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Gomez, Y. A., Oyarce, A., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2018). Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(3), F189-F197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ammonia contamination of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 3, p. F189-F197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reformate hydrogen from biogas is an attractive fuel alternative for energy conversion in PEM fuel cells. However, in the reformate traces of ammonia may be found, e.g. if the biogas is produced from agricultural resources. In this investigation the effect of ammonia in the fuel gas, on each part of the fuel cell, is studied by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), symmetrical hydrogen cell (H2|H2)- and real fuel cell operation. A considerable degradation in performance is observed by introducing 200 ppm ammonia. The results show that ammonia not only affects the polymer electrolyte membrane but also the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and catalyst ionomer in both electrodes, whereas the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) is the worst affected. In the short-term, the performance is reversible if running the cell on neat hydrogen after ammonia exposure, but this does not apply for long-term exposure. A mitigation method with air bleed is tested but gives no improvement of the performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2018
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225020 (URN)10.1149/2.0761803jes (DOI)000431790700083000431790700083 ()2-s2.0-85043771326 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20180328

Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Soares, R., Bessman, A., Wallmark, O., Lindbergh, G. & Svens, P. (2018). An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Batteries-Basel, 4(3), Article ID 38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
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2018 (English)In: Batteries-Basel, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the majority of applications using lithium-ion batteries, batteries are exposed to some harmonic content apart from the main charging/discharging current. The understanding of the effects that alternating currents have on batteries requires specific characterization methods and accurate measurement equipment. The lack of commercial battery testers with high alternating current capability simultaneously to the ability of operating at frequencies above 200 Hz, led to the design of the presented experimental setup. Additionally, the experimental setup expands the state-of-the-art of lithium-ion batteries testers by incorporating relevant lithium-ion battery cell characterization routines, namely hybrid pulse power current, incremental capacity analysis and galvanic intermittent titration technique. In this paper the hardware and the measurement capabilities of the experimental setup are presented. Moreover, the measurements errors due to the setup’s instruments were analysed to ensure lithium-ion batteries cell characterization quality. Finally, this paper presents preliminary results of capacity fade tests where 28 Ah cells were cycled with and without the injection of 21 A alternating at 1 kHz. Up to 300 cycles, no significant fade in cell capacity may be measured, meaning that alternating currents may not be as harmful for lithium-ion batteries as considered so far.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
alternating current, aging, battery testing, electric vehicles, GITT, HPPC, life cycle, lithium-ion batteries, ripple, SOC
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233339 (URN)10.3390/batteries4030038 (DOI)000445206100009 ()
Note

QC 20180816

Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Xu, J., Lindbergh, G. & Varna, J. (2018). Carbon fiber composites with battery function: Stresses and dimensional changes due to Li-ion diffusion. Journal of composite materials, 52(20), 2729-2742
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fiber composites with battery function: Stresses and dimensional changes due to Li-ion diffusion
2018 (English)In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 52, no 20, p. 2729-2742Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural composite materials that simultaneously carry mechanical loads, while storing electrical energy offers the potential of significantly reduced total component weight owing to the multifunctionality. In the suggested micro-battery, the carbon fiber is employed as a negative electrode of the battery and also as a composite reinforcement material. It is coated with a solid polymer electrolyte working as an ion conductor and separator while transferring mechanical loads. The coated fiber is surrounded by a conductive positive electrode material matrix. This paper demonstrates a computational methodology for addressing mechanical stresses arising in a conceptualized micro-battery and dimensional changes of the cell during electrochemical cycling, caused by time-dependent gradients in lithium ion concentration distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Micro-battery, carbon fibers, lithium ion, intercalation, swelling, stress state
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233420 (URN)10.1177/0021998317752825 (DOI)000441034800003 ()2-s2.0-85051282917 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37712-1
Note

QC 20180820

Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Bessman, A., Soares, R., Vadivelu, S., Wallmark, O., Svens, P., Ekström, H. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries. IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), 65(6), 4750-4757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 4750-4757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2018
Keywords
Fast charging, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, sinusoidal ripple charging
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223315 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2017.2772160 (DOI)000425618900031 ()2-s2.0-85034238750 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180222

Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A. S., Klett, M., Lindbergh, G. & Wreland Lindström, R. (2018). Effects of external pressure on the performance and ageing of single-layer lithium-ion pouch cells. Journal of Power Sources, 385, 18-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of external pressure on the performance and ageing of single-layer lithium-ion pouch cells
2018 (English)In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 385, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of external compression on the performance and ageing of NMC(1/3)/Graphite single-layer Li-ion pouch cells are investigated using a spring-loaded fixture. The influence of pressure (0.66, 0.99, 1.32, and 1.98 MPa) on impedance is characterized in fresh cells that are subsequently cycled at the given pressure levels. The aged cells are analyzed for capacity fade and impedance rise at the cell and electrode level. The effect of pressure distribution that may occur in large-format cells or in a battery pack is simulated using parallel connected cells. The results show that the kinetic and mass transport resistance increases with pressure in a fresh cell. An optimum pressure around 1.3 MPa is shown to be beneficial to reduce cyclable-lithium loss during cycling. The minor active mass losses observed in the electrodes are independent of the ageing pressure, whereas ageing pressure affects the charge transfer resistance of both NMC and graphite electrodes and the ohmic resistance of the cell. Pressure distribution induces current distribution but the enhanced current throughput at lower pressures cell does not accelerate its ageing. Conclusions from this work can explain some of the discrepancies in non-uniform ageing reported in the literature and indicate coupling between electrochemistry and mechanics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Current distribution, Lithium-ion battery, Mechanics, Non-uniform ageing, Pressure
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224547 (URN)10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.03.020 (DOI)000430779400003 ()2-s2.0-85043458948 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 30770-3StandUp
Note

QC 20180321

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Carlson, A., Shapturenka, P., Eriksson, B., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Wreland Lindström, R. (2018). Electrode parameters and operating conditions influencing the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochimica Acta, 277, 151-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrode parameters and operating conditions influencing the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells
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2018 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 277, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A deeper understanding of porous electrode preparation and performance losses is necessary to advance the anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) technology. This study has investigated the performance losses at 50 °C for varied: Tokuyama AS-4 ionomer content in the catalyst layer, Pt/C loading and catalyst layer thickness at the anode and cathode, relative humidity, and anode catalyst. The prepared gas diffusion electrodes in the interval of ionomer-to-Pt/C weight ratio of 0.4–0.8 or 29–44 wt% ionomer content show the highest performance. Varying the loading and catalyst layer thickness simultaneously shows that both the cathode and the anode influence the cell performance. The effects of the two electrodes are shown to vary with current density and this is assumed to be due to non-uniform current distribution throughout the electrodes. Further, lowering the relative humidity at the anode and cathode separately shows small performance losses for both electrodes that could be related to lowered ionomer conductivity. Continued studies are needed to optimize, and understand limitations of, each of the two electrodes to obtain improved cell performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
AEMFC, Electrode morphology, Electrode performance, Ionomer content, Pt/C catalyst
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228724 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2018.04.137 (DOI)000433044200017 ()2-s2.0-85046745654 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Hagberg, J., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2018). Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers. BATTERIES-BASEL, 4(2), Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible and Lightweight Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Carbon Fibers
2018 (English)In: BATTERIES-BASEL, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible, low-weight electrodes with integrated current collectors based on chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers (CF) were produced using an easy, aqueous fabrication process, where only 4 wt% of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as the binder. A flexible full cell was assembled based on a LiFePO4 (LFP) positive electrode with a CF current collector and a current collector-free CF negative electrode. The cell exhibited a stable specific capacity of 121 mAh g(-1) based on the LFP weight. The CF in the negative electrode acted simultaneously as active material and current collector, which has a significant positive impact on energy density. Stable specific capacities of the CF/CNF negative electrode of 267 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 150 mAh g(-1) at 1 C are demonstrated. The LFP/CNF with CF/CNF, as the current collector positive electrode (LFP-CF), exhibited a good rate performance with a capacity of -150 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and 133 mAh g(-1) at 1 C. The polarization of the LFP-CF electrode was similar to that of a commercial Quallion LFP electrode, while much lower compared to a flexible LFP/CNF electrode with Al foil as the current collector. This is ascribed to good contact between the CF and the active material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), water-based binder, carbon fibers, bendable Li-ion batteries, lightweight
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232271 (URN)10.3390/batteries4020017 (DOI)000436154600004 ()
Note

QC 20180719

Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, N., Eriksson, B., Groenbeck, H., Wreland Lindström, R., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Wickman, B. (2018). Fuel Cell Measurements with Cathode Catalysts of Sputtered Pt3Y Thin Films. ChemSusChem, 11(9), 1438-1445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuel Cell Measurements with Cathode Catalysts of Sputtered Pt3Y Thin Films
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2018 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1438-1445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fuel cells are foreseen to have an important role in sustainable energy systems, provided that catalysts with higher activity and stability are developed. In this study, highly active sputtered thin films of platinum alloyed with yttrium (Pt3Y) are deposited on commercial gas diffusion layers and their performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is measured. After acid pretreatment, the alloy is found to have up to 2.5 times higher specific activity than pure platinum. The performance of Pt3Y is much higher than that of pure Pt, even if all of the alloying element was leached out from parts of the thin metal film on the porous support. This indicates that an even higher performance is expected if the structure of the Pt3Y catalyst or the support could be further improved. The results show that platinum alloyed with rare earth metals can be used as highly active cathode catalyst materials, and significantly reduce the amount of platinum needed, in real fuel cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
electrocatalysis, fuel cells, platinum, rare earths, thin films
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228426 (URN)10.1002/cssc.201800023 (DOI)000431975700006 ()29513396 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044870915 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, J., Endrodi, B., Avall, G., Johansson, P., Cornell, A. M. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122(4), 1913-1920
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Li Salt Anion Effect on O-2 Solubility in an Li-O-2 Battery
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2018 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 1913-1920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the promising Li-O-2 battery to be commercialized, further understanding of its constituents is needed. This study deals with the role of O-2 in Li-O-2 batteries, both its influence on electrochemical performance and its solubility in lithium-salt-containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) electrolytes. Experimentally, the electrochemical performance was evaluated using cylindrical ultramicroelectrodes. Two independent techniques, using a mass spectrometer and an optical sensor, were used to evaluate the O-2 solubility, expressed as Henry's constant. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and density were also measured. Density functional theory calculations were made of the interaction energy between O-2 and the different species in the electrolytes. When varying O-2 partial pressure, the current was larger at high pressures confirming that the O-2 concentration is of key importance when studying the kinetics of this system. Compared with neat DMSO, the O-2 solubility increased with addition of LiTFSI and decreased with addition of LiClO4, indicating that the salt influences the solubility. This solubility trend is best explained in terms of apparent molar volume and interaction energy between O-2 and the salt anion. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of O-2 concentration, not just its partial pressure, and that the choice of Li salt can make this concentration increase or decrease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225314 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b09218 (DOI)000424316200004 ()2-s2.0-85041444544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180404

Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Nowak, A., Hagberg, J., Leijonmarck, S., Schweinebarth, H., Baker, D., Uhlin, A., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2018). Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes. Holzforschung, 72(2), 81-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000 degrees C to 1700 degrees C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C have a capacity of 335 mAh g(-1). All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2018
Keywords
lignin-based carbon fibers, lithium-ion battery, melt-spinning, multifunctional, softwood kraft lignin
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222403 (URN)10.1515/hf-2017-0044 (DOI)000423540500001 ()2-s2.0-85041645591 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180219

Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9203-9313

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