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Xu, J., Johannisson, W., Johansen, M., Liu, F., Zenkert, D., Lindbergh, G. & Asp, L. E. (2020). Characterization of the adhesive properties between structural battery electrolytes and carbon fibers. Composites Science And Technology, 188, Article ID 107962.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of the adhesive properties between structural battery electrolytes and carbon fibers
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2020 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 188, article id 107962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries can simultaneously store electrical energy and carry mechanical load, being similar to both laminated carbon fiber composites and lithium ion batteries. The matrix in a structural battery must both conduct ions and transfer load between the fibers, made possible with a phase-separated combination of a solid polymer and a liquid electrolyte. This leads to a trade-off between the polymer contact creating adhesion and liquid contact creating ionic conductivity. Here we investigate the fiber-matrix adhesion between carbon fibres with different sizing and two different matrix systems, using microbond testing supported by transverse tensile tests. The results show that the mechanical adhesion of the fiber-matrix interface is lower than that of a commercial non-ion conducting polymer matrix but sufficient for structural battery applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020
Keywords
Functional composites, Carbon fibres, Fibre/matrix bond, Interfacial strength, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270887 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107962 (DOI)000515192300014 ()2-s2.0-85077147525 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200325

Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-05-11Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W. (2020). Shape-morphing carbon fiber composite using electrochemical actuation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(14), 7658-7664
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shape-morphing carbon fiber composite using electrochemical actuation
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 14, p. 7658-7664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structures that are capable of changing shape can increase efficiency in many applications, but are often heavy and maintenance intensive. To reduce the mass and mechanical complexity solid-state morphing materials are desirable but are typically nonstructural and problematic to control. Here we present an electrically controlled solid-state morphing composite material that is lightweight and has a stiffness higher than aluminum. It is capable of producing large deformations and holding them with no additional power, albeit at low rates. The material is manufactured from commercial carbon fibers and a structural battery electrolyte, and uses lithium-ion insertion to produce shape changes at low voltages. A proof-of-concept material in a cantilever setup is used to show morphing, and analytical modeling shows good correlation with experimental observations. The concept presented shows considerable promise and paves the way for stiff, solid-state morphing materials.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273191 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1921132117 (DOI)2-s2.0-85083089857 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-11 Created: 2020-05-11 Last updated: 2020-05-25
Schneider, L. M., Ihrner, N., Zenkert, D. & Johansson, M. (2019). Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(6), 4362-4369
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries
2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 4362-4369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries (SBs) are a growing research subject worldwide. The idea is to provide massless energy by using a multifunctional material. This technology can provide a new pathway in electrification and offer different design opportunities and significant weight savings in vehicle applications. The type of SB discussed here is a multifunctional material that can carry mechanical loads and simultaneously provide an energy storage function. It is a composite material that utilizes carbon fibers (CFs) as electrodes and structural reinforcement which are embedded in a multifunctional polymer matrix (i.e., structural battery electrolyte). A feasible composite manufacturing method still needs to be developed to realize a full-cell SB. UV initiated polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) has previously been used to make bicontinuous structural battery electrolytes (SBE) with good ionic conductivity and mechanical performance. However, UV-curing cannot be used for fabrication of a full cell SB since a full-cell is made of multiple layers of nontransparent CFs. The present paper investigates thermally initiated PIPS to prepare a bicontinuous SBE and an SB half-cell. In addition, the effect of curing temperature was examined with respect to curing performance, morphology, ionic conductivity, and mechanical and electrochemical performance. The study revealed that thermally initiated PIPS provides a robust and scalable process route to fabricate SBs. The results of this study are an important milestone in the development of SB technology as they allow for the SB fabrication for an actual application. However, other challenges still remain to be solved before this technology can be introduced into an application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
thermal polymerization, lithium ion conductivity, polymerization induced microphase separation, bicontinuous morphology, polymer electrolyte matrices
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255322 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.9b00563 (DOI)000473116600049 ()2-s2.0-85068010658 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190805

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Burman, M., Stig, F. & Zenkert, D. (2019). Blister propagation in sandwich panels. Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, 21(5), 1683-1699
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blister propagation in sandwich panels
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, ISSN 1099-6362, E-ISSN 1530-7972, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1683-1699Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with the problem of face/core interfacial disbonds in sandwich panels that are pressurised, i.e. the disbond has an initial fluid pressure that causes the disbond to deform. The problem is often referred to as a blister. The panel with a blister is then subjected to an in-plane compressive load. Four different panels are analysed and tested, having different size disbonds and different initial internal pressure. The cases are analysed using a finite element approach where the blister is modelled using fluid elements enabling the pressure inside the blister to vary as the in-plane load is applied. The analysis uses non-linear kinematics, and in each load step, the energy release rate is calculated along the disbond crack front. This model is used for failure load predictions. The four cases are then tested experimentally by filling a pre-manufactured disbond cavity with a prescribed volume of air. This air volume is then entrapped, and the panel is subjected to an in-plane compressive load. The load and blister pressures are measured throughout the test and compared with the finite element analysis. Surface strains and blister deformations are also measured using digital correlation measurements. The predicted failure loads compare well with the experimental results, and so does the blister pressures, the latter at least qualitatively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Delamination, blister, experimental, numerical
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-271992 (URN)10.1177/1099636219838038 (DOI)000470764900004 ()2-s2.0-85067665443 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200414

Available from: 2020-04-14 Created: 2020-04-14 Last updated: 2020-04-14Bibliographically approved
Zenkert, D., Lindbergh, G. & Johansson, M. (2019). Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting. In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22: . Paper presented at International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon fibre composites as batteries, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting
2019 (English)In: International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reduced mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for a wide range of applications that requires electrical energy and includes load-bearing components. Use of lightweight materials has been identified as key for successful electrification of future transport solutions. Structure, energy storage and energy distribution are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage and energy distribution devices are structurally parasitic. One creative path forward is to develop composite materials that perform several functions at the same time – multifunctional materials. Combining functions in a single material entity will enable substantial weight savings on the systems level.

One such concept is a structural battery, a material that simultaneously carry load and stores energy like a battery. Structural batteries employ carbon fibres as structural reinforcement and negative electrode and can also be used as current collectors to save additional weight.

A number of new physical phenomena when using carbon fibres as battery electrodes have been found which allows for further multi-functionality. These are all based on the fact that carbon fibres intercalated lithium ions as an electrode material. The ion intercalation creates a reversible longitudinal expansion of the carbon fibres which could be used for actuation and morphing. A piezo electrochemical effect couples the electrical potential of the fibre to the strain acting on it, which can be used for sensing purposes. By combining the expansion and the piezo electrochemical effect one can convert mechanical energy to electrochemical energy, providing an energy harvesting function. The long-term vision of this work is to create a composite material that carries load, stores electrical energy, senses its own state, morphs and harvests energy.

National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257966 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Composite Materials ICCM22
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03898EU, Horizon 2020, 738085
Note

QC 20191015

Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Zenkert, D. & Carlsson, L. A. (2019). Editorial. Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, 21(5), 1619-1620
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, ISSN 1099-6362, E-ISSN 1530-7972, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1619-1620Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-271067 (URN)10.1177/1099636219845214 (DOI)000470764900001 ()2-s2.0-85066862309 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200316

Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-16Bibliographically approved
Peuvot, K., Hosseinaei, O., Tomani, P., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Lignin Based Electrospun Carbon Fiber Anode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 166(10), A1984-A1990
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin Based Electrospun Carbon Fiber Anode for Sodium Ion Batteries
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 10, p. A1984-A1990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as an alternative battery technology to lithium ion batteries because they have the potential of having a similar energy density and the advantage of sodium being more environmentally friendly than lithium. Hard carbon has been shown to be one of the best candidates as anode material for SIBs. However, several challenges need to be solved before commercializing SIBs such as finding cheaper and more efficient precursors to produce hard carbon and increasing the stability of hard carbon electrodes with the electrolyte. Herein, we report a new bio-based free standing electrode made from lignin based electrospun carbon fibers (LCFs) with a high specific capacity of 310 mAh.g(-1) and a first coulombic efficiency of 89%. By using high precision coulometry on the LCFs at different carbonization temperatures, it was found that the cycling stability was dependent on the carbonization temperature. The results show that LCFs are a viable and renewable source to be used as anodes in future SIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2019
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270510 (URN)10.1149/2.0711910jes (DOI)000491956700003 ()2-s2.0-85073227940 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200416

Available from: 2020-04-16 Created: 2020-04-16 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Peuvot, K., Hosseinaei, O., Tomani, P., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Lignin based electrospun carbon fiber anode for sodium ion batteries. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 166(10), A1984-A1990
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin based electrospun carbon fiber anode for sodium ion batteries
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 166, no 10, p. A1984-A1990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as an alternative battery technology to lithium ion batteries because they have the potential of having a similar energy density and the advantage of sodium being more environmentally friendly than lithium. Hard carbon has been shown to be one of the best candidates as anode material for SIBs. However, several challenges need to be solved before commercializing SIBs such as finding cheaper and more efficient precursors to produce hard carbon and increasing the stability of hard carbon electrodes with the electrolyte. Herein, we report a new bio-based free standing electrode made from lignin based electrospun carbon fibers (LCFs) with a high specific capacity of 310 mAh.g−1 and a first coulombic efficiency of 89%. By using high precision coulometry on the LCFs at different carbonization temperatures, it was found that the cycling stability was dependent on the carbonization temperature. The results show that LCFs are a viable and renewable source to be used as anodes in future SIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society Inc., 2019
Keywords
Anodes, Carbon fibers, Carbonization, Electrolytes, Lignin, Lithium-ion batteries, Metal ions, Anode material, Battery technology, Carbonization temperatures, Coulombic efficiency, Cycling stability, Free-standing electrode, High specific capacity, Renewable sources, Sodium-ion batteries, Batteries, Sodium, Stability
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-268612 (URN)10.1149/2.0711910jes (DOI)000491956700003 ()2-s2.0-85073227940 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200504

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W. & Zenkert, D. (2019). Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings. Multifunctional Materials, Article ID 035002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings
2019 (English)In: Multifunctional Materials, ISSN 2399-7532, article id 035002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries are materials that can carry mechanical load while storing electrical energy. This is achieved by combining the properties of carbon fiber composites and lithium ion batteries. There are many design parameters for a structural battery and in order to understand their impact and importance, this paper presents a model for multifunctional performance. The mechanical behavior and electrical energy storage of the structural battery are matched to the mechanical behavior of a conventional carbon fiber composite, and the electrical energy storage of a standard lithium ion battery. The latter are both monofunctional and have known performance and mass. In order to calculate the benefit of using structural batteries, the mass of the structural battery is compared to that of the two monofunctional systems. There is often an inverse relationship between the mechanical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional materials, in order to understand these relationships a sensitivity analysis is performed on variables for the structural battery. This gives new insight into the complex multifunctional design of structural batteries.

The results show that it is possible to save mass compared to monofunctional systems but that it depends strongly on the structure it is compared with. With improvements to the design of the structural battery it would be possible to achieve mass saving compared to state-of-the-art composite laminates and lithium ion batteries.

Keywords
multifunctional material, modelling, multifunctional efficiency, weight saving
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258202 (URN)10.1088/2399-7532/ab3bdd (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014-4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2020-05-11Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W., Zackrisson, M., Jönsson, C., Zenkert, D. & Lindbergh, G. (2019). Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A multifunctional structural battery consisting of carbon fibers, lithium-electrode coatings and a structural battery electrolyte is investigated with an analytical bottom-up model. This model has a multiphysics approach, calculating both mechanical properties and electrical energy storage. The intention of the model is twofold; first, calculating the potential mass saving with using a structural battery instead of the combination of a monofunctional carbon fiber composite and a monofunctional lithium ion battery. Second, the model is used to investigate the behavior of the mass saving due to changing variables of the structural battery. This variable sensitivity analysis is made in order to understand the behavior of the structural battery and its sensitivity to the different construction variables. The results show that the structural battery can save up to 26% of mass compared to the monofunctional parts.

Next, the model of the structural battery is further utilized in a life cycle assessment, where the manufacturing, usage and recycling of the structural battery is investigated. The life cycle assessment examines the structural battery as the roof of an electric vehicle. This analysis is compared to the same assessment for a steel roof and standard lithium ion batteries, which shows that manufacturing the carbon fibers and structural battery with clean energy is most important for decreasing the emissions from manufacturing.

Keywords
mass saving, structural battery, life cycle assessment, LCA
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258215 (URN)
Conference
22nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS (ICCM22)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-03898Swedish Research Council Formas, 621-2014- 4577VinnovaSwedish Energy AgencyClean Sky 2, 738085XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9744-4550

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