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Börjesson, M., Isacsson, G., Andersson, M. & Anderstig, C. (2019). Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements. Economics of Transportation, 18, 27-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agglomeration, productivity and the role of transport system improvements
2019 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 18, p. 27-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore how transport improvements impact agglomeration defined as accessibility and thereby productivity in mid-Sweden including Stockholm 1995-2006. We apply an accessibility index derived from a multi-modal transport model. This is a more accurate measure of agglomeration than those previously used and also necessary for understanding how governments can impact agglomeration, and thereby productivity, by transport investments. We regress temporal changes in wages on temporal changes in agglomeration by applying a FE estimator. We deal with the potential endogeneity using a novel instrumental variable. Our best estimates of the agglomeration elasticity on productivity lie within the interval 0.028-0.035.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Agglomeration, Wage earnings, Productivity, Transport investments, Wider economic impacts, Appraisal
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254085 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2018.12.002 (DOI)000470120800003 ()2-s2.0-85064008428 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190624

Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Batley, R., Bates, J., Bliemer, M., Börjesson, M., Bourdon, J., Cabral, M. O., . . . Worsley, T. (2019). New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain. Transportation, 46(3), 583-621
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 583-621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper provides an overview of the study Provision of market research for value of time savings and reliability' undertaken by the Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent consortium for the UK Department for Transport (DfT). The paper summarises recommendations for revised national average values of in-vehicle travel time savings, reliability and time-related quality (e.g. crowding and congestion), which were developed using willingness-to-pay (WTP) methods, for a range of modes, and covering both business and non-work travel purposes. The paper examines variation in these values by characteristics of the traveller and trip, and offers insights into the uncertainties around the values, especially through the calculation of confidence intervals. With regards to non-work, our recommendations entail an increase of around 50% in values for commute, but a reduction of around 25% for other non-workrelative to previous DfT WebTAG' guidance. With regards to business, our recommendations are based on WTP, and thus represent a methodological shift away from the cost saving approach (CSA) traditionally used in WebTAG. These WTP-based business values show marked variation by distance; for trips of less than 20miles, values are around 75% lower than previous WebTAG values; for trips of around 100miles, WTP-based values are comparable to previous WebTAG; and for longer trips still, WTP-based values exceed those previously in WebTAG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Value of travel time savings, Value of reliability, Value of crowding, Value of congestion, Business, Non-work
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254095 (URN)10.1007/s11116-017-9798-7 (DOI)000469520800004 ()
Note

QC 20190625

Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M. & Eliasson, J. (2019). Should values of time be differentiated?. Transport reviews, 39(3), 357-375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Should values of time be differentiated?
2019 (English)In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 357-375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Appraisal, cost benefit analysis, equity value of time, behavioural value of time, value of time
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247799 (URN)10.1080/01441647.2018.1480543 (DOI)000460522000005 ()2-s2.0-85048373508 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190401

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-01Bibliographically approved
Susilo, Y. O., Chengxi, L. & Börjesson, M. (2019). The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30years. Transportation, 46(3), 793-818
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30years
2019 (English)In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 793-818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Activity-travel patterns, Life cycle stages, Long term changes, Time-use, Intra-household interaction
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254094 (URN)10.1007/s11116-018-9868-5 (DOI)000469520800013 ()2-s2.0-85044018623 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190625

Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Hess, S. & Börjesson, M. (2019). Understanding attitudes towards congestion pricing: a latent variable investigation with data from four cities. Transportation letters, 11(2), 63-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding attitudes towards congestion pricing: a latent variable investigation with data from four cities
2019 (English)In: Transportation letters, ISSN 1942-7867, E-ISSN 1942-7875, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 63-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Numerous cities around the world are considering the implementation of road pricing to ease urban traffic congestion, following on from the success in cities such as London and Singapore. However, policy-makers are also all too aware of the generally negative public opinion toward such measures. This study makes use of data collected in four cities (two in Sweden, one in Finland, and one in France) using a very consistent survey probing for citizens' attitudes toward pricing. We find very strong similarities across the four cities in terms of a number of underlying attitudinal constructs that help explain people's answers in a hypothetical referendum on congestion pricing. The similarities across cities indicate that the increase in the opinion toward congestion pricing once they are introduced is not primarily an effect of changes in underlying attitudes, changes in how the underlying attitudes influence the support for congestion pricing, or differences in anticipated versus experienced or perceived self-interest. Instead, this effect seems to be caused by a status quo acceptance, tending to increase the support for the current situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Congestion charging, pricing acceptability, road user attitudes
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255252 (URN)10.1080/19427867.2016.1271762 (DOI)000471724800001 ()2-s2.0-85008324801 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190729

Available from: 2019-07-29 Created: 2019-07-29 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
Börjesson, M., Fung, C. M., Proost, S. & Yan, Z. (2018). Do buses hinder cyclists or is it the other way around?: Optimal bus fares, bus stops and cycling tolls. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 111, 326-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do buses hinder cyclists or is it the other way around?: Optimal bus fares, bus stops and cycling tolls
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 111, p. 326-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper optimises the number of bus stops, and prices for car, bus and cycling in the busiest inner city corridor in Stockholm. We adopt the representative consumer approach and calibrate the current equilibrium using the quasi-linear utility function. We find that the number of bus stops is already close to optimal. Welfare would increase if the peak frequency was increased, if the bus fares were lowered and differentiated between long trips and short trips and, and that the toll for longer car trips was increased. The optimal toll for cyclists, and the welfare benefit from it, is small and does not compensate the transaction costs. The distributional effects of bus fare changes and higher car tolls are small because on one hand, high income groups place more value on travel time gains, but on the other hand, low income groups travel less frequently by car. Surprisingly, we find that in the welfare optimum, the bus service only requires a small subsidy due to congestion in the bus lane, crowding in the buses, and extra boarding and alighting time per passenger. The Mohring effect is limited because the demand, and thereby the baseline frequency, is already high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Bus stops, Congestion, Cycling, Optimal pricing of urban transport, Public transport
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227587 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.023 (DOI)000433265100025 ()2-s2.0-85044607709 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180515

Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-15Bibliographically approved
Lorenzo Varela, J. M., Börjesson, M. & Daly, A. (2018). Estimating Values of Time on National travel survey data. In: : . Paper presented at 7th Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation. hEART 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating Values of Time on National travel survey data
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Value of Travel Time (VTT) is fundamental in transport economics. Since 1984 (MVA et al., 1984) best practice for VTT estimation has been to use Stated Choice (SC) data. However, there is now plenty of evidence of reference dependence and gain-loss asymmetry in SC data, implying that such data do not reveal long-term stable preferences. This is a serious problem since the value of time is often applied in welfare analyses, where long-term stability of the preferences is a key assumption. A potential reason for the strong reference dependence found in SC data is the emphasis on a short-term reference point often used in SC data to reduce hypothetical bias. In the long-run there is no stable reference point. Also, the use of Stated Choice data always raises the issue of the credibility of hypothetical responses.

An alternative to SC data is to use revealed preference (RP) data and a mode choice model to estimate the VTT. Observed behaviour has adapted to the (more stable) travel conditions and should thus be ruled by more long-term preferences. Many countries collect NTS (national travel survey) data and spend considerable resources on making them representative, which is an argument for using them for VTT estimation. However, a key problem in the use of NTS data for VTT estimation is measurement errors in the travel time and travel cost variables. Time and cost in NTS data is either self-reported or derived from a network assignment model.

In this paper we estimate the distribution of the VTT whilst controlling for errors in the self-reported and model computed time and cost variables.

Keywords
Value of time, latent variables, RP data
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233762 (URN)
Conference
7th Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation. hEART 2018
Note

QC 20180828

Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lorenzo Varela, J. M., Börjesson, M. & Daly, A. (2018). Public transport: One mode or several?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 113, 137-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public transport: One mode or several?
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 137-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper develops a methodology for testing and implementing differences in preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes, in state-of-practice large-scale travel demand models. Results of a case study for commuters in the Stockholm public transport system suggest that there are preference differences among public transport modes. We found that the value of time for train is lower than for bus and metro, and that it is higher for auxiliary modes than for the main mode. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for differences proportional to the in-vehicle time between bus and metro, suggesting that characteristics of in-vehicle time in these two modes are valued equally by the travellers. Nevertheless, unobserved preference for metro is higher than the preference for bus. Regarding the existence of a rail factor, we find evidence to support the hypothesis that rail-based modes have in fact a smaller time parameter (train) or higher alternative specific constant (metro), indicating that rail modes are preferable to bus, ceteris paribus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Choice behaviour, Demand forecast, Generalised travel cost, Rail factor, Unobserved preferences, Value of travel time
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227524 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.03.018 (DOI)000438180900010 ()2-s2.0-85045651681 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Lorenzo Varela, J. M., Börjesson, M. & Daly, A. (2018). Quantifying errors in travel time and cost by latent variables in transport demand models. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International conference on travel behavior research. (IATBR 2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying errors in travel time and cost by latent variables in transport demand models
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Travel time and travel cost are key variables for explaining travel behaviour and deriving the value of time. However, a general problem in transport modelling is that these variables are subject to measurement errors in transport network models. In this paper we show how to assess the magnitude of the measurement errors in travel time and travel cost by latent variables, in a large-scale travel demand model. The case study for Stockholm commuters shows that assuming multiplicative measurement errors for travel time and cost result in a better fit than additive ones, and that parameter estimates of the choice model are impacted by some of the key modelling assumptions. Moreover, our results suggest that measurement errors in our dataset are larger for the travel cost than for the travel time, and that measurement errors are larger in self-reported travel time than software-calculated travel time for car-driver and car-passenger, and of similar magnitude for public transport. Among self-reported travel times, car-passenger has the largest errors, followed by car-driver and public transport, and for the software-calculated times, public transport exhibits larger errors than car.  These errors, if not corrected, lead to biases in measures derived from the models, such as elasticities and values of travel time.

Keywords
Hybrid choice models, Latent variables, Error quantification, Measurement error models, RP Value of Time, Self-reported indicators
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233763 (URN)
Conference
15th International conference on travel behavior research. (IATBR 2018)
Note

QC 20180828

Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Peer, S. & Börjesson, M. (2018). Temporal framing of stated preference experiments: does it affect valuations?. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 117, 319-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal framing of stated preference experiments: does it affect valuations?
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 117, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we explore how valuations of trip attributes by train commuters differ between a short-run (departure time choice) and a long-run (travel routine choice) context using a unique SP experiment explicitly designed for this purpose. In the short-run version of the SP experiment, the respondents receive information about available travel options shortly before they had planned to travel. In the long-run version, the respondents receive information about available travel options one month ahead of the planned travel. The short-run context concerns temporary changes in available travel options, while the long-run context concerns permanent changes. We find significantly higher valuations of trip attributes in the long-run context. Moreover, our results indicate that the usual arrival time at work as well as the intrinsically preferred arrival time at work serve as reference points in the short-run as well as the long-run choice context, with the former dominating in the short-run context and the latter in the long-run context. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Departure time, Framing, Long-run, Routine, Scheduling, Short-run, Stated preference data, Transportation, Stated preferences, Public policy, commuting, experimental study, planning theory, preference behavior, spatial analysis, temporal analysis, travel time, valuation
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236603 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2018.08.027 (DOI)000446151200024 ()2-s2.0-85052873081 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 22 October 2018; Article; Correspondence Address: Peer, S.; Vienna University of Economics and BusinessAustria; email: stefanie.peer@wu.ac.at; Funding details: IenM, Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu; Funding text: The authors wish to thank the anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions. They would also like to thank the participants of the International Choice Modeling Conference (ICMC) 2017 for insightful comments. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment are thanked for the financial support of this study, and the the project consortium (“Peak Avoidance in the Train”/“Spitsmijden in de Trein”) for their great efforts. In particular we thank Jasper Knockaert for the data management and preparation, and Erik Verhoef for useful discussions on long-run vs. short-run scheduling decisions. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the “ERA-NET Cofund Smart Cities and Communities” (IP-SUNTAN). The usual disclaimer applies. Appendix A. QC 20181126

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9235-0232

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