Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 69) Show all publications
Endrodi, B., Smulders, V., Simic, N., Wildlock, M., Mul, G., Mei, B. & Cornell, A. M. (2019). In situ formed vanadium-oxide cathode coatings for selective hydrogen production. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 244, 233-239
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ formed vanadium-oxide cathode coatings for selective hydrogen production
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 244, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrode selectivity towards hydrogen production is essential in various conversion technologies for renewable energy, as well as in different industrial processes, such as the electrochemical production of sodium chlorate. In this study we present sodium metavanadate as a solution additive, inducing selective cathodic formation of hydrogen in the presence of various other reducible species such as hypochlorite, chlorate, oxygen, nitrate, hydrogen-peroxide and ferricyanide. During electrolysis a vanadium-oxide coating forms from the reduction of sodium metavanadate, explaining the observed enhanced selectivity. The hydrogen evolution reaction proceeds without significantly altered kinetics on such in situ modified electrode surfaces. This suggests that the reaction takes place at the interface between the electrode surface and the protective film, which acts as a diffusion barrier preventing the unwanted species to reach the electrode surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Hydrogen evolution reaction, Cathode selectivity, Overall water splitting, Industrial chemistry, Chlorate electrolysis
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244478 (URN)10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.11.038 (DOI)000457952600024 ()2-s2.0-85057088583 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190321

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Kim, H., Guccini, V., Lu, H., Salazar-Alvarez, G., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2019). Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood. ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, 2(2), 1241-1250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1241-1250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers, prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TOCN), were processed into asymmetric mesoporous membranes using a facile paper-making approach and investigated as lithium ion battery separators. Membranes made of TOCN with sodium carboxylate groups (TOCN-COO-Na+) showed capacity fading after a few cycles of charging and discharging. On the other hand, its protonated counterpart (TOCN-COOH) showed highly improved electrochemical and cycling stability, displaying 94.5% of discharge capacity maintained after 100 cycles at 1 C rate of charging and discharging. The asymmetric surface porosity of the membranes must be considered when assembling a battery cell as it influences the rate capabilities of the battery. The wood-based TOCN-membranes have a good potential as an ecofriendly alternative to conventional fossil fuel-derived separators without adverse side effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
cellulose, Li-ion batteries, separator, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose, protonation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246267 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b01797 (DOI)000459948900036 ()2-s2.0-85064990880 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Endrodi, B., Stojanovic, A., Cuartero, M., Simic, N., Wildlock, M., de Marco, R., . . . Cornell, A. M. (2019). Selective Hydrogen Evolution on Manganese Oxide Coated Electrodes: New Cathodes for Sodium Chlorate Production. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7(14), 12170-12178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective Hydrogen Evolution on Manganese Oxide Coated Electrodes: New Cathodes for Sodium Chlorate Production
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 12170-12178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. The cathodic reduction of anodic products is sufficiently suppressed in the current technology by the addition of chromium(VI) to the electrolyte, but due to the high toxicity of these compounds, alternative pathways are required to maintain high process efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics and selectivity on thermally formed manganese oxide-coated titanium electrodes in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions. The morphology and phase composition of manganese oxide layers were varied via alteration of the annealing temperature during synthesis, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. As shown in mass spectroscopy coupled electrochemical measurements, the hydrogen evolution selectivity in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions is dictated by the phase composition of the coating. Importantly, a hydrogen evolution efficiency of above 95% was achieved with electrodes of optimized composition (annealing temperature, thickness) in hypochlorite solutions. Further, these electrode coatings are nontoxic and Earth-abundant, offering the possibility of a more sustainable chlorate production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
Cathode selectivity, HER, Industrial electrochemistry, Chemical technology, Dichromate
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255559 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b01279 (DOI)000475838100027 ()
Note

QC 20190805

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Endrodi, B., Sandin, S., Wildlock, M., Simic, N. & Cornell, A. M. (2019). Suppressed oxygen evolution during chlorateformation from hypochlorite in the presenceof chromium(VI). Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), 94(5), 1520-1527
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppressed oxygen evolution during chlorateformation from hypochlorite in the presenceof chromium(VI)
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 1520-1527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Chromium(VI) is a crucial electrolyte component in industrial chlorate production. Due to its toxicity, iturgently needs to be abandoned and its functions fulfilled by new solutions. In the industrial production of sodium chlorate,homogeneous decomposition of the hypochlorite intermediate to chlorate is a key step. As a competing loss reaction,hypochlorite can decompose to oxygen. How chromium(VI) affects these reactions is not well understood.

RESULTS: This work shows, for the first time, that chromium(VI) selectively accelerates the chlorate formation from hypochloriteboth in dilute and concentrated, industrially relevant solutions. The effect of the ionic strength and the specific contributionof different electrolyte components were systematically studied. By simultaneously measuring the concentration decayof hypochlorite (UV–vis spectroscopy) and the oxygen formation (mass spectrometry), both the rate and the selectivity of thereactions were evaluated.

CONCLUSION: In the presence of chromium(VI) the hypochlorite decomposition is described by the sum of an uncatalyzedand a parallel catalyzed reaction, where oxygen only forms in the uncatalyzed reaction. When removing chromium(VI),the homogeneous oxygen formation increases, causing economic and safety concerns. The need for a catalyst selectivefor chlorate formation is emphasized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2019
Keywords
sodium chlorate; chemical engineering; industrial electrochemistry; sodium dichromate; hypochlorite decomposition; selective catalysis
National Category
Chemical Sciences Other Chemical Engineering Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251421 (URN)10.1002/jctb.5911 (DOI)000467986900019 ()2-s2.0-85061035820 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190611

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Abbasi, M., Backstrom, J. & Cornell, A. M. (2018). Fabrication of Spin-Coated Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 Electrode: Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(9), H568-H574
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Spin-Coated Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 Electrode: Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. H568-H574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel three-layer anode having the composition Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 (Ti/TiHx/NATO) was successfully prepared by a spin-coating and pyrolysis process aiming at a long service lifetime and good electrocatalytic properties for ozone formation. The TiHx as an interlayer was produced by electrochemical cathodic reduction of a coated layer of the TiOx on the titanium substrate. Spin coating and thermal decomposition were used to deposit the Sn-Sb-Ni precursor on the surface of the prepared Ti/TiHx electrode. Cyclic and linear scanning voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to reveal the electrode performance and morphology. Results show that the onset potential for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Ti/TiHx /NATO is higher than for Ti/NATO. They also indicate that the service lifetime of the Ti/TiHx/NATO is twice as long as the Ti/NATO at a current density of 50 mA.cm(-2) at room temperature. Electrochemical ozone generation and degradation of the methylene blue were investigated to confirm selectivity and activity of the electrodes. After 5 min electrolysis, a current efficiency for ozone generation of 56% was obtained the electrode with TiHx while 38% was obtained on Ti/NATO under same conditions. The results also confirm that the Ti/TiH x /NATO has a higher kinetic rate constant and decolorization efficiency for removal of the methylene blue compare to the Ti/NATO. The rate constant for the pseudo-first ordered reaction of methylene blue degradation showed high values of 350 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/NATO and 440 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/TiHx/NATO. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233616 (URN)10.1149/2.1171809jes (DOI)000440924800150 ()2-s2.0-85049351439 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180827

Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Hagberg, J., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2018). Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers. BATTERIES-BASEL, 4(2), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers
2018 (English)In: BATTERIES-BASEL, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible, low-weight electrodes with integrated current collectors based on chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers (CF) were produced using an easy, aqueous fabrication process, where only 4 wt% of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as the binder. A flexible full cell was assembled based on a LiFePO4 (LFP) positive electrode with a CF current collector and a current collector-free CF negative electrode. The cell exhibited a stable specific capacity of 121 mAh g(-1) based on the LFP weight. The CF in the negative electrode acted simultaneously as active material and current collector, which has a significant positive impact on energy density. Stable specific capacities of the CF/CNF negative electrode of 267 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g(-1) at 1 C are demonstrated. The LFP/CNF with CF/CNF, as the current collector positive electrode (LFP-CF), exhibited a good rate performance with a capacity of -150 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 133 mAh g(-1) at 1 C. The polarization of the LFP-CF electrode was similar to that of a commercial Quallion LFP electrode, while much lower compared to a flexible LFP/CNF electrode with Al foil as the current collector. This is ascribed to good contact between the CF and the active material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), water-based binder, carbon fibers, bendable Li-ion batteries, lightweight
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232271 (URN)10.3390/batteries4020017 (DOI)000436154600004 ()
Note

QC 20180719

Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Endrodi, B., Avall, G., Johansson, P., Cornell, A. M. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122(4), 1913-1920
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery
Show others...
2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 1913-1920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the promising Li-O-2 battery to be commercialized, further understanding of its constituents is needed. This study deals with the role of O-2 in Li-O-2 batteries, both its influence on electrochemical performance and its solubility in lithium-salt-containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes. Experimentally, the electrochemical performance was evaluated using cylindrical ultramicroelectrodes. Two independent techniques, using a mass spectrometer and an optical sensor, were used to evaluate the O-2 solubility, expressed as Henry's constant. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and density were also measured. Density functional theory calculations were made of the interaction energy between O-2 and the different species in the electrolytes. When varying O-2 partial pressure, the current was larger at high pressures confirming that the O-2 concentration is of key importance when studying the kinetics of this system. Compared with neat DMSO, the O-2 solubility increased with addition of LiTFSI and decreased with addition of LiClO4, indicating that the salt influences the solubility. This solubility trend is best explained in terms of apparent molar volume and interaction energy between O-2 and the salt anion. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of O-2 concentration, not just its partial pressure, and that the choice of Li salt can make this concentration increase or decrease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225314 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b09218 (DOI)000424316200004 ()2-s2.0-85041444544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180404

Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Bouzek, K., Cornell, A. M. & Rodrigo, M. A. (2018). Preface on the special issue 2nd workshop on electrochemical engineering: new bridges for a new knowledge on electrochemical engineering. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 48(12), 1305-1306
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preface on the special issue 2nd workshop on electrochemical engineering: new bridges for a new knowledge on electrochemical engineering
2018 (English)In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, ISSN 0021-891X, E-ISSN 1572-8838, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 1305-1306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247019 (URN)10.1007/s10800-018-1264-5 (DOI)000452362900001 ()2-s2.0-85055699789 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190626

Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Endrodi, B., Simic, N., Wildlock, M. & Cornell, A. M. (2017). A review of chromium(VI) use in chlorate electrolysis: Functions, challenges and suggested alternatives. Electrochimica Acta, 234, 108-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of chromium(VI) use in chlorate electrolysis: Functions, challenges and suggested alternatives
2017 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 234, p. 108-122Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sodium chlorate is industrially produced by electrolysis of an aqueous salt solution, in which chromium ( VI) constitutes an important excipient component. It is added to a concentration of a few grams Na2Cr2O7/ liter to the electrolyte and has several functions in the process, the most important being to increase the Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen evolution in the undivided electrochemical cells. A thin film of Cr(OH)(3) x nH(2)O formed by reductive deposition on the cathodes decreases the rate of unwanted side reactions, while still enabling hydrogen evolution to occur. In addition chromium(VI) buffers the electrolyte at the optimum pH for operation and promotes the desired homogeneous reactions in the electrolyte bulk. Chromium species also affect the rates of hydrogen and oxygen evolution at the electrodes and are said to protect the steel cathodes from corrosion. Although chromium(VI) stays in a closed loop during chlorate production, chromate is a highly toxic compound and new REACH legislation therefore intends to phase out its use in Europe from 2017. A production without chromium(VI), with no other process modifications is not possible, and today there are no commercially available alternatives to its addition. Thus, there is an urgent need for European chlorate producers to find solutions to this problem. It is expected that chromium-free production will be a requirement also in other parts of the world, following the European example. As the chromium(VI) addition affects the chlorate process in many ways its replacement might require a combination of solutions targeting each function separately. The aim of this paper is to explain the role and importance of chromium(VI) in the chlorate manufacturing process. Previous achievements in its replacement are summarized and critically evaluated to expose the current state of the field, and to highlight the most promising avenues to be followed. An attempt is also made to reveal connections with other research fields (e.g. photochemical water splitting, corrosion science) facing similar problems. Allied effort of these different communities is expected to open up research avenues to the mutual benefit of these fields.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
chlorate electrolysis, cathode selectivity, hydrogen evolution reaction, chromate, oxygen tolerant cathode
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206244 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2017.02.150 (DOI)000398328800014 ()2-s2.0-85015650484 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170515

Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved
Sandin, S., Cheritat, A., Backström, J. & Cornell, A. M. (2017). Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 7(1), 51-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes
2017 (English)In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO) electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O, SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O, SbCl3 and NiCl2 center dot 6H(2)O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)0 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)0 instead of SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O where the tin loss occurs from 56 - 147 degrees C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 - 110 degrees C) and calcination (460 - 550 degrees C) steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
INT ASSOC PHYSICAL CHEMISTS-IAPC, 2017
Keywords
NATO, ATO, tin chloride precursor, thermal decomposition, TGA, deposition, efficiency, dopant enrichment, ozone electrocatalysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214910 (URN)10.5599/jese.374 (DOI)000409210400005 ()
Note

QC 20171020

Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-10-20 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5816-2924

Search in DiVA

Show all publications