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Börjesson, M., Asplund, D. & Hamilton, C. (2023). Optimal kilometre tax for electric vehicles. Transport Policy, 134, 52-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal kilometre tax for electric vehicles
2023 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 134, p. 52-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We approximate the spatial and temporal distribution of the Pigouvian kilometre tax for road traffic in the most urbanized part of Sweden, with four million inhabitants and a similar "degree of urbanization" to the Netherlands and the UK, in a future scenario where most vehicles are electric. We apply the national transport model and include all links and four time-of-day periods. We find that roughly half of the vehicle kilometres travelled in Ma center dot lardalen has a marginal external cost (congestion and other external costs included) below 0.04 euro/km which is below the fuel tax in 2019). The mean marginal external cost is higher, at 0.09 euro/km. Our focus is not the exact numbers but the magnitudes and the vast variation across links in a country-like region: 90 percent of the revenue is collected on 10 percent of the road network. Hence, a nation-wide kilometre tax, implying high enforcement cost, is likely not the best option. Instead, the marginal external cost could probably be internalized fairly accurate by a congestion tax in the big cities in combination with for instance an ownership tax. We find that the Pigouvian tax would cover the public costs for our target road system. We relate our findings to the mainstem fiscal tax literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Kilometre tax, Milage tax, Congestion charges, Equity, Infrastructure investments, Electric cars, Fiscal taxes, Benefit principle
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-325253 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2023.01.019 (DOI)000944914600001 ()2-s2.0-85148335262 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231122

Available from: 2023-04-04 Created: 2023-04-04 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Hess, S., Daly, A. & Börjesson, M. (2020). A critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs for appraisal value of travel time measures. Transportation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs for appraisal value of travel time measures
2020 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stated choice surveys have established themselves as the preferred approach for value of travel time elicitation with the help of choice models. However, major differences exist in the approach used across regions and contexts. In Europe (particularly Northern Europe), value of travel time is often estimated in large national studies, which continue to rely extensively on simple time-money trade-offs. On the other hand, studies in Australia and South America in particular tend to have a more local focus and follow the notion that more complex setups are preferable. The European studies however are also those where the results are actually used in cost–benefit analysis and data from European studies have formed a testbed for many advanced model specifications. The present paper aims to provide a critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs, drawing from our experience in recent European studies. We highlight a number of issues, in terms of differences in valuations across formats as well as a lack of clarity on how respondents actually interpret travel time in these simple time-money trade-offs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Stated choice, Time-money trade-offs, Value of time, Commerce, Cost benefit analysis, Travel time, Advanced modeling, Benefit analysis, Choice model, South America, Stated choice surveys, Trade off, Economic and social effects
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-274243 (URN)10.1007/s11116-020-10097-w (DOI)000521764800001 ()2-s2.0-85082951834 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200707

Available from: 2020-07-07 Created: 2020-07-07 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Eliasson, J. & Rubensson, I. (2020). Distributional effects of public transport subsidies. Journal of Transport Geography, 84, Article ID 102674.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributional effects of public transport subsidies
2020 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 84, article id 102674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze the distribution of transit subsidies across population groups in Stockholm. We develop a novel methodology that takes into account that the subsidy per passenger varies across transit links, since production costs and load factors vary. With this, we calculate the subsidy per trip in the transit network and analyze the distribution of subsidies across population groups. The average subsidy rate in Stockholm is 44%, but the variation across trips turns out to be large: while 34% of the trips are not subsidized at all but generates a profit, 16% of the trips have a subsidy rate higher than 2/3. We calculate the concentration index to explore the distribution of subsidies across income groups. The average subsidy per person is similar for all income groups, except for the top income quintile. This holds not only for the current flat-fare system, but also for distance-based fares and fares with a constant subsidy rate. Transit subsidies is hence not effective as a redistribution policy in Stockholm. The largest systematic variation we find is across residential areas: the average subsidy per person is five times higher in the peripheral areas of the region compared to the regional core, and the subsidy per trip is ten times higher.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2020
Keywords
Concentration index, Distribution effect, Equity, Progressive, Public transport, Subsidies, income, population distribution, spatial distribution, subsidy system, Stockholm [Stockholm (CNT)], Stockholm [Sweden], Sweden
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-277249 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102674 (DOI)000530863400007 ()2-s2.0-85081200474 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200630

Available from: 2020-06-30 Created: 2020-06-30 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Fung, C. M. & Proost, S. (2020). How rural is too rural for transit?: Optimal transit subsidies and supply in rural areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 88, Article ID 102859.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How rural is too rural for transit?: Optimal transit subsidies and supply in rural areas
2020 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 88, article id 102859Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimal supply of rail and bus in low density areas is studied by calibrating a demand and supply model with three modes (car, bus and rail) to an existing low density corridor. Varying the length of the network, the frequencies and the size of the populations, allows to study the trade-off between the consumer surplus losses of the public transport users and the transit operation and maintenance costs savings. We find that for an existing rail network, the optimization of frequency is the prime source of welfare gains. The rail network is marginally beneficial in the sense that keeping the network is welfare improving as long as there is no major repair or replacement investment needed. When population in the smaller towns decreases strongly, it becomes welfare improving to close the existing rail network but a bus service remains beneficial for at least part of the network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020
Keywords
Rail supply, Bus supply, Rural areas, Optimal subsidies, Optimal frequency
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-286170 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102859 (DOI)000582208900037 ()2-s2.0-85090581637 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210203

Available from: 2021-02-03 Created: 2021-02-03 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Näsman, P., Nissan, A., Ntriankos, I., Eliasson, J. & Börjesson, M. (2020). Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs. International Journal of Transportation Engineering and technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of Transportation Engineering and technology, ISSN 2575-1743Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-284860 (URN)10.11648/j.ijtet.20200603.12 (DOI)
Note

QC 20201123

Available from: 2020-11-04 Created: 2020-11-04 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
West, J. & Börjesson, M. (2020). The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost-benefit analysis and distribution effects. Transportation, 47(1), 145-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost-benefit analysis and distribution effects
2020 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 145-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper performs an ex-post cost-benefit and distribution analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013, based on observed effects and an ex-post evaluated transport model. Although Gothenburg is a small city with congestion limited to the highway junctions, the congestion charge scheme is socially beneficial, generating a net surplus of euro20 million per year. From a financial perspective, the investment cost was repaid in slightly more than a year and, from a social surplus perspective, is repaid in < 4 years. Still, the sums that are redistributed in Gothenburg are substantially larger than the net benefit. In the distribution analysis we develop an alternative welfare rule, where the utility is translated to money by dividing the utility by the average marginal utility of money, thereby avoiding putting a higher weight on high-income people. The alternative welfare rule shows larger re-distribution effects, because paying charges is more painful for low-income classes due to the higher marginal utility of money. Low-income citizens pay a larger share of their income because all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg and workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars for private trips. No correlation was found between voting pattern and gains, losses or net gain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2020
Keywords
Congestion charges, Cost-benefit analysis, Welfare analysis, Equity, Transport policy, Decision support
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-269480 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9853-4 (DOI)000512776200006 ()2-s2.0-85040777121 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200310

Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Isacsson, G., Andersson, M. & Anderstig, C. (2019). Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements. Economics of Transportation, 18, 27-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements
2019 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore how transport improvements impact agglomeration defined as accessibility and thereby productivity in mid-Sweden including Stockholm 1995-2006. We apply an accessibility index derived from a multi-modal transport model. This is a more accurate measure of agglomeration than those previously used and also necessary for understanding how governments can impact agglomeration, and thereby productivity, by transport investments. We regress temporal changes in wages on temporal changes in agglomeration by applying a FE estimator. We deal with the potential endogeneity using a novel instrumental variable. Our best estimates of the agglomeration elasticity on productivity lie within the interval 0.028-0.035.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Agglomeration, Wage earnings, Productivity, Transport investments, Wider economic impacts, Appraisal
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254085 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2018.12.002 (DOI)000470120800003 ()2-s2.0-85064008428 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190624

Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Fung, C. M., Proost, S. & Yan, Z. (2019). Do Small Cities Need More Public Transport Subsidies Than Big Cities?. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 53(4), 275-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Small Cities Need More Public Transport Subsidies Than Big Cities?
2019 (English)In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 275-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We compare the optimal public transport subsidies for a representative bus corridor in a small city and in a big city in Sweden, derived by assuming optimal pricing, frequency, bus stop spacing, and bus lane policies. The optimal cost-recovery of the buses depends on the relative size of two costs: waiting time and crowding/congestion. In the big city the high crowding cost is dominating, approaching full cost-recovery in the first-best optimum. In the small city the waiting time dominates, implying larger optimal subsidies. The subsidy is also more effective as a redistribution policy in the small city.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Bath, 2019
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262961 (URN)000489040900001 ()
Note

QC 20191030

Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Batley, R., Bates, J., Bliemer, M., Börjesson, M., Bourdon, J., Cabral, M. O., . . . Worsley, T. (2019). New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain. Transportation, 46(3), 583-621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain
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2019 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 583-621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides an overview of the study Provision of market research for value of time savings and reliability' undertaken by the Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent consortium for the UK Department for Transport (DfT). The paper summarises recommendations for revised national average values of in-vehicle travel time savings, reliability and time-related quality (e.g. crowding and congestion), which were developed using willingness-to-pay (WTP) methods, for a range of modes, and covering both business and non-work travel purposes. The paper examines variation in these values by characteristics of the traveller and trip, and offers insights into the uncertainties around the values, especially through the calculation of confidence intervals. With regards to non-work, our recommendations entail an increase of around 50% in values for commute, but a reduction of around 25% for other non-workrelative to previous DfT WebTAG' guidance. With regards to business, our recommendations are based on WTP, and thus represent a methodological shift away from the cost saving approach (CSA) traditionally used in WebTAG. These WTP-based business values show marked variation by distance; for trips of less than 20miles, values are around 75% lower than previous WebTAG values; for trips of around 100miles, WTP-based values are comparable to previous WebTAG; and for longer trips still, WTP-based values exceed those previously in WebTAG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Value of travel time savings, Value of reliability, Value of crowding, Value of congestion, Business, Non-work
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254095 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9798-7 (DOI)000469520800004 ()2-s2.0-85026825398 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190625

Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M. & Eliasson, J. (2019). Should values of time be differentiated?. Transport reviews, 39(3), 357-375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Should values of time be differentiated?
2019 (English)In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 357-375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Appraisal, cost benefit analysis, equity value of time, behavioural value of time, value of time
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247799 (URN)10.1080/01441647.2018.1480543 (DOI)000460522000005 ()2-s2.0-85048373508 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190401

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9235-0232

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