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Giordano, G., Klass, V., Behm, M., Lindbergh, G. & Sjöberg, J. (2018). Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Resistance Estimation From Electric Vehicle Operating Data. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 67(5), 3720-3728
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Resistance Estimation From Electric Vehicle Operating Data
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 3720-3728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State-of-health estimates of batteries are essential for onboard electric vehicles in order to provide safe, reliable, and cost-effective battery operation. This paper suggests a method to estimate the 10-s discharge resistance, which is an established battery figure of merit from laboratory testing, without performing the laboratory test. Instead, a state-of-health estimate of batteries is obtained using data directly from their operational use, e.g., onboard electric vehicles. It is shown that simple dynamical battery models, based on a current input and a voltage output, with model parameters dependent on temperature and state of charge, can be derived using AutoRegressive with eXogenous input models, whose order can be adjusted to describe the complex battery behavior. Then, the 10-s discharge resistance can be conveniently computed from the identified model parameters. Moreover, the uncertainty of the estimated resistance values is provided by the method. The suggested method is validated with usage data from emulated electric vehicle operation of an automotive lithium-ion battery cell. The resistance values are estimated accurately for a state-of-charge and temperature range spanning typical electric vehicle operating conditions. The identification of the model parameters and the resistance computation are very fast, rendering the method suitable for onboard application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
State of health, autoregressive eXogenous model, dynamical models, electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, resistance estimation, system identification
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-229023 (URN)10.1109/TVT.2018.2796723 (DOI)000432310500002 ()2-s2.0-85041012711 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180531

Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Lundgren, H., Lindbergh, G. & Behm, M. (2017). Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 7(4), 213-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries
2017 (English)In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity similar to 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association of Physical Chemists (IAPC), 2017
Keywords
Li-ion battery, Li-O-2 battery, Room temperature ionic liquid, Diffusion resistivity, Electrolyte mass transport resistivity
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221414 (URN)10.5599/jese.408 (DOI)000419148300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20180116

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A. S., Klett, M., Behm, M., Lindbergh, G. & Lindström, R. W. (2017). Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study. Journal of Energy Storage, 13, 325-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 13, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At electric vehicle fast-charging stations, it is generally recommended to avoid charging beyond similar to 80% State-of-Charge (SOC) since topping-off to full capacity disproportionately increases the charging time. This necessitates studying its long-term impact compared to slower rate charging to full capacity typical of home or residential charging. Here we present the long-term ageing effects on commercial 18650 NMC-LMO/graphite cell cycled between 2.6-4.2 V at three different charging protocols: 1.5 C-rate fast-partial charging ( to 82.5% SOC), 0.5 C-rate slow standard charging without or with a constant-voltage step (to 93% or 100% SOC). Quantitative discharge-curve and postmortem analyses are used to evaluate ageing. The results show that ageing rate increases in the order: fast-partial charging < standard charging < standard charging with constant-voltage period, indicating that higher SOC-range near full capacity is more detrimental to battery life than fast-charging. The capacity fade is totally dominated by cyclable-lithium loss. The similar to 8% NMC-LMO active material loss has negligible impact on the cell capacity fade due to the electrodes excess material in the fresh cell and its moderate loss rate with ageing compared to the cyclable-lithium. Similar ageing modes in terms of capacity fade and impedance rise are found irrespective of the charging protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Fast-charging, Charging to partial SOC, Non-destructive analysis, Lithium-ion battery ageing, Battery management, Charging protocol
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220495 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2017.07.004 (DOI)000417183300033 ()2-s2.0-85028014032 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20171222

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Behm, M., Leijonmarck, S., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2016). Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 8(28), 18097-18106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
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2016 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, p. 18097-18106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 mu m. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 degrees C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
Keywords
TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, binder, flexible paper electrodes, moisture, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196456 (URN)10.1021/acsami.6b05016 (DOI)000380298400038 ()27362635 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979598428 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Cornell, A., Alvarado, F., Behm, M., Leijonmarck, S., Li, J., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2016). Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries. Materials, 9(3), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries
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2016 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
lignin, binder, leaching, electrodes, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186569 (URN)10.3390/ma9030127 (DOI)000373805400072 ()2-s2.0-84962652184 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, H., Svens, P., Ekström, H., Tengstedt, C., Lindström, J., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2016). Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(2), A309-A317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application
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2016 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 2, p. A309-A317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal effects are linked to all main barriers to the widespread commercialization of lithium-ion battery powered vehicles. This paper presents a coupled 2D electrochemical - 3D thermal model of a large-format prismatic lithium-ion battery, including a thermal management system with a heat sink connected to the surface opposite the terminals, undergoing the dynamic current behavior of a plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicle using a load cycle with a maximum current of 8 C, validated using potential and temperature data. The model fits the data well, with small deviations at the most demanding parts of the cycle. The maximum temperature increase and temperature difference of the jellyroll is found to be 9.7 degrees C and 3.6 degrees C, respectively. The electrolyte is found to limit the performance during the high-current pulses, as the concentration reaches extreme values, leading to a very uneven current distribution. Two other thermal management strategies, short side and long side surfaces cooling, are evaluated but are found to have only minor effects on the temperature of the jellyroll, with maximum jellyroll temperatures increases of 9.4 degrees C and 8.1 degrees C, respectively, and maximum temperature differences of 3.7 degrees C and 5.0 degrees C, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2016
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180974 (URN)10.1149/2.09411602jes (DOI)000367324400040 ()2-s2.0-84949599677 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from Manuscript to Article. QC 20160202

Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Klass, V., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2015). Capturing lithium-ion battery dynamics with support vector machine-based battery model. Journal of Power Sources, 298, 92-101
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing lithium-ion battery dynamics with support vector machine-based battery model
2015 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 298, p. 92-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During long and high current pulses, diffusion resistance becomes important in lithium-ion batteries. In such diffusion-intense situations, a static support vector machine-based battery model relying on instantaneous current, state-of-charge (SOC), and temperature is not sufficient to capture the time-dependent voltage characteristics. In order to account for the diffusion-related voltage dynamics, we suggest therefore the inclusion of current history in the data-driven battery model by moving averages of the recent current. The voltage estimation performance of six different dynamic battery models with additional current history input is studied during relevant test scenarios. All current history models improve the time-dependent voltage drop estimation compared to the static model, manifesting the beneficial effect of the additional current history input during diffusion-intense situations. The best diffusion resistance estimation results are obtained for the two-step voltage estimation models that incorporate a reciprocal square root of time weighing function for the current of the previous 100 s or an exponential time function with a 20 s time constant (1–8% relative error). Those current history models even improve the overall voltage estimation performance during the studied test scenarios (under 0.25% root-mean-square percentage error).

National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173535 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.036 (DOI)000362146800011 ()2-s2.0-84939817512 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150914

Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, H., Scheers, J., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2015). Characterization of the Mass-Transport Phenomena in a Superconcentrated LiTFSI: Acetonitrile Electrolyte. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162(7), A1334-A1340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the Mass-Transport Phenomena in a Superconcentrated LiTFSI: Acetonitrile Electrolyte
2015 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 7, p. A1334-A1340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Superconcentration of aprotic electrolytes has recently emerged as a way to stabilize solvents that otherwise would be impossible to use, in e.g. lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). As demanding applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles and fast charging, become increasingly important, battery manufacturers are struggling to find a suitable electrolyte able to deliver high power with low polarization. Electrolyte characterizations able to accurately predict the high-power performance of such electrolytes are also of utmost importance. This study reports a full.characterization of the mass-transport phenomena for a superconcentrated LiTFSL-acetonitrile electrolyte in concentrations ranging from 2.7 M to 4.2 M. The method obtains the ionic conductivity, cationic transport number, diffusion coefficient, and the thermodynamic enhancement factor, by combining mathematical modeling and three electrochemical experiments. Furthermore, the density and the viscosity were measured. The transport number with respect to the room is found to be very high compared to other liquid LIB electrolytes, but a low diffusion coefficient lowers overall performance. The ionic conductivity decreases quickly with concentration, dropping from 12.7 mS/cm at 2.7 M to 0.76 mS/cm at 4.2 M. Considering all the effects in terms of the mass-transport of the electrolyte, the lower end of the studied concentration range is favorable.

Keywords
Transference Number Measurements, Lithium-Ion Batteries, Polymer Electrolytes, Gel Electrolytes, Salt Electrolyte, Polarization, Diffusion, Intercalation, Stability, Graphite
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167637 (URN)10.1149/2.0961507jes (DOI)000355643700029 ()2-s2.0-84929494453 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150522

Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Soares, R., Bessman, A., Wallmark, O., Leksell, M., Behm, M. & Svens, P. (2015). Design Aspects of an Experimental Setup for Investigating Current Ripple Effects in Lithium-ion Battery Cells. In: Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on: . Paper presented at Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe), 8-10 Sept. 2015, Geneva, (pp. 1-8). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Aspects of an Experimental Setup for Investigating Current Ripple Effects in Lithium-ion Battery Cells
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2015 (English)In: Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes an experimental setup for investigating the effects of current ripple on lithium-ion battery cells. The experimental setup is designed so that twelve li-ion cells can be simultaneously tested in a controlled environment. The experimental setup allows for a wide range of current ripple in terms of frequency and amplitude. Additionally, the quantification of the current ripple effects such as the aging of li-ion cells implies that a precise measurement system has to be designed which also are discussed in the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-178001 (URN)10.1109/EPE.2015.7309112 (DOI)000377101800063 ()2-s2.0-84965074464 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe), 8-10 Sept. 2015, Geneva,
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20160216

Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Dermenci, K., Turan, S., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2015). Effect of cathode slurry composition on the electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries. ECS Transactions, 66(9), 285-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of cathode slurry composition on the electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries
2015 (English)In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance difference between commercial and laboratory scale cells remains a problem to be solved. Different way of battery electrode preparation is considered to be the main reason underlying various battery performance. In this work, the effect of slurry composition on electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries is reported. Slurry preparation with various compositions of LiFePO4 active material (76-88%), PVdF binder (6-12%) and Super P Carbon conductive additive (6-12%) has been studied. Charge-discharge curves and capacity fade of electrodes are also investigated. Selected electrodes were pressed in order to see the effect of pressing on the final performance. Results showed that varying PVdF and carbon content mainly effects charge-discharge characteristics. For unpressed samples, higher amount of PVdF and carbon could result higher maximum specific capacity and lower internal resistance during lithiation and delithiation of positive electrode. Pressing reduces the distance between slurry particles, which enhances the conductivity of the prepared cell.

Keywords
Electric batteries; Electric discharges; Electrochemical properties; Electrodes; Ions; Lithium; Lithium alloys; Lithium compounds; Secondary batteries, Battery performance; Charge discharge curves; Charge-discharge characteristics; Conductive additives; Effect of cathode; Internal resistance; Positive electrodes; Specific capacities, Lithium-ion batteries
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174659 (URN)10.1149/06609.0285ecst (DOI)2-s2.0-84940372228 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151116

Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9392-9059

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