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Roos, A. K., Scarano, E., Arvidsson, E., Holmgren, E. & Haviland, D. B. (2024). Design, fabrication, and characterization of kinetic-inductive force sensors for scanning probe applications. , 15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, fabrication, and characterization of kinetic-inductive force sensors for scanning probe applications
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2024 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We describe a transducer for low-temperature atomic force microscopy based on electromechanical coupling due to a strain-dependent kinetic inductance of a superconducting nanowire. The force sensor is a bending triangular plate (cantilever) whose deflection is measured via a shift in the resonant frequency of a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator at 4.5 GHz. We present design simulations including mechanical finite-element modeling of surface strain and electromagnetic simulations of meandering nanowires with large kinetic inductance. We discuss a lumped-element model of the force sensor and describe the role of an additional shunt inductance for tuning the coupling to the transmission line used to measure the microwave resonance. A detailed description of our fabrication is presented, including information about the process parameters used for each layer. We also discuss the fabrication of sharp tips on the cantilever using focused electron beam-induced deposition of platinum. Finally, we present measurements that characterize the spread of mechanical resonant frequency, the temperature dependence of the microwave resonance, and the sensor's operation as an electromechanical transducer of force. 

Keywords
force sensing, atomic force microscopy, kinetic inductance, superconductivity, optomechanics
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Physics, Material and Nano Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343023 (URN)10.48550/arXiv.2310.03569 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 828966Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, ITM17-0343
Note

QC 20240208

Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Roos, A. K., Scarano, E., Arvidsson, E., Holmgren, E. & Haviland, D. B. (2024). Design, fabrication, and characterization of kinetic-inductive force sensors for scanning probe applications. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 15, 242-255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, fabrication, and characterization of kinetic-inductive force sensors for scanning probe applications
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2024 (English)In: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, E-ISSN 2190-4286, Vol. 15, p. 242-255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a transducer for low-temperature atomic force microscopy based on electromechanical coupling due to a strain-dependent kinetic inductance of a superconducting nanowire. The force sensor is a bending triangular plate (cantilever) whose deflection is measured via a shift in the resonant frequency of a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator at 4.5 GHz. We present design simulations including mechanical finite-element modeling of surface strain and electromagnetic simulations of meandering nanowires with large kinetic inductance. We discuss a lumped-element model of the force sensor and describe the role of an additional shunt inductance for tuning the coupling to the transmission line used to measure the microwave resonance. A detailed description of our fabrication is presented, including information about the process parameters used for each layer. We also discuss the fabrication of sharp tips on the cantilever using focused electron beam-induced deposition of platinum. Finally, we present measurements that characterize the spread of mechanical resonant frequency, the temperature dependence of the microwave resonance, and the sensor’s operation as an electromechanical transducer of force.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Beilstein Institut, 2024
Keywords
atomic force microscopy, force sensing, kinetic inductance, optomechanics, superconductivity
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343570 (URN)10.3762/bjnano.15.23 (DOI)001162781300001 ()2-s2.0-85191661029 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240301

Available from: 2024-02-20 Created: 2024-02-20 Last updated: 2024-05-20Bibliographically approved
Scarano, E., Arvidsson, E., Roos, A. K., Holmgren, E. & Haviland, D. B. (2024). Intrinsic Kerr amplification for microwave electromechanics. Applied Physics Letters, 124, Article ID 243503.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intrinsic Kerr amplification for microwave electromechanics
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2024 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 124, article id 243503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electromechanical transduction gain of 21 dB is realized in a micro-cantilever resonant force sensor operated in the unresolved-sideband regime. Strain-dependent kinetic inductance weakly couples cantilever motion to a superconducting nonlinear resonant circuit. A single pump generates motional sidebands and parametrically amplifies them via four-wave mixing. We study the gain and added noise, and we analyze potential benefits of this integrated amplification process in the context force sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2024
Keywords
kerr nonlinearity, microwave resonators, superconductivity, kinetic inductance, four-wave mixing, parametric amplification
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Physics, Material and Nano Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343027 (URN)10.1063/5.0201936 (DOI)001248285000007 ()2-s2.0-85196043756 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 828966Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, ITM17-0343
Note

QC 20240702

Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Scarano, E., Arvidsson, E., Roos, A. K., Holmgren, E. & Haviland, D. B. (2024). Temperature dependence of microwave losses in lumped-element resonators made from superconducting nanowires with high kinetic inductance. Superconductor Science and Technology, 37(7), Article ID 075013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature dependence of microwave losses in lumped-element resonators made from superconducting nanowires with high kinetic inductance
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2024 (English)In: Superconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 1361-6668, Vol. 37, no 7, article id 075013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the response of several microwave resonators made from superconducting NbTiN thin-film meandering nanowires with large kinetic inductance, having different circuit topology and coupling to the transmission line. Reflection measurements reveal the parameters of the circuit and analysis of their temperature dependence in the range 1.7-6 K extract the superconducting energy gap and critical temperature. The lumped-element LC resonator, valid in our frequency range of interest, allows us to predict the quasiparticle contribution to internal loss, independent of circuit topology and characteristic impedance. Our analysis shows that the internal quality factor is limited not by thermal-equilibrium quasiparticles, but an additional temperature-dependent source of internal microwave loss. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2024
Keywords
kinetic inductance, superconductivity, microwave resonators, mattis-bardeen
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Physics, Material and Nano Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343024 (URN)10.1088/1361-6668/ad4d5c (DOI)001248945600001 ()2-s2.0-85196036472 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 828966Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, ITM17-0343
Note

QC 20240702

Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Roos, A. K., Scarano, E., Arvidsson, E. K., Holmgren, E. & Haviland, D. B. (2023). Kinetic Inductive Electromechanical Transduction for Nanoscale Force Sensing. Physical Review Applied, 20(2), Article ID 024022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetic Inductive Electromechanical Transduction for Nanoscale Force Sensing
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 20, no 2, article id 024022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use the principles of cavity optomechanics to design a resonant mechanical force sensor for atomic force microscopy. The sensor is based on a type of electromechanical coupling, dual to traditional capacitive coupling, whereby the motion of a cantilever induces surface strain that causes a change in the kinetic inductance of a superconducting nanowire. The cavity is realized by a compact microwave-plasma mode with an equivalent LC circuit involving the kinetic inductance of the nanowire. The device is fully coplanar and we show how to transform the cavity impedance for optimal coupling to the transmission line and the following amplifier. For the device presented here, we estimate the bare kinetic inductive mechanoelectric coupling (KIMEC) rate g0/2π in the range 3–10 Hz. We demonstrate phase-sensitive detection of cantilever motion using a multifrequency pumping and measurement scheme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2023
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334375 (URN)10.1103/physrevapplied.20.024022 (DOI)001052945100003 ()2-s2.0-85168731329 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, ITM17-0343EU, Horizon 2020, 828966
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2024-05-20Bibliographically approved
Jolin, S. W., Andersson, G., Rivera Hernández, J. C., Strandberg, I., Quijandría, F., Aumentado, J., . . . Haviland, D. B. (2023). Multipartite Entanglement in a Microwave Frequency Comb. Physical Review Letters, 130(12), Article ID 120601.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multipartite Entanglement in a Microwave Frequency Comb
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 130, no 12, article id 120601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Significant progress has been made with multipartite entanglement of discrete qubits, but continuous variable systems may provide a more scalable path toward entanglement of large ensembles. We demonstrate multipartite entanglement in a microwave frequency comb generated by a Josephson parametric amplifier subject to a bichromatic pump. We find 64 correlated modes in the transmission line using a multifrequency digital signal processing platform. Full inseparability is verified in a subset of seven modes. Our method can be expanded to generate even more entangled modes in the near future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society (APS), 2023
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Condensed Matter Physics Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-330969 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.120601 (DOI)000989413500006 ()37027873 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151294900 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230705

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-07-13Bibliographically approved
Ignat, I., Arvidsson, E., Roos, A. K., Scarano, E., Haviland, D. B., Platz, D. & Schmid, U. (2023). Nanosized vacuum gap electromechanical devices with integrated piezoelectric actuator. In: MikroSystemTechnik Kongress 2023 - Mikroelektronik, Mikrosystemtechnik und ihre Anwendungen - Nachhaltigkeit und Technologiesouveranitat, Proceedings: . Paper presented at MikroSystemTechnik Kongress 2023: Mikroelektronik, Mikrosystemtechnik und ihre Anwendungen - Nachhaltigkeit und Technologiesouveranitat MicroSystems Technology Congress 2023: Microelectronics, Microsystems Technology and their Applications - Sustainability and Technology Sovereignty, Dresden, Germany, Oct 23 2023 - Oct 25 2023 (pp. 413-416). VDE Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanosized vacuum gap electromechanical devices with integrated piezoelectric actuator
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2023 (English)In: MikroSystemTechnik Kongress 2023 - Mikroelektronik, Mikrosystemtechnik und ihre Anwendungen - Nachhaltigkeit und Technologiesouveranitat, Proceedings, VDE Verlag , 2023, p. 413-416Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fabrication of aluminium vacuum gap capactior based electromechanical devices was investigated, where the bottom electrode is fixed, and the top electrode is free to move. To avoid collapse of the top electrode, simultaneous oxidation of both sides of the top electrodes was ensured by deposition of silicon protection layer without breaking vacuum, intended to be removed with the release process of the membrane with XeF2 gas. Furthermore, the vertical stress gradient was controlled by optimising the sputter deposition parameters for the aluminium top electrode to 50W and 3 µbar for 100nm. These techniques brought the fabrication yield of capacitors with radii of 7 µm to 90%, while for larger capacitors with radii up to 30 µm, the yield only decreased to 50%. A cryostat at 400 mK and a built in piezoactuator were used to prove electromechanical coupling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
VDE Verlag, 2023
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-349897 (URN)2-s2.0-85196913904 (Scopus ID)
Conference
MikroSystemTechnik Kongress 2023: Mikroelektronik, Mikrosystemtechnik und ihre Anwendungen - Nachhaltigkeit und Technologiesouveranitat MicroSystems Technology Congress 2023: Microelectronics, Microsystems Technology and their Applications - Sustainability and Technology Sovereignty, Dresden, Germany, Oct 23 2023 - Oct 25 2023
Note

Part of ISBN 9783800762040

QC 20240708

Available from: 2024-07-03 Created: 2024-07-03 Last updated: 2024-07-08Bibliographically approved
Tholen, M. O., Borgani, R., Di Carlo, G. R., Bengtsson, A., Križan, C., Kudra, M., . . . Haviland, D. B. (2022). Measurement and control of a superconducting quantum processor with a fully integrated radio-frequency system on a chip. Review of Scientific Instruments, 93(10), 104711, Article ID 104711.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement and control of a superconducting quantum processor with a fully integrated radio-frequency system on a chip
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2022 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 104711-, article id 104711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a digital microwave platform called Presto, designed for measurement and control of multiple quantum bits (qubits) and based on the third-generation radio-frequency system on a chip. Presto uses direct digital synthesis to create signals up to 9 GHz on 16 synchronous output ports, while synchronously analyzing responses on 16 input ports. Presto has 16 DC-bias outputs, four inputs and four outputs for digital triggers or markers, and two continuous-wave outputs for synthesizing frequencies up to 15 GHz. Scaling to a large number of qubits is enabled through deterministic synchronization of multiple Presto units. A Python application programming interface configures a firmware for synthesis and analysis of pulses, coordinated by an event sequencer. The analysis integrates template matching (matched filtering) and low-latency (184-254 ns) feedback to enable a wide range of multi-qubit experiments. We demonstrate Presto's capabilities with experiments on a sample consisting of two superconducting qubits connected via a flux-tunable coupler. We show single-shot readout and active reset of a single qubit; randomized benchmarking of single-qubit gates showing 99.972% fidelity, limited by the coherence time of the qubit; and calibration of a two-qubit iSWAP gate. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIP Publishing, 2022
Keywords
Application programming interfaces (API), Application specific integrated circuits, Digital radio, Radio waves, Software radio, Direct digital synthesis, Fully integrated, Measurement and control, Output ports, Quantum processors, Radio frequency systems, Single quantum, System on a chip, Systems-on-a-chip, Third generation, Firmware, article, benchmarking, calibration, controlled study, filtration, microwave radiation, radiofrequency, randomized controlled trial, synthesis
National Category
Signal Processing Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-328946 (URN)10.1063/5.0101398 (DOI)000878198400009 ()36319392 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85141164689 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230614

Available from: 2023-06-14 Created: 2023-06-14 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Kudra, M., Kervinen, M., Strandberg, I., Ahmed, S., Scigliuzzo, M., Osman, A., . . . Gasparinetti, S. (2022). Robust Preparation of Wigner-Negative States with Optimized SNAP-Displacement Sequences. PRX QUANTUM, 3(3), Article ID 030301.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust Preparation of Wigner-Negative States with Optimized SNAP-Displacement Sequences
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2022 (English)In: PRX QUANTUM, ISSN 2691-3399, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 030301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hosting nonclassical states of light in three-dimensional microwave cavities has emerged as a promising paradigm for continuous-variable quantum information processing. Here we experimentally demonstrate high-fidelity generation of a range of Wigner-negative states useful for quantum computation, such as Schrodinger-cat states, binomial states, Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill states, as well as cubic phase states. The latter states have been long sought after in quantum optics and have never been achieved experimentally before. We use a sequence of interleaved selective number-dependent arbitrary phase (SNAP) gates and displacements. We optimize the state preparation in two steps. First we use a gradient-descent algorithm to optimize the parameters of the SNAP and displacement gates. Then we optimize the envelope of the pulses implementing the SNAP gates. Our results show that this way of creating highly nonclassical states in a harmonic oscillator is robust to fluctuations of the system parameters such as the qubit frequency and the dispersive shift.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2022
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-315915 (URN)10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.030301 (DOI)000823762500001 ()2-s2.0-85136004195 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220728

Available from: 2022-07-28 Created: 2022-07-28 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Andersson, G., Jolin, S. W., Scigliuzzo, M., Borgani, R., Tholen, M. O., Rivera Hernández, J. C., . . . Delsing, P. (2022). Squeezing and Multimode Entanglement of Surface Acoustic Wave Phonons. PRX Quantum, 3(1), Article ID 010312.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Squeezing and Multimode Entanglement of Surface Acoustic Wave Phonons
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2022 (English)In: PRX Quantum, E-ISSN 2691-3399, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 010312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exploiting multiple modes in a quantum acoustic device could enable applications in quantum information in a hardware-efficient setup, including quantum simulation in a synthetic dimension and continuous-variable quantum computing with cluster states. We develop a multimode surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) integrated in one of the Bragg reflectors. The interaction with the SQUID-shunted mirror gives rise to coupling between the more than 20 accessible resonator modes. We exploit this coupling to demonstrate two-mode squeezing of SAW phonons, as well as four-mode multipartite entanglement. Our results open avenues for continuous-variable quantum computing in a compact hybrid quantum system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society (APS), 2022
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-312139 (URN)10.1103/prxquantum.3.010312 (DOI)000800570500001 ()2-s2.0-85126589271 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20220530

Available from: 2022-05-12 Created: 2022-05-12 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8534-6577

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