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Bessman, A., Soares, R., Wallmark, O., Svens, P. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells. Journal of Energy Storage, 21, 741-749
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 21, p. 741-749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the vehicle industry poised to take the step into the era of electric vehicles, concerns have been raised that AC harmonics arising from switching of power electronics and harmonics in electric machinery may damage the battery. In light of this, we have studied the effect of several different frequencies on the aging of 28 Ah commercial NMC/graphite prismatic lithium-ion battery cells. The tested frequencies are 1 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1 kHz, all with a peak amplitude of 21 A. Both the effect on cycled cells and calendar aged cells is tested. The cycled cells are cycled at a rate of 1C:1C, i.e., 28 A during both charging and discharging, with the exception of a period of constant voltage at the end of every charge. After running for one year, the cycled cells have completed approximately 2000 cycles. The cells are characterized periodically to follow how their capacities and power capabilities evolve. After completion of the test about 80% of the initial capacity remained and no increase in resistance was observed. No negative effect on either capacity fade or power fade is observed in this study, and no difference in aging mechanism is detected when using non-invasive electrochemical methods of post mortem investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Lithium-ion, ripple-current, harmonics, aging
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241643 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2018.12.016 (DOI)000459203100066 ()2-s2.0-85060290744 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190125

Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
Zenkert, D., Lindbergh, G. & Johansson, M. (2019). Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting. In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22: . Paper presented at International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting
2019 (English)In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reduced mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for a wide range of applications that requires electrical energy and includes load-bearing components. Use of lightweight materials has been identified as key for successful electrification of future transport solutions. Structure, energy storage and energy distribution are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage and energy distribution devices are structurally parasitic. One creative path forward is to develop composite materials that perform several functions at the same time – multifunctional materials. Combining functions in a single material entity will enable substantial weight savings on the systems level.

One such concept is a structural battery, a material that simultaneously carry load and stores energy like a battery. Structural batteries employ carbon fibres as structural reinforcement and negative electrode and can also be used as current collectors to save additional weight.

A number of new physical phenomena when using carbon fibres as battery electrodes have been found which allows for further multi-functionality. These are all based on the fact that carbon fibres intercalated lithium ions as an electrode material. The ion intercalation creates a reversible longitudinal expansion of the carbon fibres which could be used for actuation and morphing. A piezo electrochemical effect couples the electrical potential of the fibre to the strain acting on it, which can be used for sensing purposes. By combining the expansion and the piezo electrochemical effect one can convert mechanical energy to electrochemical energy, providing an energy harvesting function. The long-term vision of this work is to create a composite material that carries load, stores electrical energy, senses its own state, morphs and harvests energy.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257966 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03898EU, Horizon 2020, 738085
Note

QC 20191015

Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A., Liivat, A., Marzano, F., Klett, M., Philippe, B., Tengstedt, C., . . . Svens, P. (2019). Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells. Journal of Power Sources, 422, 175-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-charging effects on ageing for energy-optimized automotive LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite prismatic lithium-ion cells
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 422, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reactions in energy-optimized 25 Ah prismatic NMC/graphite lithium-ion cell, as a function of fast charging (1C-4C), are more complex than earlier described. There are no clear charging rate dependent trends but rather different mechanisms dominating at the different charging rates. Ageing processes are faster at 3 and 4C charging. Cycling with 3C-charging results in accelerated lithium plating but the 4C-charging results in extensive gas evolution that contribute significantly to the large cell impedance rise. Graphite exfoliation and accelerated lithium inventory loss point to the graphite electrode as the source of the gas evolution. The results are based on careful post-mortem analyses of electrodes using: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). SEM results show particle cracking independent of the charging rate used for the cycling. XPS and EIS generally indicate thicker surface film and larger impedance, respectively, towards the edge of the jellyrolls. For the intended application of a battery electric inner-city bus using this type of cell, charging rates of 3C and above are not feasible, considering battery lifetime. However, charging rates of 2C and below are too slow from the point of view of practical charging time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Fast charging, Lithium-ion battery, Ageing, Energy battery, Electric vehicle
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252373 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.02.095 (DOI)000465365900021 ()2-s2.0-85063095386 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190610

Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-06-10 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2019). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant. Journal of energy resources technology, 141(1), Article ID 012002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-synthetic natural gas plant
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2019 (English)In: Journal of energy resources technology, ISSN 0195-0738, E-ISSN 1528-8994, Vol. 141, no 1, article id 012002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts, and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result, a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into synthetic natural gas (SNG). A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of syngas produced. Internal rate of return (IRR) is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that, depending on process configuration, the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50-60% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e., for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBi-Gas plant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2019
Keywords
Electrolysis, Molten-carbonate, Process integration, Renewable electricity, SNG, Techno-economics, Biomass, Earnings, Gas plants, Gasification, Natural gasoline plants, Sulfur compounds, Synthesis gas, Internal rate of return, Molten carbonate, Operational parameters, Pressure and temperature, Synthetic natural gas, Natural gas conditioning
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236341 (URN)10.1115/1.4040942 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052065806 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish InstituteThe Kempe Foundations
Note

QC 20181109

Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
Kim, H., Guccini, V., Lu, H., Salazar-Alvarez, G., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2019). Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood. ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, 2(2), 1241-1250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium Ion Battery Separators Based On Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers From Wood
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2019 (English)In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 1241-1250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers, prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation (TOCN), were processed into asymmetric mesoporous membranes using a facile paper-making approach and investigated as lithium ion battery separators. Membranes made of TOCN with sodium carboxylate groups (TOCN-COO-Na+) showed capacity fading after a few cycles of charging and discharging. On the other hand, its protonated counterpart (TOCN-COOH) showed highly improved electrochemical and cycling stability, displaying 94.5% of discharge capacity maintained after 100 cycles at 1 C rate of charging and discharging. The asymmetric surface porosity of the membranes must be considered when assembling a battery cell as it influences the rate capabilities of the battery. The wood-based TOCN-membranes have a good potential as an ecofriendly alternative to conventional fossil fuel-derived separators without adverse side effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
cellulose, Li-ion batteries, separator, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose, protonation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246267 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b01797 (DOI)000459948900036 ()2-s2.0-85064990880 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W. & Zenkert, D. (2019). Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings. Multifunctional Materials, Article ID 035002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings
2019 (English)In: Multifunctional Materials, ISSN 2399-7532, article id 035002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries are materials that can carry mechanical load while storing electrical energy. This is achieved by combining the properties of carbon fiber composites and lithium ion batteries. There are many design parameters for a structural battery and in order to understand their impact and importance, this paper presents a model for multifunctional performance. The mechanical behavior and electrical energy storage of the structural battery are matched to the mechanical behavior of a conventional carbon fiber composite, and the electrical energy storage of a standard lithium ion battery. The latter are both monofunctional and have known performance and mass. In order to calculate the benefit of using structural batteries, the mass of the structural battery is compared to that of the two monofunctional systems. There is often an inverse relationship between the mechanical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional materials, in order to understand these relationships a sensitivity analysis is performed on variables for the structural battery. This gives new insight into the complex multifunctional design of structural batteries.

The results show that it is possible to save mass compared to monofunctional systems but that it depends strongly on the structure it is compared with. With improvements to the design of the structural battery it would be possible to achieve mass saving compared to state-of-the-art composite laminates and lithium ion batteries.

Keywords
multifunctional material, modelling, multifunctional efficiency, weight saving
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258202 (URN)10.1088/2399-7532/ab3bdd (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014-4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A multifunctional structural battery consisting of carbon fibers, lithium-electrode coatings and a structural battery electrolyte is investigated with an analytical bottom-up model. This model has a multiphysics approach, calculating both mechanical properties and electrical energy storage. The intention of the model is twofold; first, calculating the potential mass saving with using a structural battery instead of the combination of a monofunctional carbon fiber composite and a monofunctional lithium ion battery. Second, the model is used to investigate the behavior of the mass saving due to changing variables of the structural battery. This variable sensitivity analysis is made in order to understand the behavior of the structural battery and its sensitivity to the different construction variables. The results show that the structural battery can save up to 26% of mass compared to the monofunctional parts.

Next, the model of the structural battery is further utilized in a life cycle assessment, where the manufacturing, usage and recycling of the structural battery is investigated. The life cycle assessment examines the structural battery as the roof of an electric vehicle. This analysis is compared to the same assessment for a steel roof and standard lithium ion batteries, which shows that manufacturing the carbon fibers and structural battery with clean energy is most important for decreasing the emissions from manufacturing.

Keywords
mass saving, structural battery, life cycle assessment, LCA
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258215 (URN)
Conference
22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014- 4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Benavente Araoz, F. A., Lundblad, A., Campana, P. E., Zhang, Y., Cabrera, S. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 21-24, 2017, Cardiff, WALES. Applied Energy, 235, 519-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect
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2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on the reliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumption profiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulation framework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supply probability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of charge profiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine how reliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: a household, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, to overcome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the battery capacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles are performed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase in battery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in rural electrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Photovoltaic, Energy storage, State of charge, Renewable energy, Rural electrification, Li ion batteries
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246274 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.10.084 (DOI)000458942800043 ()2-s2.0-85056217184 (Scopus ID)
Conference
9th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 21-24, 2017, Cardiff, WALES
Note

QC 20190325

Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Ko, J. Y., Varini, M., Ekström, H., Klett, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Porous Electrode Model with Particle Stress Effects for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 Electrode. Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Porous Electrode Model with Particle Stress Effects for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 Electrode
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A porous electrode model, incorporating particle stress effects, is developed for the electrode kinetic processes in the positive Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 or NMC111 electrode. The model is used to analyze experimental data from galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) during charging at the beginning of life. The equilibrium potential accounts for the influence of mechanical stress in the electrode particles. While the standard Newman-based model proves unable to capture the dynamic performance of NMC111, the extended model with stress allows good fits of the GITT responses for NMC half cells for a voltage range from 3.7–4.1 V vs Li/Li+ at 10°C, 25°C and 40°C. Four physical parameters are extracted to analyze the underlying diffusive, kinetic, thermodynamic and stress phenomena from polarization to relaxation during a GITT transient. Strong dependencies of the kinetic rate constant k, slope of the open-circuit potential curve dEconc/dxpos and stress proportionality factor ϒstress with lithium concentration are found. The effective diffusion coefficients Ds,eff are ∼10−14 – 10−13 cm2/s across voltages and temperatures. Diffusion limitation and particle surface stress are more profound at higher voltages and at higher temperatures. This leads to large lithium concentration gradient near particle surface, requiring longer relaxation time during GITT.

Keywords
Batteries - Lithium, Electrode Kinetics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256548 (URN)10.1149/2.0661913jes (DOI)000483501000003 ()
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, B., Grimler, H., Carlson, A., Ekström, H., Wreland Lindström, R., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2019). Quantifying water transport in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. International journal of hydrogen energy, 44(10), 4930-4939
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying water transport in anion exchange membrane fuel cells
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2019 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 4930-4939Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sufficient water transport through the membrane is necessary for a well-performing anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). In this study, the water flux through a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), using a Tokuyama A201 membrane, is quantified using humidity sensors at the in- and outlet on both sides of the MEA. Experiments performed in humidified inert gas at both sides of the MEA or with liquid water at one side shows that the aggregation state of water has a large impact on the transport properties. The water fluxes are shown to be approximately three times larger for a membrane in contact with liquid water compared to vaporous. Further, the flux during fuel cell operation is investigated and shows that the transport rate of water in the membrane is affected by an applied current. The water vapor content increases on both the anode and cathode side of the AEMFC for all investigated current densities. Through modeling, an apparent water drag coefficient is determined to −0.64, indicating that the current-induced transport of water occurs in the opposite direction to the transport of hydroxide ions. These results implicate that flooding, on one or both electrodes, is a larger concern than dry-out in an AEMFC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Anion exchange membrane fuel cell, Fuel cells, Relative humidity sensor, Water transport model
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244325 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.12.185 (DOI)000459837700036 ()2-s2.0-85060083256 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9203-9313

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