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Schneider, L. M., Ihrner, N., Zenkert, D. & Johansson, M. (2019). Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(6), 4362-4369
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries
2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 4362-4369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries (SBs) are a growing research subject worldwide. The idea is to provide massless energy by using a multifunctional material. This technology can provide a new pathway in electrification and offer different design opportunities and significant weight savings in vehicle applications. The type of SB discussed here is a multifunctional material that can carry mechanical loads and simultaneously provide an energy storage function. It is a composite material that utilizes carbon fibers (CFs) as electrodes and structural reinforcement which are embedded in a multifunctional polymer matrix (i.e., structural battery electrolyte). A feasible composite manufacturing method still needs to be developed to realize a full-cell SB. UV initiated polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) has previously been used to make bicontinuous structural battery electrolytes (SBE) with good ionic conductivity and mechanical performance. However, UV-curing cannot be used for fabrication of a full cell SB since a full-cell is made of multiple layers of nontransparent CFs. The present paper investigates thermally initiated PIPS to prepare a bicontinuous SBE and an SB half-cell. In addition, the effect of curing temperature was examined with respect to curing performance, morphology, ionic conductivity, and mechanical and electrochemical performance. The study revealed that thermally initiated PIPS provides a robust and scalable process route to fabricate SBs. The results of this study are an important milestone in the development of SB technology as they allow for the SB fabrication for an actual application. However, other challenges still remain to be solved before this technology can be introduced into an application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
thermal polymerization, lithium ion conductivity, polymerization induced microphase separation, bicontinuous morphology, polymer electrolyte matrices
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255322 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.9b00563 (DOI)000473116600049 ()2-s2.0-85068010658 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190805

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Zenkert, D., Lindbergh, G. & Johansson, M. (2019). Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting. In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22: . Paper presented at International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting
2019 (English)In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reduced mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for a wide range of applications that requires electrical energy and includes load-bearing components. Use of lightweight materials has been identified as key for successful electrification of future transport solutions. Structure, energy storage and energy distribution are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage and energy distribution devices are structurally parasitic. One creative path forward is to develop composite materials that perform several functions at the same time – multifunctional materials. Combining functions in a single material entity will enable substantial weight savings on the systems level.

One such concept is a structural battery, a material that simultaneously carry load and stores energy like a battery. Structural batteries employ carbon fibres as structural reinforcement and negative electrode and can also be used as current collectors to save additional weight.

A number of new physical phenomena when using carbon fibres as battery electrodes have been found which allows for further multi-functionality. These are all based on the fact that carbon fibres intercalated lithium ions as an electrode material. The ion intercalation creates a reversible longitudinal expansion of the carbon fibres which could be used for actuation and morphing. A piezo electrochemical effect couples the electrical potential of the fibre to the strain acting on it, which can be used for sensing purposes. By combining the expansion and the piezo electrochemical effect one can convert mechanical energy to electrochemical energy, providing an energy harvesting function. The long-term vision of this work is to create a composite material that carries load, stores electrical energy, senses its own state, morphs and harvests energy.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257966 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03898EU, Horizon 2020, 738085
Note

QC 20191015

Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W. & Zenkert, D. (2019). Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings. Multifunctional Materials, Article ID 035002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings
2019 (English)In: Multifunctional Materials, ISSN 2399-7532, article id 035002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries are materials that can carry mechanical load while storing electrical energy. This is achieved by combining the properties of carbon fiber composites and lithium ion batteries. There are many design parameters for a structural battery and in order to understand their impact and importance, this paper presents a model for multifunctional performance. The mechanical behavior and electrical energy storage of the structural battery are matched to the mechanical behavior of a conventional carbon fiber composite, and the electrical energy storage of a standard lithium ion battery. The latter are both monofunctional and have known performance and mass. In order to calculate the benefit of using structural batteries, the mass of the structural battery is compared to that of the two monofunctional systems. There is often an inverse relationship between the mechanical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional materials, in order to understand these relationships a sensitivity analysis is performed on variables for the structural battery. This gives new insight into the complex multifunctional design of structural batteries.

The results show that it is possible to save mass compared to monofunctional systems but that it depends strongly on the structure it is compared with. With improvements to the design of the structural battery it would be possible to achieve mass saving compared to state-of-the-art composite laminates and lithium ion batteries.

Keywords
multifunctional material, modelling, multifunctional efficiency, weight saving
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258202 (URN)10.1088/2399-7532/ab3bdd (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014-4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A multifunctional structural battery consisting of carbon fibers, lithium-electrode coatings and a structural battery electrolyte is investigated with an analytical bottom-up model. This model has a multiphysics approach, calculating both mechanical properties and electrical energy storage. The intention of the model is twofold; first, calculating the potential mass saving with using a structural battery instead of the combination of a monofunctional carbon fiber composite and a monofunctional lithium ion battery. Second, the model is used to investigate the behavior of the mass saving due to changing variables of the structural battery. This variable sensitivity analysis is made in order to understand the behavior of the structural battery and its sensitivity to the different construction variables. The results show that the structural battery can save up to 26% of mass compared to the monofunctional parts.

Next, the model of the structural battery is further utilized in a life cycle assessment, where the manufacturing, usage and recycling of the structural battery is investigated. The life cycle assessment examines the structural battery as the roof of an electric vehicle. This analysis is compared to the same assessment for a steel roof and standard lithium ion batteries, which shows that manufacturing the carbon fibers and structural battery with clean energy is most important for decreasing the emissions from manufacturing.

Keywords
mass saving, structural battery, life cycle assessment, LCA
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258215 (URN)
Conference
22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014- 4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Hagberg, J., Maples, H. A., Alvim, K. S. P., Xu, J., Johannisson, W., Bismarck, A., . . . Lindbergh, G. (2018). Lithium iron phosphate coated carbon fiber electrodes for structural lithium ion batteries. Composites Science And Technology, 162, 235-243
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium iron phosphate coated carbon fiber electrodes for structural lithium ion batteries
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2018 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 162, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A structural lithium ion battery is a material that can carry load and simultaneously be used to store electrical energy. We describe a path to manufacture structural positive electrodes via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of LiFePO4 (LFP), carbon black and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) onto carbon fibers. The carbon fibers act as load-bearers as well as current collectors. The quality of the coating was studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The active electrode material (LFP particles), conductive additive (carbon black) and binder (PVDF) were found to be well dispersed on the surface of the carbon fibers. Electrochemical characterization revealed a specific capacity of around 60–110 mAh g−1 with good rate performance and high coulombic efficiency. The cell was stable during cycling, with a capacity retention of around 0.5 after 1000 cycles, which indicates that the coating remained well adhered to the fibers. To investigate the adhesion of the coating, the carbon fibers were made into composite laminae in epoxy resin, and then tested using 3-point bending and double cantilever beam (DCB) tests. The former showed a small difference between coated and uncoated carbon fibers, suggesting good adhesion. The latter showed a critical strain energy release rate of ∼200–600 J m−2 for coated carbon fibers and ∼500 J m−2 for uncoated fibers, which also indicates good adhesion. This study shows that EPD can be used to produce viable structural positive electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227292 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.04.041 (DOI)000438180500028 ()2-s2.0-85046657191 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37712-1
Note

QC 20180530

Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W., Ihrner, N., Zenkert, D., Johansson, M., Carlstedt, D., Asp, L. E. & Sieland, F. (2018). Multifunctional performance of a carbon fiber UD lamina electrode for structural batteries. Composites Science And Technology, 168, 81-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional performance of a carbon fiber UD lamina electrode for structural batteries
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2018 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 168, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In electric transportation there is an inherent need to store electrical energy while maintaining a low vehicle weight. One way to decrease the weight of the structure is to use composite materials. However, the electrical energy storage in today's systems contributes to a large portion of the total weight of a vehicle. Structural batteries have been suggested as a possible route to reduce this weight. A structural battery is a material that carries mechanical loads and simultaneously stores electrical energy and can be realized using carbon fibers both as a primary load carrying material and as an active battery electrode. However, as yet, no proof of a system-wide improvement by using such structural batteries has been demonstrated. In this study we make a structural battery composite lamina from carbon fibers with a structural battery electrolyte matrix, and we show that this material provides system weight benefits. The results show that it is possible to make weight reductions in electric vehicles by using structural batteries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Carbon fibers, Electrodes, Electrolytes, Vehicles, Battery electrode, Electric transportation, Electrical energy, Electrical energy storages, Mechanical loads, Multifunctional performance, Structural batteries, Weight reduction, Secondary batteries
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236594 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.08.044 (DOI)000452342800010 ()2-s2.0-85053778783 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181126

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Harnden, R., Peuvot, K., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2018). Multifunctional Performance of Sodiated Carbon Fibers. Paper presented at Meeting of the Society, MAY 13-17, 2018, Seattle, WA. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165(13), B616-B622
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional Performance of Sodiated Carbon Fibers
2018 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 13, p. B616-B622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An investigation is conducted into the potential for sodiated PAN-based carbon fibers (CFs) to be used in multifunctional actuation, sensing, and energy harvesting. Axial CF expansion/contraction is measured during sodiation/desodiation using operando strain measurements. The reversible expansion/contraction is found to be 0.1% - which is lower than that of lithiated CFs. The axial sodiation expansion occurs in two well-defined stages, corresponding to the sloping and plateau regions of the galvanostatic cycling curve. The results indicate that the sloping region most likely corresponds to sodium insertion between graphitic sheets, while the plateau region corresponds to sodium insertion in micropores. A voltage-strain coupling is found for the CFs, with a maximum coupling factor of 0.15 +/- 0.01 V/unit strain, which could be used for strain sensing in multifunctional structures. This voltage-strain coupling is too small to be exploited for harvesting mechanical energy. The measured axial expansion is further used to estimate the capacity loss due to solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, as well as capacity loss due to sodium trapped in the CF microstructure. The outcomes of this research suggest that sodiated CFs show some potential for use as actuators and sensors in future multifunctional structures, but that lithiated CFs show more promise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2018
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238125 (URN)10.1149/2.0971813jes (DOI)000447133000001 ()
Conference
Meeting of the Society, MAY 13-17, 2018, Seattle, WA
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37712-1Swedish Research Council, 2017-03898 ; 621-2014-4577Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-20058 ; 2016-01520VINNOVA
Note

QC 20181114

Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Zenkert, D. & Carlsson, L. A. (2018). Prof. Karl-Axel Olsson (1933-2018) Obituary. Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, 20(4), 512-513
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prof. Karl-Axel Olsson (1933-2018) Obituary
2018 (English)In: Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, ISSN 1099-6362, E-ISSN 1530-7972, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 512-513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228437 (URN)10.1177/1099636218770314 (DOI)000432092900005 ()
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Ihrner, N., Johannisson, W., Sieland, F., Zenkert, D. & Johansson, M. (2017). Structural lithium ion battery electrolytes via reaction induced phase-separation. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5(48), 25652-25659
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural lithium ion battery electrolytes via reaction induced phase-separation
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 48, p. 25652-25659Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the realization of structural batteries, electrolytes where both higher ionic conductivity and stiffness are combined need to be developed. The present study describes the formation of a structural battery electrolyte (SBE) as a two phase system using reaction induced phase separation. A liquid electrolyte phase is combined with a stiff vinyl ester based thermoset matrix to form a SBE. The effect of monomer structure variations on the formed morphology and electrochemical and mechanical performance has been investigated. An ionic conductivity of 1.5 x 10(-4) S cm(-1), with a corresponding storage modulus (E') of 750 MPa, has been obtained under ambient conditions. The SBEs have been combined with carbon fibers to form a composite lamina and evaluated as a battery half-cell. Studies on the lamina revealed that both mechanical load transfer and ion transport are allowed between the carbon fibers and the electrolyte. These results pave the way for the preparation of structural batteries using carbon fibers as electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220591 (URN)10.1039/c7ta04684g (DOI)000417953100058 ()2-s2.0-85038213596 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180117

Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Braz, T. B., Cimini, C. J., Wennhage, P., Zenkert, D. & Nyman, T. (2017). Thick ply versus thin ply composite laminate stiffened panel buckling and post-buckling behavior. In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials: . Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, ICCM 2017, 20 August 2017 through 25 August 2017. International Committee on Composite Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thick ply versus thin ply composite laminate stiffened panel buckling and post-buckling behavior
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2017 (English)In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For their weight reduction, thin web panels are often used in airspace industry. In this study, a basic fuselage section is represented by a stiffened panel composed by skin, frame, stiffeners and attachments, as conceived by Arakaki and Faria [1]. In this panel design, the structure withholds large loads after the buckling of the web. This study presents a comparison between thick and thin ply composite laminates behavior under shear buckling loads. The two concepts were modeled using the commercial finite element software Abaqus®. Buckling and post-buckling nonlinear behavior for both thick ply and thin ply laminates was analyzed and results were compared. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Committee on Composite Materials, 2017
Keywords
Finite element analysis, Post-buckling analysis, Stiffened panel, Thin ply
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236839 (URN)2-s2.0-85053148550 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21st International Conference on Composite Materials, ICCM 2017, 20 August 2017 through 25 August 2017
Note

QC 20181221

Available from: 2018-12-21 Created: 2018-12-21 Last updated: 2018-12-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9744-4550

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