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Gomez, Y. A., Oyarce, A., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2018). Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(3), F189-F197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 3, p. F189-F197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reformate hydrogen from biogas is an attractive fuel alternative for energy conversion in PEM fuel cells. However, in the reformate traces of ammonia may be found, e.g. if the biogas is produced from agricultural resources. In this investigation the effect of ammonia in the fuel gas, on each part of the fuel cell, is studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), symmetrical hydrogen cell (H2|H2)- and real fuel cell operation. A considerable degradation in performance is observed by introducing 200 ppm ammonia. The results show that ammonia not only affects the polymer electrolyte membrane but also the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes, whereas the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is the worst affected. In the short-term, the performance is reversible if running the cell on neat hydrogen after ammonia exposure, but this does not apply for long-term exposure. A mitigation method with air bleed is tested but gives no improvement of the performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2018
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225020 (URN)10.1149/2.0761803jes (DOI)2-s2.0-85043771326 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20180328

Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Bessman, A., Soares, R., Vadivelu, S., Wallmark, O., Svens, P., Ekström, H. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), 65(6), 4750-4757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 4750-4757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2018
Keyword
Fast charging, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, sinusoidal ripple charging
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223315 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2017.2772160 (DOI)000425618900031 ()2-s2.0-85034238750 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180222

Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-03-14Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A. S., Klett, M., Lindbergh, G. & Wreland Lindström, R. (2018). Effects of external pressure on the performance and ageing of single-layer lithium-ion pouch cells. Journal of Power Sources, 385, 18-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of external pressure on the performance and ageing of single-layer lithium-ion pouch cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 385, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of external compression on the performance and ageing of NMC(1/3)/Graphite single-layer Li-ion pouch cells are investigated using a spring-loaded fixture. The influence of pressure (0.66, 0.99, 1.32, and 1.98 MPa) on impedance is characterized in fresh cells that are subsequently cycled at the given pressure levels. The aged cells are analyzed for capacity fade and impedance rise at the cell and electrode level. The effect of pressure distribution that may occur in large-format cells or in a battery pack is simulated using parallel connected cells. The results show that the kinetic and mass transport resistance increases with pressure in a fresh cell. An optimum pressure around 1.3 MPa is shown to be beneficial to reduce cyclable-lithium loss during cycling. The minor active mass losses observed in the electrodes are independent of the ageing pressure, whereas ageing pressure affects the charge transfer resistance of both NMC and graphite electrodes and the ohmic resistance of the cell. Pressure distribution induces current distribution but the enhanced current throughput at lower pressures cell does not accelerate its ageing. Conclusions from this work can explain some of the discrepancies in non-uniform ageing reported in the literature and indicate coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keyword
Current distribution, Lithium-ion battery, Mechanics, Non-uniform ageing, Pressure
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224547 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.03.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85043458948 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 30770-3StandUp
Note

QC 20180321

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Endrodi, B., Avall, G., Johansson, P., Cornell, A. M. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122(4), 1913-1920
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery
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2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 1913-1920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the promising Li-O-2 battery to be commercialized, further understanding of its constituents is needed. This study deals with the role of O-2 in Li-O-2 batteries, both its influence on electrochemical performance and its solubility in lithium-salt-containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes. Experimentally, the electrochemical performance was evaluated using cylindrical ultramicroelectrodes. Two independent techniques, using a mass spectrometer and an optical sensor, were used to evaluate the O-2 solubility, expressed as Henry's constant. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and density were also measured. Density functional theory calculations were made of the interaction energy between O-2 and the different species in the electrolytes. When varying O-2 partial pressure, the current was larger at high pressures confirming that the O-2 concentration is of key importance when studying the kinetics of this system. Compared with neat DMSO, the O-2 solubility increased with addition of LiTFSI and decreased with addition of LiClO4, indicating that the salt influences the solubility. This solubility trend is best explained in terms of apparent molar volume and interaction energy between O-2 and the salt anion. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of O-2 concentration, not just its partial pressure, and that the choice of Li salt can make this concentration increase or decrease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225314 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b09218 (DOI)000424316200004 ()2-s2.0-85041444544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180404

Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-17
Nowak, A., Hagberg, J., Leijonmarck, S., Schweinebarth, H., Baker, D., Uhlin, A., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2018). Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes. Holzforschung, 72(2), 81-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000 degrees C to 1700 degrees C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C have a capacity of 335 mAh g(-1). All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2018
Keyword
lignin-based carbon fibers, lithium-ion battery, melt-spinning, multifunctional, softwood kraft lignin
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222403 (URN)10.1515/hf-2017-0044 (DOI)000423540500001 ()
Note

QC 20180219

Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-04-17
Lindberg, J., Lundgren, H., Lindbergh, G. & Behm, M. (2017). Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 7(4), 213-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries
2017 (English)In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity similar to 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association of Physical Chemists (IAPC), 2017
Keyword
Li-ion battery, Li-O-2 battery, Room temperature ionic liquid, Diffusion resistivity, Electrolyte mass transport resistivity
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221414 (URN)10.5599/jese.408 (DOI)000419148300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20180116

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Guccini, V., Kim, H., Salazar-Alvarez, G., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2017). Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(43), 37712-37720
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 43, p. 37712-37720Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (ISSO mu mol g(-1)) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g(-1) even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218223 (URN)10.1021/acsami.7b10307 (DOI)000414506600023 ()28972727 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032657306 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171128

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A. S., Klett, M., Behm, M., Lindbergh, G. & Lindström, R. W. (2017). Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study. Journal of Energy Storage, 13, 325-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 13, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At electric vehicle fast-charging stations, it is generally recommended to avoid charging beyond similar to 80% State-of-Charge (SOC) since topping-off to full capacity disproportionately increases the charging time. This necessitates studying its long-term impact compared to slower rate charging to full capacity typical of home or residential charging. Here we present the long-term ageing effects on commercial 18650 NMC-LMO/graphite cell cycled between 2.6-4.2 V at three different charging protocols: 1.5 C-rate fast-partial charging ( to 82.5% SOC), 0.5 C-rate slow standard charging without or with a constant-voltage step (to 93% or 100% SOC). Quantitative discharge-curve and postmortem analyses are used to evaluate ageing. The results show that ageing rate increases in the order: fast-partial charging < standard charging < standard charging with constant-voltage period, indicating that higher SOC-range near full capacity is more detrimental to battery life than fast-charging. The capacity fade is totally dominated by cyclable-lithium loss. The similar to 8% NMC-LMO active material loss has negligible impact on the cell capacity fade due to the electrodes excess material in the fresh cell and its moderate loss rate with ageing compared to the cyclable-lithium. Similar ageing modes in terms of capacity fade and impedance rise are found irrespective of the charging protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Fast-charging, Charging to partial SOC, Non-destructive analysis, Lithium-ion battery ageing, Battery management, Charging protocol
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220495 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2017.07.004 (DOI)000417183300033 ()2-s2.0-85028014032 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20171222

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Benavente-Araoz, F., Lundblad, A., Campana, P. E., Zhang, Y., Cabrera, S. & Lindbergh, G. (2017). Loss-of-load probability analysis for optimization of small off-grid PV-battery systems in Bolivia. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017 (pp. 3715-3720). Elsevier, 142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loss-of-load probability analysis for optimization of small off-grid PV-battery systems in Bolivia
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 3715-3720Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates the use of energy storage technologies coupled to renewable energy sources in rural electrification as a way to address the energy access challenge. Characteristic energy demanding applications will differently affect the operating conditions for off-grid renewable energy systems. This paper discusses and evaluates simulated photovoltaic power output and battery state of charge profiles, using estimated climate data and electricity load profiles for the Altiplanic highland location of Patacamaya in Bolivia to determine the loss of load probability as optimization parameter. Simulations are performed for three rural applications: household, school, and health center. Increase in battery size prevents risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. Moreover, increase of PV module size leads to energy excess conditions for the system reducing its efficiency. The results obtained here are important for the application of off-grid PV-battery systems design in rural electrification projects, as an efficient and reliable source of electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 142
Keyword
Energy storage, Li ion batteries, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Rural Electrification, State of Charge
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224416 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.266 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041497614 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2017, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 21 August 2017 through 24 August 2017
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Note

QC 20180316

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Soares, R., Bessman, A., Wallmark, O., Lindbergh, G. & Svens, P. (2017). Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle. In: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017 (pp. 45-50). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 45-50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the harmonic content of the battery current in a commercial hybrid vehicle (bus) is measured and analyzed for a number of different driving situations. It is found that the most prominent harmonic reaches peak magnitudes that can be higher than 10% of the maximum dc-current level with a maximum frequency less than 150 Hz. Further, it is found that this harmonic can be approximated using a fitted, simple analytical expression with reasonable agreement for all driving situations considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Keyword
DC-link, Harmonic currents, Hybrid vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Permanent-magnet synchronous machine, Ripple, Voltage source inverter, Commercial vehicles, Electric batteries, Electric inverters, Electric utilities, Harmonic analysis, Lithium compounds, Permanent magnets, Secondary batteries, Vehicles, DC links, Permanent magnet synchronous machines
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216277 (URN)10.1109/ITEC.2017.7993245 (DOI)000427121300009 ()2-s2.0-85028594346 (Scopus ID)9781509039043 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017
Note

QC 20171213

Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9203-9313

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