MSC equilibrium typically has to be implemented through fixed tolls. The MSC as well as the fixed-toll equilibrium problems can be stated as optimization problems, which in general are convex in the fixed-toll case and non-convex in the MSC case. Thus, there may be several MSC equilibria. Second-best congestion pricing, where one only tolls a subset of the links, is much more complex, and equilibrium flows, times and TVT are not in general differentiable w.r.t. tolls in sub-routes used by several classes. For generic tolls, where the sets of shortest paths are stable, we show how to compute Jacobians (w.r.t positive tolls) of link flows and times as well as of the TVT. This can be used in descent schemes to find tolls that minimize the TVT at least locally. We further show that a condition of independent equilibrium cycles, together with a natural extension of the single class regularity condition of strict complementarity, leads to genericity, and hence existence of said Jacobians.

Keywords
Congestion pricing, Marginal social cost, Multi-class traffic assignment, Second-Best road pricing, Sensitivity
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170235 (URN)10.1007/s13676-014-0058-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-84930199472 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Fosgerau, M., Engelson, L. & Franklin, J. P. (2014). Commuting for meetings. Journal of Urban Economics, 81, 104-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commuting for meetings
2014 (English)In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 81, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban congestion causes travel times to exhibit considerable variability, which leads to coordination problems when people have to meet. We analyze a game for the timing of a meeting between two players who must each complete a trip of random duration to reach the meeting, which does not begin until both are present. Players prefer to depart later and also to arrive sooner, provided they do not have to wait for the other player. We find a unique Nash equilibrium, and a continuum of Pareto optima that are strictly better than the Nash equilibrium for both players. Pareto optima may be implemented as Nash equilibria by penalty or compensation schemes.

Keywords
Congestion, Random travel time variability, Coordination game
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-147054 (URN)10.1016/j.jue.2014.03.002 (DOI)000336197400009 ()2-s2.0-84898756234 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140624

Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
West, J., Börjesson, M. & Engelsson, L. (2014). Ex-post evaluation of national transport model: Gothenburg congestion charges application.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex-post evaluation of national transport model: Gothenburg congestion charges application
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Forecasting effects of congestion charges
Series
CTS working paper ; 2016:9
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168291 (URN)
Note

QC 20150601

Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2016-08-18Bibliographically approved
Almroth, A., Berglund, S., Engelsson, L., Canella, O., Flötteröd, G., Jonsson, D., . . . West, J. (2014). Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The need to more precisely represent the consequences of congestion mitigation policies in urban transport systems calls for replacement of the static equilibrium assignment by DTA in the integrated travel demand and traffic assignment models. Despite of the availability of DTA models and despite of the conceptual clarity of how such integration should take place, only few operational model systems have been developed for large-scale applications. We report on replacement of the static traffic assignment by two different DTAs in the four stage demand model for the Greater Stockholm region: the macroscopic analytic Visum DUE and microscopic simulation Transmodeler. First results show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal striking difference between using macroscopic and microscopic assignment package. However, given the clear trend to microscopic modeling and simulation on the travel demand side, the use of micro-simulation-based DTA package appears more natural from system integration perspective.

Publisher
p. 112
Series
Working papers in Transport Economics ; No 2014:10
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-165954 (URN)
Note

QC 20150512

Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-04-30 Last updated: 2015-05-12Bibliographically approved
Berglund, S., Canella, O., Engelsson, L., Flötteröd, G., Jonsson, D., Kristoffersson, I. & West, J. (2014). Integration of dynamic traffic assignment with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region. In: : . Paper presented at DTA 2014 conference in Salerno, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of dynamic traffic assignment with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region
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2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 112
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-168292 (URN)
Conference
DTA 2014 conference in Salerno, Italy
Note

QC 20150601

Available from: 2015-06-01 Created: 2015-06-01 Last updated: 2016-08-25Bibliographically approved
Ekström, J., Engelson, L. & Rydergren, C. (2014). Optimal toll locations and toll levels in congestion pricing schemes: a case study of Stockholm. Transportation planning and technology (Print), 37(4), 333-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal toll locations and toll levels in congestion pricing schemes: a case study of Stockholm
2014 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 333-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As congestion pricing has moved from theoretical ideas in the literature to real-world implementation, the need for decision support when designing pricing schemes has become evident. This paper deals with the problem of finding optimal toll levels and locations in a road traffic network and presents a case study of Stockholm. The optimisation problem of finding optimal toll levels, given a predetermined cordon, and the problem of finding both optimal toll locations and levels are presented, and previously developed heuristics are used for solving these problems. For the Stockholm case study, the possible welfare gains of optimising toll levels in the current cordon and optimising both toll locations and their corresponding toll levels are evaluated. It is shown that by tuning the toll levels in the current congestion pricing cordon used in Stockholm, the welfare gain can be increased significantly, and furthermore improved by allowing a toll on a major bypass highway. It is also shown that, by optimising both toll locations and levels, a congestion pricing scheme with welfare gain close to what can be achieved by marginal social cost pricing can be designed with tolls being located on only a quarter of the tollable links.

Keywords
congestion pricing, road tolls, bilevel optimisation, user equilibrium, network design, Stockholm
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-147039 (URN)10.1080/03081060.2014.897129 (DOI)000334158100002 ()2-s2.0-84898918029 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140624

Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4531-8659

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