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Zenkert, D., Harnden, R., Asp, L. E., Lindbergh, G. & Johansson, M. (2024). Multifunctional carbon fibre composites using electrochemistry. Composites Part B: Engineering, 273, Article ID 111240.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multifunctional carbon fibre composites using electrochemistry
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2024 (English)In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 273, article id 111240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most products today have several functions, but these are achieved by integrating different monofunctional devices and/or materials in a system. Having several functions simultaneously in one single material has many potential advantages, such as a structural material that can also store energy, have self-sensing or self-healing capability or any other physical function. This would lead mass and resource savings, being more energy efficient and thus more sustainable. This paper presents a mini review on how carbon fibres can be used for integrating several functions simultaneously in a high-performance load carrying structural material using the electrical and electrochemical properties of carbon fibres. Through this carbon fibre composites can also store energy like a lithium-ion battery, be used as a strain sensor, have electrically controlled actuation and shape-morphing, and be used as an energy harvester.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Energy harvesting, Energy storage, Sensing, Shape-morphing, Structural
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343481 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesb.2024.111240 (DOI)001181492200001 ()2-s2.0-85183991466 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240404

Available from: 2024-02-15 Created: 2024-02-15 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
Pezzana, L., Malmström, E., Johansson, M., Casalegno, V. & Sangermano, M. (2024). Multiple approaches to exploit ferulic acid bio-based epoxy monomer for green thermoset. Industrial crops and products (Print), 212, Article ID 118304.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple approaches to exploit ferulic acid bio-based epoxy monomer for green thermoset
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2024 (English)In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 212, article id 118304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bio-based monomers are under investigation to replace fossil-based materials due to the concerns regarding climate change and depletion of fossil raw materials. Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose represent the main interesting platform to use for developing new monomers due to their significant abundance. Ferulic acid is one of the moieties derived from lignin which can be suitable for many applications. In this study, the ferulic acid was epoxidated and it was investigated in cationic UV-curing. Due to the limited performance obtained during UV-curing, two alternative strategies were developed to overcome the initial problem of poor material properties. A thiol-ene epoxy system based on the ferulic epoxy derivative and a commercially available thiol as well as a thermally cured system based on pure cationic curing of ferulic acid diepoxy were chosen as alternative methods. The different curing processes were thoroughly investigated by means of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and photo-DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). The thermo-mechanical properties of the thermosets employing DMA- (dynamic mechanical analysis) and tensile analysis were deeply evaluated. Finally, the possibility to use the best cured system as an adhesive was raised investigating the shear strength of metallic and composite joined samples using the single lap offset (SLO) test under compression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Bio-based monomer, Cationic, Ferulic acid, Thiol-ene, Thiol-epoxy, UV-curing
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344332 (URN)10.1016/j.indcrop.2024.118304 (DOI)001203996600001 ()2-s2.0-85186542051 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240503

Available from: 2024-03-13 Created: 2024-03-13 Last updated: 2024-05-03Bibliographically approved
Pezzana, L., Emanuele, A., Sesana, R., Delprete, C., Malmström, E., Johansson, M. & Sangermano, M. (2023). Cationic UV-curing of isosorbide-based epoxy coating reinforced with macadamia nut shell powder. Progress in organic coatings, 185, Article ID 107949.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cationic UV-curing of isosorbide-based epoxy coating reinforced with macadamia nut shell powder
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2023 (English)In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 185, article id 107949Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The scientific community is deeply investigating bio-based derivatives to reduce the consumption of fossil-based material and lessen the environmental impact. The development of bio-based plastic is one of the main challenges that needs to be overcome to achieve the goal of sustainability and green economy. In this view, we exploit the use of a bio-based monomer, isosorbide, for the production of bio-based resins which can be used in coating applications. The isosorbide was functionalized in a two-step reaction to introduce epoxy groups that subsequently were activated via UV radiation to trigger cross-linking to obtain dry films. The curing process was followed by means of real time analyses such as FT-IR, photo-DSC and photorheology. The bio-based resin showed the feasibility to be used in UV-cationic curing reaching conversion above 85 %. Furthermore, a bio-based filler from macadamia nutshell was selected as an additive to the formulation with the aim of increasing the surface hardness of the final coating. A significant increase in hardness was observed for coatings containing 30 wt% of macadamia nut shell powder (MAC). In this case, the hardness reached 72 Shore D, whereas the pristine bio-based epoxy resin achieved only 19 Shore D. Thermo-mechanical analysis of the final properties was carried out by means of DMTA, DSC and tensile test. Interestingly, the addition of MAC resulted in a noticeable increase of the Tg, from 24 °C for the pristine resin to 39 °C for the coating with 20 wt% of filler. Lastly, a morphology assessment was performed to investigate the size and shape of the filler and the interaction between the polymer matrix and the filler.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Bio-based, Coating, Epoxy, Hardness, Isosorbide, macadamia nutshell, UV-curing
National Category
Polymer Technologies Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-337780 (URN)10.1016/j.porgcoat.2023.107949 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170421219 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231009

Available from: 2023-10-09 Created: 2023-10-09 Last updated: 2023-10-09Bibliographically approved
Laxminarayan, T., Truncali, A., Rajagopalan, N., Weinell, C. E., Johansson, M. & Kiil, S. (2023). Chemically-resistant epoxy novolac coatings: Effects of size-fractionated technical Kraft lignin particles as a structure-reinforcing component. Progress in organic coatings, 183, Article ID 107793.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemically-resistant epoxy novolac coatings: Effects of size-fractionated technical Kraft lignin particles as a structure-reinforcing component
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2023 (English)In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 183, article id 107793Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To provide protection against corrosion in harsh environments, high performance anticorrosive coatings are applied on steel structures at all scales. However, to also limit the use of fossil-based ingredients, there is a growing demand to incorporate renewable raw materials in the coating formulations. In this study, to replace pigments and fillers of an epoxy novolac coating, technical Kraft lignin particles were ground and size fractionated (i.e., sieved), and used for formulation work. The effects of sieved and unsieved Kraft lignin, as structure-reinforcing components, on the anticorrosive and mechanical performance of epoxy coatings were subsequently investigated using the following methods: size exclusion chromatography (SEC), phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), salt spray exposure, pull-off, König pendulum hardness, and chemical resistance tests. Compared to the unsieved-lignin reference (U-L EN), the coating based on lignin fines (S-L EN) showed about 31 % lower rust creep after 70 days of salt spray exposure. However, no surface defects or chemical degradation were observed for any of the coatings. For the S-L EN coating, excellent adhesion strength (23 MPa) and impact resistance (0.49 N), relative to reference values of 17 and 13 MPa and 0.41 and 0.07 N for commercial and lignin-based diglycidyl ether bisphenol F (L-DGEBF) coatings, respectively, were measured. The addition of lignin particles did not influence the chemical resistance, the hardness, and the glass transition temperature of the epoxy novolac coatings. In summary, chemically unmodified Kraft lignin particles, after grinding and sieving, can be incorporated in epoxy novolac coatings (up to 25 vol%), thereby providing a bio-based alternative to pigments and fillers in heavy duty coatings (primers in particular). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Anticorrosive coatings, Bio-based, Sustainable, High performance, Organic polymers
National Category
Materials Engineering Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-332093 (URN)10.1016/j.porgcoat.2023.107793 (DOI)001044190800001 ()2-s2.0-85165192498 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230719

Available from: 2023-07-19 Created: 2023-07-19 Last updated: 2024-06-03Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M., Yari, H., Ramezanzadeh, B., Ranjabr, Z. & Jannesari, A. (2023). Editorial for the special issue on ICCC2021- surface coating and corrosion symposium. Progress in organic coatings, 175, Article ID 107321.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial for the special issue on ICCC2021- surface coating and corrosion symposium
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2023 (English)In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 175, article id 107321Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
National Category
Polymer Technologies Polymer Technologies Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-329091 (URN)10.1016/j.porgcoat.2022.107321 (DOI)000895949500004 ()2-s2.0-85143718132 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230615

Available from: 2023-06-15 Created: 2023-06-15 Last updated: 2023-06-15Bibliographically approved
Emilsson, S., Vijayakumar, V., Mindemark, J. & Johansson, M. (2023). Exploring the use of oligomeric carbonates as porogens and ion-conductors in phase-separated structural electrolytes for Lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta, 449, Article ID 142176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the use of oligomeric carbonates as porogens and ion-conductors in phase-separated structural electrolytes for Lithium-ion batteries
2023 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 449, article id 142176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phase-separated structural battery electrolytes (SBEs) have the potential to enhance the mechanical stability of the electrolyte while maintaining a high ion conduction. This can be achieved via polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS), which creates a two-phase system with a liquid electrolyte percolating a mesoporous ther-moset. While previous studies have used commercially available liquid electrolytes, this study investigates the use of novel oligomeric carbonates to enhanced the safety of the SBEs. Increasing the carbonate chain length significantly enhances the thermal stability of the SBEs. Tuning the molecular structure of the liquid electrolyte has a significant effect on the PIPS process and SBE morphology. Using a combination of analyses on a series of wet and dried SBEs, the complex interplay between the phases is interpreted. When an increased pore size is achieved, it leads to a lower MacMullin number (NM). A conductivity of 2 x 10-5 S/cm with a NM=13 could be achieved, while maintaining a thermal stability up to 150 degrees C. The present study demonstrates a versatile approach to tailor this type of electrolyte.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Structural batteries, Polymer electrolyte, Polymerization-induced phase separation, Ionic conductivity, McMullin number, Carbonate oligomers, Lithium ion
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326065 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2023.142176 (DOI)000957971600001 ()2-s2.0-85150247700 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230425

Available from: 2023-04-25 Created: 2023-04-25 Last updated: 2023-04-25Bibliographically approved
Cattaruzza, M., Fang, Y., Furo, I., Lindbergh, G., Liu, F. & Johansson, M. (2023). Hybrid polymer-liquid lithium ion electrolytes: effect of porosity on the ionic and molecular mobility. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 11(13), 7006-7015
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid polymer-liquid lithium ion electrolytes: effect of porosity on the ionic and molecular mobility
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 11, no 13, p. 7006-7015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Alternative electrolyte systems such as hybrid electrolytes are much sought after to overcome safety issues related to liquid electrolytes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Hybrid solid-liquid electrolytes (HEs) like the heterogeneous structural battery electrolyte (SBE) consist of two discrete co-existing phases prepared by polymerization-induced phase separation: one solid polymer phase providing mechanical integrity and the other one a percolating liquid ion-conducting phase. The present work investigates the ion and the solvent mobility in a series of HEs using morphological, electrochemical impedance and NMR spectroscopic methods. All the dried HEs exhibit a porous structure with a broad pore size distribution stretching down to <10 nm diameter. Penetration of the individual components of the solution, that is the ions and the solvent, in the solid polymer phase is demonstrated. Yet, it is the pores that are the main ion conduction channels in the liquid-saturated HEs and, in general, translational mobility is strongly dependent on the volume fraction and size of the pores and, thereby, on the initial liquid electrolyte content. We also observe that the translational mobility of solvent and the ions vary differently with the pore volume fraction. This finding is explained by the presence of small mesopores where the mobility strongly depends on the specific interactions of the molecular constituent with the pore wall. These interactions are inferred to be stronger for the EC/PC solvent than for the ions. This study shows how the morphology and the chemical composition of HEs affect the ionic and molecular transport in the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2023
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331089 (URN)10.1039/d3ta00250k (DOI)000946407000001 ()2-s2.0-85150530692 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230705

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Ribca, I., Sochor, B., Betker, M., Roth, S. V., Lawoko, M., Sevastyanova, O., . . . Johansson, M. (2023). Impact of lignin source on the performance of thermoset resins. European Polymer Journal, 194, 112141-112141, Article ID 112141.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of lignin source on the performance of thermoset resins
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2023 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 194, p. 112141-112141, article id 112141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of different technical hardwood lignin-based resins have been successfully synthesized, characterized, and utilised to produce thiol-ene thermoset polymers. Firstly, technical lignin was fractionated and allylated, whereafter it was crosslinked with a trifunctional thiol. Structural and morphological characteristics of the lignin fractions were studied by 1H NMR, 31P NMR, SEC, FTIR, DSC, TGA, and WAXS. The hardwood lignin fractions have a high content of C5-substituted OH groups. The WAXS studies on lignin fractions revealed the presence of two π-π stacking conformations, sandwiched (4.08–4.25 Å) and T-shaped (6.52–6.91 Å). The presence of lignin superstructures with distances/sizes between 10.5 and 12.8 Å was also identified. The curing reaction of the thermosets was investigated by RT-FTIR. Almost all thermosets (excepting one fraction) reached 95% of the thiol conversion in less than 17 h, revealing the enhanced reactivity of the allylated hardwood lignin samples.

The mechanical properties of the thermosets were investigated by DMA. The curing performance, as well as the final thermoset properties, have been correlated to variations in chemical composition and morphological differences of lignin fractions. The described results clearly demonstrate that technical hardwood lignins can be utilized for these applications, but also that significant differences compared to softwood lignins have to be considered for material design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Hardwood lignin, Solvent fractionation, Allylation, Thiol-ene thermosets, Wide-angle X-ray scattering, π-π stacking interactions
National Category
Materials Chemistry Polymer Technologies Polymer Chemistry Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-327220 (URN)10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2023.112141 (DOI)001000190100001 ()2-s2.0-85159278832 (Scopus ID)
Funder
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Note

QC 20230524

Available from: 2023-05-22 Created: 2023-05-22 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Truncali, A., Ribca, I., Yao, J. G., Hakkarainen, M. & Johansson, M. (2023). Microwave-assisted fractionation and functionalization of technical lignin toward thermoset resins. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 140(45), Article ID e54645.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave-assisted fractionation and functionalization of technical lignin toward thermoset resins
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 140, no 45, article id e54645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer, with a potential to serve as a building block of rigid and thermally stable bio-based materials. However, it is still underutilized because of the heterogeneous and not fully understood chemical structure. Here, technical softwood Kraft lignin is refined in to narrow-dispersity and relatively low molar mass fractions by microwave-assisted processing, followed by microwave-assisted allylation and further application in lignin-based thermosets. This microwave processing is carried out under non-catalyzed conditions using a low boiling point solvent and elevated pressure. The properties of the retrieved fractions are investigated by 31P-NMR, heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy-NMR, SEC, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The extraction yield of the selected lignin fraction is around 25%, with the number-average molar mass (Mn), weight-average molar mass (Mw), and dispersity (Đ) significantly reduced. The chemically modified lignin is characterized by 31P NMR and FTIR, which provides evidence of the introduction of the allyl moieties. The analyses demonstrate that 90 ± 3% of the hydroxyl groups in fractionated lignin are successfully allylated. Subsequently, the allylated lignin is cross-linked through thermally induced thiol-ene chemistry to produce lignin-based thermosets. The final thermosets exhibit a storage modulus of 4050 ± 60 MPa and a Tg of 105 ± 5°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2023
Keywords
allylation, microwave-assisted fractionation, microwave-assisted functionalization, softwood lignin, thiol-ene thermosets
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-347512 (URN)10.1002/app.54645 (DOI)001060855200001 ()2-s2.0-85169677590 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240617

Available from: 2024-06-17 Created: 2024-06-17 Last updated: 2024-06-17Bibliographically approved
Telaretti Leggieri, R., Kaldéus, T., Johansson, M. & Malmström, E. (2023). PDMAEMA from alpha to omega chain ends: tools for elucidating the structure of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate). Polymer Chemistry, 14(11), 1241-1253
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PDMAEMA from alpha to omega chain ends: tools for elucidating the structure of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)
2023 (English)In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 1241-1253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is currently used for a wide range of applications, often involving the synthesis of block copolymers. Here, an in-depth characterization of PDMAEMA prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is reported, with a focus on end group analysis. The structure of the polymer was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, which assessed the presence of deactivated chains and allowed for a quantification of their fraction. Detailed characterization by MALDI-TOF MS further provided insightful information about the chain end fidelity. On this basis, termination by disproportionation was found to be the main mechanism for the loss of active chain ends. The detailed characterization allowed for an estimation of the preserved chain end functionality (CEF) of PDMAEMA. Additionally, a chain extension experiment was conducted, using PDMAEMA as a macroinitiator for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) by ATRP. The results of chain extension supported the estimation of CEF based on the data provided by NMR and MS. Although assessing the degree of polymerization of a block copolymer proves challenging when the amount of the initial block able to act as a macroinitiator is not known a priori, an accurate estimation of the DP and M-n of the obtained block copolymer was possible by total nitrogen analysis. The tools here provided for the characterization of PDMAEMA and its block copolymer architectures allow the obtainment of essential information about the extent of control over the homo- and copolymerization. Therefore, they are of high importance when well-defined structures are aimed for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2023
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-325001 (URN)10.1039/d2py01604d (DOI)000936464800001 ()2-s2.0-85149069332 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230327

Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2023-03-27Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3201-5138

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