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Publications (10 of 274) Show all publications
Bessman, A., Soares, R., Wallmark, O., Svens, P. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells. Journal of Energy Storage, 21, 741-749
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 21, p. 741-749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the vehicle industry poised to take the step into the era of electric vehicles, concerns have been raised that AC harmonics arising from switching of power electronics and harmonics in electric machinery may damage the battery. In light of this, we have studied the effect of several different frequencies on the aging of 28 Ah commercial NMC/graphite prismatic lithium-ion battery cells. The tested frequencies are 1 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1 kHz, all with a peak amplitude of 21 A. Both the effect on cycled cells and calendar aged cells is tested. The cycled cells are cycled at a rate of 1C:1C, i.e., 28 A during both charging and discharging, with the exception of a period of constant voltage at the end of every charge. After running for one year, the cycled cells have completed approximately 2000 cycles. The cells are characterized periodically to follow how their capacities and power capabilities evolve. After completion of the test about 80% of the initial capacity remained and no increase in resistance was observed. No negative effect on either capacity fade or power fade is observed in this study, and no difference in aging mechanism is detected when using non-invasive electrochemical methods of post mortem investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Lithium-ion, ripple-current, harmonics, aging
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241643 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2018.12.016 (DOI)000459203100066 ()2-s2.0-85060290744 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190125

Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A., Liivat, A., Marzano, F., Klett, M., Philippe, B., Tengstedt, C., . . . Svens, P. (2019). Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells. Journal of Power Sources, 422, 175-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 422, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reactions in energy-optimized 25 Ah prismatic NMC/graphite lithium-ion cell, as a function of fast charging (1C-4C), are more complex than earlier described. There are no clear charging rate dependent trends but rather different mechanisms dominating at the different charging rates. Ageing processes are faster at 3 and 4C charging. Cycling with 3C-charging results in accelerated lithium plating but the 4C-charging results in extensive gas evolution that contribute significantly to the large cell impedance rise. Graphite exfoliation and accelerated lithium inventory loss point to the graphite electrode as the source of the gas evolution. The results are based on careful post-mortem analyses of electrodes using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM results show particle cracking independent of the charging rate used for the cycling. XPS and EIS generally indicate thicker surface film and larger impedance, respectively, towards the edge of the jellyrolls. For the intended application of a battery electric inner-city bus using this type of cell, charging rates of 3C and above are not feasible, considering battery lifetime. However, charging rates of 2C and below are too slow from the point of view of practical charging time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Fast charging, Lithium-ion battery, Ageing, Energy battery, Electric vehicle
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252373 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.02.095 (DOI)000465365900021 ()2-s2.0-85063095386 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190610

Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2019). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant. Journal of energy resources technology, 141(1), Article ID 012002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant
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2019 (English)In: Journal of energy resources technology, ISSN 0195-0738, E-ISSN 1528-8994, Vol. 141, no 1, article id 012002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts, and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result, a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into synthetic natural gas (SNG). A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of syngas produced. Internal rate of return (IRR) is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that, depending on process configuration, the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50-60% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e., for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBi-Gas plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2019
Keywords
Electrolysis, Molten-carbonate, Process integration, Renewable electricity, SNG, Techno-economics, Biomass, Earnings, Gas plants, Gasification, Natural gasoline plants, Sulfur compounds, Synthesis gas, Internal rate of return, Molten carbonate, Operational parameters, Pressure and temperature, Synthetic natural gas, Natural gas conditioning
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236341 (URN)10.1115/1.4040942 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052065806 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish InstituteThe Kempe Foundations
Note

QC 20181109

Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Kim, H., Guccini, V., Lu, H., Salazar-Alvarez, G., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2019). Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood. ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, 2(2), 1241-1250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood
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2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1241-1250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers, prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TOCN), were processed into asymmetric mesoporous membranes using a facile paper-making approach and investigated as lithium ion battery separators. Membranes made of TOCN with sodium carboxylate groups (TOCN-COO-Na+) showed capacity fading after a few cycles of charging and discharging. On the other hand, its protonated counterpart (TOCN-COOH) showed highly improved electrochemical and cycling stability, displaying 94.5% of discharge capacity maintained after 100 cycles at 1 C rate of charging and discharging. The asymmetric surface porosity of the membranes must be considered when assembling a battery cell as it influences the rate capabilities of the battery. The wood-based TOCN-membranes have a good potential as an ecofriendly alternative to conventional fossil fuel-derived separators without adverse side effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
cellulose, Li-ion batteries, separator, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose, protonation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246267 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b01797 (DOI)000459948900036 ()2-s2.0-85064990880 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Benavente Araoz, F. A., Lundblad, A., Campana, P. E., Zhang, Y., Cabrera, S. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 21-24, 2017, Cardiff, WALES. Applied Energy, 235, 519-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect
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2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on the reliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumption profiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulation framework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supply probability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of charge profiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine how reliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: a household, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, to overcome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the battery capacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles are performed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase in battery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in rural electrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Photovoltaic, Energy storage, State of charge, Renewable energy, Rural electrification, Li ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246274 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.084 (DOI)000458942800043 ()2-s2.0-85056217184 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 21-24, 2017, Cardiff, WALES
Note

QC 20190325

Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, B., Grimler, H., Carlson, A., Ekström, H., Wreland Lindström, R., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2019). Quantifying water transport in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. International journal of hydrogen energy, 44(10), 4930-4939
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying water transport in anion exchange membrane fuel cells
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2019 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 4930-4939Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sufficient water transport through the membrane is necessary for a well-performing anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). In this study, the water flux through a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), using a Tokuyama A201 membrane, is quantified using humidity sensors at the in- and outlet on both sides of the MEA. Experiments performed in humidified inert gas at both sides of the MEA or with liquid water at one side shows that the aggregation state of water has a large impact on the transport properties. The water fluxes are shown to be approximately three times larger for a membrane in contact with liquid water compared to vaporous. Further, the flux during fuel cell operation is investigated and shows that the transport rate of water in the membrane is affected by an applied current. The water vapor content increases on both the anode and cathode side of the AEMFC for all investigated current densities. Through modeling, an apparent water drag coefficient is determined to −0.64, indicating that the current-induced transport of water occurs in the opposite direction to the transport of hydroxide ions. These results implicate that flooding, on one or both electrodes, is a larger concern than dry-out in an AEMFC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anion exchange membrane fuel cell, Fuel cells, Relative humidity sensor, Water transport model
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244325 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.12.185 (DOI)000459837700036 ()2-s2.0-85060083256 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Gomez, Y. A., Oyarce, A., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2018). Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(3), F189-F197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 3, p. F189-F197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reformate hydrogen from biogas is an attractive fuel alternative for energy conversion in PEM fuel cells. However, in the reformate traces of ammonia may be found, e.g. if the biogas is produced from agricultural resources. In this investigation the effect of ammonia in the fuel gas, on each part of the fuel cell, is studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), symmetrical hydrogen cell (H2|H2)- and real fuel cell operation. A considerable degradation in performance is observed by introducing 200 ppm ammonia. The results show that ammonia not only affects the polymer electrolyte membrane but also the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes, whereas the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is the worst affected. In the short-term, the performance is reversible if running the cell on neat hydrogen after ammonia exposure, but this does not apply for long-term exposure. A mitigation method with air bleed is tested but gives no improvement of the performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2018
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225020 (URN)10.1149/2.0761803jes (DOI)000431790700083 ()2-s2.0-85043771326 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20180328

Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Soares, R., Bessman, A., Wallmark, O., Lindbergh, G. & Svens, P. (2018). An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Batteries-Basel, 4(3), Article ID 38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
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2018 (English)In: Batteries-Basel, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the majority of applications using lithium-ion batteries, batteries are exposed to some harmonic content apart from the main charging/discharging current. The understanding of the effects that alternating currents have on batteries requires specific characterization methods and accurate measurement equipment. The lack of commercial battery testers with high alternating current capability simultaneously to the ability of operating at frequencies above 200 Hz, led to the design of the presented experimental setup. Additionally, the experimental setup expands the state-of-the-art of lithium-ion batteries testers by incorporating relevant lithium-ion battery cell characterization routines, namely hybrid pulse power current, incremental capacity analysis and galvanic intermittent titration technique. In this paper the hardware and the measurement capabilities of the experimental setup are presented. Moreover, the measurements errors due to the setup’s instruments were analysed to ensure lithium-ion batteries cell characterization quality. Finally, this paper presents preliminary results of capacity fade tests where 28 Ah cells were cycled with and without the injection of 21 A alternating at 1 kHz. Up to 300 cycles, no significant fade in cell capacity may be measured, meaning that alternating currents may not be as harmful for lithium-ion batteries as considered so far.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
alternating current, aging, battery testing, electric vehicles, GITT, HPPC, life cycle, lithium-ion batteries, ripple, SOC
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233339 (URN)10.3390/batteries4030038 (DOI)000445206100009 ()
Note

QC 20180816

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Xu, J., Lindbergh, G. & Varna, J. (2018). Carbon fiber composites with battery function: Stresses and dimensional changes due to Li-ion diffusion. Journal of composite materials, 52(20), 2729-2742
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fiber composites with battery function: Stresses and dimensional changes due to Li-ion diffusion
2018 (English)In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 2729-2742Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural composite materials that simultaneously carry mechanical loads, while storing electrical energy offers the potential of significantly reduced total component weight owing to the multifunctionality. In the suggested micro-battery, the carbon fiber is employed as a negative electrode of the battery and also as a composite reinforcement material. It is coated with a solid polymer electrolyte working as an ion conductor and separator while transferring mechanical loads. The coated fiber is surrounded by a conductive positive electrode material matrix. This paper demonstrates a computational methodology for addressing mechanical stresses arising in a conceptualized micro-battery and dimensional changes of the cell during electrochemical cycling, caused by time-dependent gradients in lithium ion concentration distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Micro-battery, carbon fibers, lithium ion, intercalation, swelling, stress state
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233420 (URN)10.1177/0021998317752825 (DOI)000441034800003 ()2-s2.0-85051282917 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37712-1
Note

QC 20180820

Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Bessman, A., Soares, R., Vadivelu, S., Wallmark, O., Svens, P., Ekström, H. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), 65(6), 4750-4757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 4750-4757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2018
Keywords
Fast charging, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, sinusoidal ripple charging
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223315 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2017.2772160 (DOI)000425618900031 ()2-s2.0-85034238750 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180222

Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9203-9313

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