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Publications (10 of 179) Show all publications
Schneider, L. M., Ihrner, N., Zenkert, D. & Johansson, M. (2019). Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(6), 4362-4369
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bicontinuous Electrolytes via Thermally Initiated Polymerization for Structural Lithium Ion Batteries
2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 4362-4369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Structural batteries (SBs) are a growing research subject worldwide. The idea is to provide massless energy by using a multifunctional material. This technology can provide a new pathway in electrification and offer different design opportunities and significant weight savings in vehicle applications. The type of SB discussed here is a multifunctional material that can carry mechanical loads and simultaneously provide an energy storage function. It is a composite material that utilizes carbon fibers (CFs) as electrodes and structural reinforcement which are embedded in a multifunctional polymer matrix (i.e., structural battery electrolyte). A feasible composite manufacturing method still needs to be developed to realize a full-cell SB. UV initiated polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) has previously been used to make bicontinuous structural battery electrolytes (SBE) with good ionic conductivity and mechanical performance. However, UV-curing cannot be used for fabrication of a full cell SB since a full-cell is made of multiple layers of nontransparent CFs. The present paper investigates thermally initiated PIPS to prepare a bicontinuous SBE and an SB half-cell. In addition, the effect of curing temperature was examined with respect to curing performance, morphology, ionic conductivity, and mechanical and electrochemical performance. The study revealed that thermally initiated PIPS provides a robust and scalable process route to fabricate SBs. The results of this study are an important milestone in the development of SB technology as they allow for the SB fabrication for an actual application. However, other challenges still remain to be solved before this technology can be introduced into an application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
Keywords
thermal polymerization, lithium ion conductivity, polymerization induced microphase separation, bicontinuous morphology, polymer electrolyte matrices
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255322 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.9b00563 (DOI)000473116600049 ()2-s2.0-85068010658 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190805

Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Brännström, S., Johansson, M. & Malmström, E. (2019). Enzymatically Synthesized Vinyl Ether-Disulfide Monomer Enabling an Orthogonal Combination of Free Radical and Cationic Chemistry toward Sustainable Functional Networks. Biomacromolecules, 20(3), 1308-1316
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enzymatically Synthesized Vinyl Ether-Disulfide Monomer Enabling an Orthogonal Combination of Free Radical and Cationic Chemistry toward Sustainable Functional Networks
2019 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1308-1316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work demonstrates a versatile and environmentally friendly route for the development of new orthogonal monomers that can be used for postfunctionalizable polymer networks. A monomer containing both vinyl ether (VE) and cyclic disulfide moieties was synthesized via enzyme catalysis under benign reaction conditions. The bifunctional monomer could be polymerized to form macromolecues with differing architectures by the use of either cationic or radical photo polymerization. When cationic polymerization was performed, a linear polymer was obtained with pendant disulfide units in the side chain, whereas in the presence of radical initiator, the VE reacted with the disulfide to yield a branched structure. The monomer was thereafter used to design networks that could be postfunctionalized; the monomer was cross-linked with cationic initiation together with a difunctional VE oligomer and after cross-linking the unreacted disulfides were coupled to Rhodamine-VE by radical UV-initiation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248092 (URN)10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01710 (DOI)000461270500018 ()30731040 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062352833 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190429

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Brännström, S., Johansson, M. & Malmström, E. (2019). Enzymatically Synthesized Vinyl Ether-Disulfide Monomer Enablingan Orthogonal Combination of Free Radical and Cationic Chemistrytoward Sustainable Functional Networks. Biomacromolecules, 20(3), 1308-1316, Article ID 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01710.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enzymatically Synthesized Vinyl Ether-Disulfide Monomer Enablingan Orthogonal Combination of Free Radical and Cationic Chemistrytoward Sustainable Functional Networks
2019 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1308-1316, article id 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work demonstrates a versatile and environmentally friendly route for the development of new orthogonal monomers that can be used for postfunctionalizable polymer networks. A monomer containing both vinyl ether (VE) and cyclic disulfide moieties was synthesized via enzyme catalysis under benign reaction conditions. The bifunctional monomer could be polymerized to form macromolecues with differing architectures by the use of either cationic or radical photo polymerization. When cationic polymerization was performed, a linear polymer was obtained with pendant disulfide units in the side chain, whereas in the presence of radical initiator, the VE reacted with the disulfide to yield a branched structure. The monomer was thereafter used to design networks that could be postfunctionalized; the monomer was cross-linked with cationic initiation together with a difunctional VE oligomer and after cross-linking the unreacted disulfides were coupled to RhodamineVE by radical UV-initiation.

National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249949 (URN)10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01710 (DOI)
Note

QC 20190425

Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Träger, A., Klein, G., Carrick, C., Pettersson, T., Johansson, M., Wågberg, L., . . . Carlmark, A. (2019). Macroscopic cellulose probes for the measurement of polymer grafted surfaces. Cellulose (London), 26(3), 1467-1477
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macroscopic cellulose probes for the measurement of polymer grafted surfaces
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2019 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 1467-1477Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A synthesis protocol was identified to produce covalent grafting of poly(dimethyl siloxane) from cellulose, based on prior studies of analogous ring opening polymerizations. Following this polymer modification of cellulose, the contact adhesion was anticipated to be modified and varied as a function of the polymer molecular mass. The synthetic details were optimized for a filter paper surface before grafting the polymer from bulk cellulose spheres. The adhesion of the unmodified and grafted, bulk cellulose spheres were evaluated using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory with a custom build contact adhesion testing setup. We report the first example of grafting poly(dimethyl siloxane) directly from bulk cellulose using ring opening polymerization. For short grafting lengths, both the JKR work of adhesion and the adhesion energy at the critical energy release rate (G(c)) were comparable to unmodified cellulose beads. When polymer grafting lengths were extended sufficiently where chain entanglements occur, both the JKR work of adhesion and G(c) were increased by as much as 190%. Given the multitude of options available to graft polymers from cellulose, this study shows the potential to use this type of cellulose spheres to study the interaction between different polymer surfaces in a controlled manner. [GRAPHICS] .

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Grafted polymer, Cellulose, Contact mechanics, Adhesion, Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247840 (URN)10.1007/s10570-018-2196-2 (DOI)000460617900004 ()
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Olsen, P., Jawerth, M., Lawoko, M., Johansson, M. & Berglund, L. (2019). Transforming technical lignins to structurally defined star-copolymers under ambient conditions. Green Chemistry, 21(9), 2478-2486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming technical lignins to structurally defined star-copolymers under ambient conditions
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2019 (English)In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 2478-2486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transforming biomass derived components to materials with controlled and predictable properties is a major challenge. Current work describes the controlled synthesis of starcopolymers with functional and degradable arms from the Lignoboost (R) process. Macromolecular control is achieved by combining lignin fractionation and characterization with ring-opening copolymerization (ROCP). The cyclic monomers used are epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon CL) and a functional carbonate monomer, 2-allyloxymethyl-2-ethyltrimethylene carbonate (AOMEC). The synthesis is performed at ambient temperature, under bulk conditions, in an open flask, and the graft composition and allyl functionality distribution are controlled by the copolymerization kinetics. Emphasis is placed on understanding the initiation efficiency, structural changes to the lignin backbone and the final macromolecular architecture. The present approach provides a green, scalable and cost effective protocol to create well-defined functional macromolecules from technical lignins.

National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252978 (URN)10.1039/c9gc00835g (DOI)000468627300033 ()2-s2.0-85065578205 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190814

Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Jawerth, M., Johansson, M., Lundmark, S., Gioia, C. & Lawoko, M. (2018). A retrosynthesis perspective on new thermoset resin applications based on industrial Kraft lignin. Paper presented at 255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA. Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A retrosynthesis perspective on new thermoset resin applications based on industrial Kraft lignin
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2018 (English)In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240159 (URN)000435537703036 ()
Conference
255th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water, MAR 18-22, 2018, New Orleans, LA
Note

QC 20190111

Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Brännström, S., Finnveden, M., Johansson, M., Martinelle, M. & Malmström, E. (2018). Itaconate based polyesters: Selectivity and performance of esterification catalysts. European Polymer Journal, 103, 370-377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Itaconate based polyesters: Selectivity and performance of esterification catalysts
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2018 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 103, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of different esterification catalysts was studied for the use in synthesis of renewable polyesters from dimethyl itaconate (DMI), dimethyl succinate (DMS) and 1,4-butanediol (BD). Itaconic acid and derivatives such as DMI are interesting monomers because of their multiple functionalities and previous work has shown great potential. However, the multiple functionalities also pose challenges to avoid side reactions such as thermally initiated, premature, radical crosslinking and/or isomerization of the 1,1-disubstituted unsaturation. Additionally, the two carboxylic acids have inherently different reactivity. One key factor to control reactions with IA is to understand the performance of different catalysts. In this study, six esterification catalysts were investigated; immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB), titanium(IV)butoxide (Ti(OBu)4), p-toluenesulfonic acid (pTSA), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU), and 1,5,7-triazabicyclodec-5-ene (TBD). CalB and Ti(OBu)4 were selected for further characterization with appreciable differences in catalytic activity and selectivity towards DMI. CalB was the most effective catalysts and was applied at 60 °C while Ti(OBu)4 required 160 °C for a reasonable reaction rate. CalB was selective towards DMS and the non-conjugated side of DMI, resulting in polyesters with itaconate-residues mainly located at the chain ends, while Ti(OBu)4 showed low selectivity, resulting in polyesters with more randomly incorporated itaconate units. Thermal analysis of the polyesters showed that the CalB-catalyzed polyesters were semi-crystalline, whereas the Ti(OBu)4-catalyzed polyesters were amorphous, affirming the difference in monomer sequence. The polyester resins were crosslinked by UV-initiated free radical polymerization and the material properties were evaluated and showed that the crosslinked materials had similar material properties. The films from the polyester resins catalyzed by CalB were furthermore completely free from discoloration whereas the film made from the polyester resins catalyzed with Ti(OBu)4 had a yellow color, caused by the catalyst. Thus, it has been shown that CalB can be used to attain sustainable unsaturated polyesters resins for coating applications, exhibiting equally good properties as resins obtained from traditional metal-catalysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biobased, Coatings, Enzyme catalysis, Organometallic catalysis, UV-curing
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-229209 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2018.04.017 (DOI)000434745200039 ()2-s2.0-85046353288 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180601

Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, W., Ihrner, N., Zenkert, D., Johansson, M., Carlstedt, D., Asp, L. E. & Sieland, F. (2018). Multifunctional performance of a carbon fiber UD lamina electrode for structural batteries. Composites Science And Technology, 168, 81-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional performance of a carbon fiber UD lamina electrode for structural batteries
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2018 (English)In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 168, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In electric transportation there is an inherent need to store electrical energy while maintaining a low vehicle weight. One way to decrease the weight of the structure is to use composite materials. However, the electrical energy storage in today's systems contributes to a large portion of the total weight of a vehicle. Structural batteries have been suggested as a possible route to reduce this weight. A structural battery is a material that carries mechanical loads and simultaneously stores electrical energy and can be realized using carbon fibers both as a primary load carrying material and as an active battery electrode. However, as yet, no proof of a system-wide improvement by using such structural batteries has been demonstrated. In this study we make a structural battery composite lamina from carbon fibers with a structural battery electrolyte matrix, and we show that this material provides system weight benefits. The results show that it is possible to make weight reductions in electric vehicles by using structural batteries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Carbon fibers, Electrodes, Electrolytes, Vehicles, Battery electrode, Electric transportation, Electrical energy, Electrical energy storages, Mechanical loads, Multifunctional performance, Structural batteries, Weight reduction, Secondary batteries
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236594 (URN)10.1016/j.compscitech.2018.08.044 (DOI)000452342800010 ()2-s2.0-85053778783 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181126

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
Finnveden, M., Brännström, S., Johansson, M., Malmström, E. & Martinelle, M. (2018). Novel sustainable synthesis of vinyl ether ester building blocks, directly from carboxylic acids and the corresponding hydroxyl vinyl ether, and their photopolymerization. RSC Advances, 8(44), 24716-24723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel sustainable synthesis of vinyl ether ester building blocks, directly from carboxylic acids and the corresponding hydroxyl vinyl ether, and their photopolymerization
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2018 (English)In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 44, p. 24716-24723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased environmental awareness has led to a demand for sustainable, bio-based materials. Consequently, the development of new benign synthesis pathways utilizing a minimum of reaction steps and available bio-based building blocks is needed. In the present study, vinyl ether alcohols and functional carboxylic acids were used to synthesize bifunctional vinyl ether esters using the immobilized enzyme Candida antarctica lipase B as a catalyst. Vinyl ethers are attractive alternatives to (meth)acrylates due to low allergenic hazards, low toxicity, and fast polymerization; however, difficult synthesis limits the monomer availability. The synthesis was performed in one-pot and the described method was successful within a broad temperature range (22-90 degrees C) and in various organic solvents as well as in the bulk. The synthesis of different vinyl ether esters reached high conversions (above 90%) after less than 1 h and products were purified by removing the enzyme by filtration using only small amounts of acetone. This approach is a straightforward route to reach monomers with multiple types of functionalities that can be used as different photo-curable thermoset resins. In this work, this was demonstrated by polymerizing the monomers with cationic and radical UV-polymerization. By changing the functional carboxylic acids, the architecture of the final polymer can be tailored, herein demonstrated by two examples. In the developed versatile method, carboxylic acids can be used directly as acyl donors, constituting a more sustainable alternative to the carboxylic acid derivatives used today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232801 (URN)10.1039/c8ra04636k (DOI)000438939300004 ()2-s2.0-85050160901 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 211-2013-70
Note

QC 20180802

Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Brännström, S., Finnveden, M., Razza, N., Martinelle, M., Malmström, E., Sangermano, M. & Johansson, M. (2018). Tailoring Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Cationically UV-Cured Systems by a Rational Design of Vinyl Ether Ester Oligomers using Enzyme Catalysis. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 219(21), Article ID 1800335.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tailoring Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Cationically UV-Cured Systems by a Rational Design of Vinyl Ether Ester Oligomers using Enzyme Catalysis
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2018 (English)In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 219, no 21, article id 1800335Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a demand for new sustainable polymeric materials. Vinyl ethers are, in this context, attractive oligomers since they polymerize fast, are non-toxic, and can be polymerized under ambient conditions. The availability of vinyl ether oligomers is, however, currently limited due to difficulties in synthesizing them without using tedious synthesis routes. This work presents the synthesis of a series of vinyl ether ester oligomers using enzyme catalysis under solvent-free conditions and the subsequent photoinduced cationic polymerization to form polymer thermosets with T(g)s ranging from -10 to 100 degrees C. The whole process is very efficient as the synthesis takes less than 1 h with no need for purification and the crosslinking is complete within 2 min.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
biocatalysis, cationic polymerization, photopolymerization, solvent free, vinyl ethers
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239808 (URN)10.1002/macp.201800335 (DOI)000449760300003 ()2-s2.0-85054513248 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190107

Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3201-5138

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