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Publications (10 of 92) Show all publications
Weissl, T., Jolin, S. W., Borgani, R., Forchheimer, D. & Haviland, D. B. (2019). A general characterization method for nonlinearities in superconducting circuits. New Journal of Physics, 21, Article ID 053018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A general characterization method for nonlinearities in superconducting circuits
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2019 (English)In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 21, article id 053018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Detailed knowledge of nonlinearity in superconducting microwave circuits is required for the optimal control of their quantum state. We present a general method to precisely characterize this nonlinearity to very high order. Our method is based on intermodulation spectroscopy at microwave frequencies and does not require DC-connection or DC-measurement of an on-chip reference structure. We give a theoretical derivation of the method and we validate it by reconstructing a known nonlinearity from simulated data. We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of the unknown nonlinear current-phase relation of a microwave resonator with superconducting nanowires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
intermodulation, superconducting circuits, nonlinearity, current-phase relation, parametric amplifier
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252610 (URN)10.1088/1367-2630/ab175a (DOI)000467473500009 ()2-s2.0-85069534944 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190603

Available from: 2019-06-03 Created: 2019-06-03 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Borgani, R., Kohan, M. G., Vomiero, A. & Haviland, D. B. (2019). Fast Multifrequency Measurement of Nonlinear Conductance. Physical Review Applied, 11(4), Article ID 044062.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Multifrequency Measurement of Nonlinear Conductance
2019 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 044062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a phase-coherent multifrequency lock-in measurement technique that uses the inverse Fourier transform to reconstruct the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of a nanoscale junction. The method provides separation of the galvanic and displacement currents in the junction and easy cancellation of the parasitic displacement current from the measurement leads. These two features allow us to overcome traditional limitations imposed by the low conductance of the junction and the high capacitance of the leads, thus providing an increase in measurement speed of several orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the method in the context of conductive atomic force microscopy, acquiring current-voltage characteristics at every pixel while scanning at standard imaging speed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251278 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.044062 (DOI)000465185700002 ()2-s2.0-85064857475 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190514

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Borgani, R. & Haviland, D. B. (2019). Intermodulation spectroscopy as an alternative to pump-probe for the measurement of fast dynamics at the nanometer scale. Review of Scientific Instruments, 90(1), Article ID 013705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermodulation spectroscopy as an alternative to pump-probe for the measurement of fast dynamics at the nanometer scale
2019 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 90, no 1, article id 013705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an alternative approach to pump-probe spectroscopy for measuring fast charge dynamics with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Our approach is based on coherent multifrequency lock-in measurement of the intermodulation between a mechanical drive and an optical or electrical excitation. In response to the excitation, the charge dynamics of the sample is reconstructed by fitting a theoretical model to the measured frequency spectrum of the electrostatic force near resonance of the AFM cantilever. We discuss the time resolution, which in theory is limited only by the measurement time, but in practice is of order 1 ns for standard cantilevers and imaging speeds. We verify the method with simulations and demonstrate it with a control experiment, achieving a time resolution of 30 ns in ambient conditions, limited by thermal noise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS, 2019
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244558 (URN)10.1063/1.5060727 (DOI)000457411800028 ()30709170 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060780890 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190312

Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Sah, S. M., Forchheimer, D., Borgani, R. & Haviland, D. B. (2018). A combined averaging and frequency mixing approach for force identification in weakly nonlinear high-Q oscillators: Atomic force microscope. Mechanical systems and signal processing, 101, 38-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A combined averaging and frequency mixing approach for force identification in weakly nonlinear high-Q oscillators: Atomic force microscope
2018 (English)In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 101, p. 38-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a polynomial force reconstruction of the tip-sample interaction force in Atomic Force Microscopy. The method uses analytical expressions for the slow-time amplitude and phase evolution, obtained from time-averaging over the rapidly oscillating part of the cantilever dynamics. The slow-time behavior can be easily obtained in either the numerical simulations or the experiment in which a high-Q resonator is perturbed by a weak nonlinearity and a periodic driving force. A direct fit of the theoretical expressions to the simulated and experimental data gives the best-fit parameters for the force model. The method combines and complements previous works (Platz et al., 2013; Forchheimer et al., 2012 [2]) and it allows for computationally more efficient parameter mapping with AFM. Results for the simulated asymmetric piecewise linear force and VdW-DMT force models are compared with the reconstructed polynomial force and show a good agreement. It is also shown that the analytical amplitude and phase modulation equations fit well with the experimental data. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2018
Keywords
Averaging method, Frequency mixing, System identification, Identification (control systems), Mixing, Piecewise linear techniques, Van der Waals forces, Amplitude and phase modulations, Analytical expressions, Force identification, Periodic driving forces, Theoretical expression, Tip-sample interaction, Atomic force microscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216795 (URN)10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.08.015 (DOI)000413612500003 ()2-s2.0-85029712317 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 24 October 2017; Article; CODEN: MSSPE; Correspondence Address: Sah, S.M.; Nanostructure Physics, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologySweden; email: smsah@kth.se. QC 20171114

Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-14Bibliographically approved
Thorén, P.-A., Borgani, R., Forchheimer, D. & Haviland, D. B. (2018). Calibrating torsional eigenmodes of micro-cantilevers for dynamic measurement of frictional forces. Review of Scientific Instruments, 89(7), Article ID 075004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibrating torsional eigenmodes of micro-cantilevers for dynamic measurement of frictional forces
2018 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 89, no 7, article id 075004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-invasive thermal noise calibration of both torsional and flexural eigenmodes is performed on numerous cantilevers of 10 different types. We show that for all tipless and short-tipped cantilevers, the ratio of torsional to flexural mode stiffness is given by the ratio of their resonant frequency times a constant, unique to that cantilever type. By determining this constant, we enable a calibration of the torsional eigenmode, starting from a calibration of the flexural eigenmode. Our results are well motivated from beam theory, and we verify them with finite element simulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2018
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233428 (URN)10.1063/1.5038967 (DOI)000440590200047 ()30068127 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050737578 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20180821

Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Thorén, P.-A., Borgani, R., Forchheimer, D., Dobryden, I., Claesson, P. M., Kassa, H. G., . . . Haviland, D. B. (2018). Modeling and Measuring Viscoelasticity with Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy. Physical Review Applied, 10(2), Article ID 024017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Measuring Viscoelasticity with Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy
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2018 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 024017Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interaction between a rapidly oscillating atomic-force-microscope tip and a soft-material surface is described with use of both elastic and viscous forces in a moving-surface model. We present the simplest form of this model, motivating our derivation with the models ability to capture the impact dynamics of the tip and sample with an interaction consisting of two components: interfacial or surface force, and bulk or volumetric force. Analytic solutions to the piecewise linear model identify characteristic time constants, providing a physical explanation for the hysteresis observed in the measured dynamic-force-quadrature curves. Numerical simulation is used to fit the model to experimental data, and excellent agreement is found with a variety of different samples. The model parameters form a dimensionless impact-rheology factor, giving a quantitative physical number to characterize a viscoelastic surface that does not depend on the tip shape or cantilever frequency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234178 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.024017 (DOI)000441722400002 ()2-s2.0-85051525393 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181009

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Kassa, H. G., Stuyver, J., Bons, A.-J., Haviland, D. B., Thorén, P.-A., Borgani, R., . . . Leclere, P. (2018). Nano-mechanical properties of interphases in dynamically vulcanized thermoplastic alloy. Polymer, 135, 348-354
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-mechanical properties of interphases in dynamically vulcanized thermoplastic alloy
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2018 (English)In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 135, p. 348-354Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a high-resolution study of the viscoelastic response of a thermoplastic alloy using a multi-frequency method called intermodulation atomic force microscopy. We quantitatively characterize the response in terms of calibrated dynamic force quadrature curves, showing the conservative and dissipative forces at each image pixel as functions of the oscillation amplitude for industrial polymer blends. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221925 (URN)10.1016/j.polymer.2017.11.072 (DOI)000419829500039 ()2-s2.0-85038833338 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180131

Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Crippa, F., Thorén, P.-A., Forchheimer, D., Borgani, R., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Petri-Fink, A. & Haviland, D. B. (2018). Probing nano-scale viscoelastic response in air and in liquid with dynamic atomic force microscopy. Soft Matter, 14(19), 3998-4006
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing nano-scale viscoelastic response in air and in liquid with dynamic atomic force microscopy
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2018 (English)In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 3998-4006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We perform a comparative study of dynamic force measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) on the same soft polymer blend samples in both air and liquid environments. Our quantitative analysis starts with calibration of the same cantilever in both environments. Intermodulation AFM (ImAFM) is used to measure dynamic force quadratures on the same sample. We validate the accuracy of the reconstructed dynamic force quadratures by numerical simulation of a realistic model of the cantilever in liquid. In spite of the very low quality factor of this resonance, we find excellent agreement between experiment and simulation. A recently developed moving surface model explains the measured force quadrature curves on the soft polymer, in both air and liquid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228320 (URN)10.1039/C8SM00149A (DOI)000432602000035 ()2-s2.0-85047251073 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilStiftelsen Olle Engkvist ByggmästareKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20180522

Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Borgani, R., Thorén, P.-A., Forchheimer, D., Dobryden, I., Sah, S. M., Claesson, P. M. & Haviland, D. B. (2017). Background-Force Compensation in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy. Physical Review Applied, 7(6), Article ID 064018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Background-Force Compensation in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy
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2017 (English)In: Physical Review Applied, E-ISSN 2331-7019, Vol. 7, no 6, article id 064018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background forces are linear long-range interactions of the cantilever body with its surroundings that must be compensated for in order to reveal tip-surface force, the quantity of interest for determining material properties in atomic force microscopy. We provide a mathematical derivation of a method to compensate for background forces, apply it to experimental data, and discuss how to include background forces in simulation. Our method, based on linear-response theory in the frequency domain, provides a general way of measuring and compensating for any background force and it can be readily applied to different force reconstruction methods in dynamic AFM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210353 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevApplied.7.064018 (DOI)000403252100001 ()2-s2.0-85021101671 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170704

Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Haviland, D. B. (2017). Quantitative force microscopy from a dynamic point of view. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 27, 74-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative force microscopy from a dynamic point of view
2017 (English)In: Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, ISSN 1359-0294, E-ISSN 1879-0399, Vol. 27, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We discuss the physical origin and measurement of force between an atomic force microscope tip and a soft material surface. Quasi-static and dynamic measurements are contrasted and similarities are revealed by analyzing the dynamics in the frequency domain. Various dynamic methods using single and multiple excitation frequencies are described. Tuned multifrequency lockin detection with one reference oscillation gives a great deal of information from which one can reconstruct the tip–surface interaction. Intermodulation in a weakly perturbed high Q resonance enables the measurement of a new type of dynamic force curve, offering a physically intuitive way to visualize both elastic and viscous forces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Atomic force microscopy, Nanometer scale dynamics, Nanometer scale mechanics, Surface forces, Frequency domain analysis, Dynamic measurement, Frequency domains, High-Q resonances, Multiple excitations, Nano-meter scale, Quantitative forces, Surface interactions, Dynamics, excitation, oscillation
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201941 (URN)10.1016/j.cocis.2016.10.002 (DOI)000396957600011 ()2-s2.0-84994051931 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding text: This current opinion and understanding of dynamic AFM would not have been possible to formulate or articulate were it not for numerous discussions and collaborative research between the author and the following PhD students and post docs: Erik A. Tholén, Daniel Platz, Daniel Forchheimer, Per-Anders Thorén, Riccardo Borgani, Si Mohammed Sah and Thomas Weissl. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation(S-2011-0685), the Olle Engqvist Foundation(S-2013-0217), and the Swedish Research Council(2012-4954).

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8534-6577

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