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Lindberg, J., Lundgren, H., Lindbergh, G. & Behm, M. (2017). Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 7(4), 213-221.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries
2017 (English)In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 7, no 4, 213-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity similar to 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association of Physical Chemists (IAPC), 2017
Keyword
Li-ion battery, Li-O-2 battery, Room temperature ionic liquid, Diffusion resistivity, Electrolyte mass transport resistivity
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221414 (URN)10.5599/jese.408 (DOI)000419148300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20180116

Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Guccini, V., Kim, H., Salazar-Alvarez, G., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2017). Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(43), 37712-37720.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries
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2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 43, 37712-37720 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (ISSO mu mol g(-1)) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g(-1) even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218223 (URN)10.1021/acsami.7b10307 (DOI)000414506600023 ()28972727 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032657306 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171128

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Mussa, A. S., Klett, M., Behm, M., Lindbergh, G. & Lindström, R. W. (2017). Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study. Journal of Energy Storage, 13, 325-333.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 13, 325-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At electric vehicle fast-charging stations, it is generally recommended to avoid charging beyond similar to 80% State-of-Charge (SOC) since topping-off to full capacity disproportionately increases the charging time. This necessitates studying its long-term impact compared to slower rate charging to full capacity typical of home or residential charging. Here we present the long-term ageing effects on commercial 18650 NMC-LMO/graphite cell cycled between 2.6-4.2 V at three different charging protocols: 1.5 C-rate fast-partial charging ( to 82.5% SOC), 0.5 C-rate slow standard charging without or with a constant-voltage step (to 93% or 100% SOC). Quantitative discharge-curve and postmortem analyses are used to evaluate ageing. The results show that ageing rate increases in the order: fast-partial charging < standard charging < standard charging with constant-voltage period, indicating that higher SOC-range near full capacity is more detrimental to battery life than fast-charging. The capacity fade is totally dominated by cyclable-lithium loss. The similar to 8% NMC-LMO active material loss has negligible impact on the cell capacity fade due to the electrodes excess material in the fresh cell and its moderate loss rate with ageing compared to the cyclable-lithium. Similar ageing modes in terms of capacity fade and impedance rise are found irrespective of the charging protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Fast-charging, Charging to partial SOC, Non-destructive analysis, Lithium-ion battery ageing, Battery management, Charging protocol
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220495 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2017.07.004 (DOI)000417183300033 ()2-s2.0-85028014032 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20171222

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2017-12-22Bibliographically approved
Soares, R., Bessman, A., Wallmark, O., Lindbergh, G. & Svens, P. (2017). Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle. In: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017 (pp. 45-50). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, 45-50 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the harmonic content of the battery current in a commercial hybrid vehicle (bus) is measured and analyzed for a number of different driving situations. It is found that the most prominent harmonic reaches peak magnitudes that can be higher than 10% of the maximum dc-current level with a maximum frequency less than 150 Hz. Further, it is found that this harmonic can be approximated using a fitted, simple analytical expression with reasonable agreement for all driving situations considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Keyword
DC-link, Harmonic currents, Hybrid vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Permanent-magnet synchronous machine, Ripple, Voltage source inverter, Commercial vehicles, Electric batteries, Electric inverters, Electric utilities, Harmonic analysis, Lithium compounds, Permanent magnets, Secondary batteries, Vehicles, DC links, Permanent magnet synchronous machines
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216277 (URN)10.1109/ITEC.2017.7993245 (DOI)2-s2.0-85028594346 (Scopus ID)9781509039043 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017
Note

QC 20171213

Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Darab, M., Barnett, A. O., Lindbergh, G., Thomassen, M. S. & Sunde, S. (2017). The Influence of Catalyst Layer Thickness on the Performance and Degradation of PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Constant Catalyst Loading. Electrochimica Acta, 232, 505-516.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Catalyst Layer Thickness on the Performance and Degradation of PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Constant Catalyst Loading
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2017 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 232, 505-516 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three catalytic layers containing Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbon of different Pt loading but with the same total amount of platinum and therefore of different thickness were employed as cathode catalytic layers (CCLs) in a PEM fuel cell. The layers were subjected to a degradation protocol with an upper potential limit of 1.5 V. Upon exposure to the degradation protocol particle size increased, the electrochemical areas (ECAs) of the catalysts decreased, the catalytic layers became thinner, and the average pore size decreased, indicating both carbon and Pt corrosion. The relative decrease in the ECA was approximately the same for all three layers and was therefore approximately independent of CCL thickness. For all samples the reaction order with respect to oxygen was one half and the samples showed doubling of the slope of the potential vs. log current curve (dEld logi) at high current densities. This indicates that kinetics control the potential at low currents and kinetics and proton migration (ohmic drops in the catalytic layer) at high. However, the degradation protocol also introduced limitations due to oxygen diffusion in the agglomerates. This led to a quadrupling of the dEld logi-slope in 13% oxygen in the samples with the highest catalyst area per volume. For the sample with the lowest catalyst area per volume this slope increased by a factor of six in 13% oxygen, indicating that the local current density exceeded that required for the Tafel slope of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) to double.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keyword
Accelerated degradation test, Carbon corrosion, Slope doubling, Reaction order, Impedance
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206266 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2017.02.101 (DOI)000398327300058 ()2-s2.0-85014633035 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170512

Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-05-12 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
Sevencan, S., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Alvfors, P. (2016). Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre. Energy and Buildings, 111, 218-223.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 111, 218-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy use of data centres is increasing as the data storage needs increase. One of the largest items in the energy use of these facilities is cooling. A fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system can efficiently meet such a centre's need for cooling and in the meantime generate enough electricity for the centre and more. In this paper the economic feasibility of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system that meets the energy demands of such a facility is investigated using operational data from an existing data centre in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that although the system is not feasible with current energy prices and technology it may be feasible in the future with the projected changes in energy prices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Fuel cell, Combined cooling heating and power, Data centre, Feasibility
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179131 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.11.012 (DOI)000369191100020 ()2-s2.0-84949493559 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160111. QC 20160304

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Behm, M., Leijonmarck, S., Lindbergh, G. & Cornell, A. M. (2016). Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 8(28), 18097-18106.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
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2016 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, 18097-18106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 mu m. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 degrees C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
Keyword
TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, binder, flexible paper electrodes, moisture, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196456 (URN)10.1021/acsami.6b05016 (DOI)000380298400038 ()27362635 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979598428 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Lu, H., Cornell, A., Alvarado, F., Behm, M., Leijonmarck, S., Li, J., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2016). Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries. Materials, 9(3), Article ID 127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries
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2016 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
lignin, binder, leaching, electrodes, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186569 (URN)10.3390/ma9030127 (DOI)000373805400072 ()2-s2.0-84962652184 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, H., Svens, P., Ekström, H., Tengstedt, C., Lindström, J., Behm, M. & Lindbergh, G. (2016). Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163(2), A309-A317.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application
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2016 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 2, A309-A317 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal effects are linked to all main barriers to the widespread commercialization of lithium-ion battery powered vehicles. This paper presents a coupled 2D electrochemical - 3D thermal model of a large-format prismatic lithium-ion battery, including a thermal management system with a heat sink connected to the surface opposite the terminals, undergoing the dynamic current behavior of a plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicle using a load cycle with a maximum current of 8 C, validated using potential and temperature data. The model fits the data well, with small deviations at the most demanding parts of the cycle. The maximum temperature increase and temperature difference of the jellyroll is found to be 9.7 degrees C and 3.6 degrees C, respectively. The electrolyte is found to limit the performance during the high-current pulses, as the concentration reaches extreme values, leading to a very uneven current distribution. Two other thermal management strategies, short side and long side surfaces cooling, are evaluated but are found to have only minor effects on the temperature of the jellyroll, with maximum jellyroll temperatures increases of 9.4 degrees C and 8.1 degrees C, respectively, and maximum temperature differences of 3.7 degrees C and 5.0 degrees C, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2016
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180974 (URN)10.1149/2.09411602jes (DOI)000367324400040 ()2-s2.0-84949599677 (Scopus ID)
Note

Updated from Manuscript to Article. QC 20160202

Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Ekström, H. & Lindbergh, G. (2015). A model for predicting capacity fade due to SEI formation in a commercial graphite/LiFePO4 cell. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162(6), A1003-A1007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for predicting capacity fade due to SEI formation in a commercial graphite/LiFePO4 cell
2015 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 6, A1003-A1007 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An aging model for a negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion battery, for moderate currents up to 1C, is derived and fitted to capacity fade experimental data. The predictive capabilities of the model, using only four fitted parameters, are demonstrated at both 25°C and 45°C. The model is based on a linear combination of two current contributions: one stemming from parts of the graphite particles covered by an intact microporous solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer, and one contribution from parts of the particles were the SEI layer has cracked due to graphite expansion. Mixed kinetic and transport control is used to describe the electrode kinetics.

Keyword
Electrodes, Graphite, Graphite electrodes, Lithium alloys, Seebeck effect, Solid electrolytes, Electrode kinetics, Graphite particles, Linear combinations, Microporous solids, Mixed kinetics, Predictive capabilities, SEI formations, Transport control
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167007 (URN)10.1149/2.0641506jes (DOI)000353009300030 ()2-s2.0-84928318589 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150525

Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9203-9313

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