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Ögren, P. & Colledanchise, M. (2018). Behavior Trees in Robotics and AI: An Introduction (Firsted.). CRC Press, Florida, US: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavior Trees in Robotics and AI: An Introduction
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Behavior Trees (BTs) provide a way to structure the behavior of an artificial agent such as a robot or a non-player character in a computer game.  Traditional design methods, such as finite state machines, are known to produce brittle behaviors when complexity increases, making it very hard to add features without breaking existing functionality.  BTs were created to address this very problem, and enables the creation of systems that are both modular and reactive. Behavior Trees in Robotics and AI: An Introduction provides a broad introduction as well as an in-depth exploration of the topic, and is the first comprehensive book on the use of BTs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, Florida, US: CRC Press, 2018. p. 192 Edition: First
Series
Chapman & Hall/CRC artificial intelligence and robotics series ; 6
Keywords
Behavior Trees, AI, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Control, Task Switching, Finite State Machine
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232942 (URN)9781138593732 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20180808

Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Colledanchise, M. & Ögren, P. (2017). How Behavior Trees Modularize Hybrid Control Systems and Generalize Sequential Behavior Compositions, the Subsumption Architecture, and Decision Trees. IEEE Transactions on robotics, 33(2), 372-389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Behavior Trees Modularize Hybrid Control Systems and Generalize Sequential Behavior Compositions, the Subsumption Architecture, and Decision Trees
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 372-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202922 (URN)10.1109/TRO.2016.2633567 (DOI)000399348900009 ()2-s2.0-85007048891 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Caccamo, S., Parasuraman, R., Freda, L., Gianni, M. & Ögren, P. (2017). RCAMP: A resilient communication-aware motion planner for mobile robots with autonomous repair of wireless connectivity. In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017 (pp. 2010-2017). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RCAMP: A resilient communication-aware motion planner for mobile robots with autonomous repair of wireless connectivity
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, Vol. 2017, p. 2010-2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile robots, be it autonomous or teleoperated, require stable communication with the base station to exchange valuable information. Given the stochastic elements in radio signal propagation, such as shadowing and fading, and the possibilities of unpredictable events or hardware failures, communication loss often presents a significant mission risk, both in terms of probability and impact, especially in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations. Depending on the circumstances, disconnected robots are either abandoned, or attempt to autonomously back-trace their way to the base station. Although recent results in Communication-Aware Motion Planning can be used to effectively manage connectivity with robots, there are no results focusing on autonomously re-establishing the wireless connectivity of a mobile robot without back-tracing or using detailed a priori information of the network. In this paper, we present a robust and online radio signal mapping method using Gaussian Random Fields, and propose a Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner (RCAMP) that integrates the above signal mapping framework with a motion planner. RCAMP considers both the environment and the physical constraints of the robot, based on the available sensory information. We also propose a self-repair strategy using RCMAP, that takes both connectivity and the goal position into account when driving to a connection-safe position in the event of a communication loss. We demonstrate the proposed planner in a set of realistic simulations of an exploration task in single or multi-channel communication scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Communication-Aware Motion Planning, Mobile Robots, Self-Repair, Wireless Communication
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224278 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2017.8206020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041962473 (Scopus ID)9781538626825 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-609763 TRADR
Note

QC 20180316

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
Caccamo, S., Parasuraman, R., Freda, L., Gianni, M. & Ögren, P. (2017). RCAMP: A Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner for Mobile Robots with Autonomous Repair of Wireless Connectivity. In: Bicchi, A Okamura, A (Ed.), 2017 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS): . Paper presented at IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), SEP 24-28, 2017, Vancouver, CANADA (pp. 2010-2017). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RCAMP: A Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner for Mobile Robots with Autonomous Repair of Wireless Connectivity
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS) / [ed] Bicchi, A Okamura, A, IEEE , 2017, p. 2010-2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile robots, be it autonomous or teleoperated, require stable communication with the base station to exchange valuable information. Given the stochastic elements in radio signal propagation, such as shadowing and fading, and the possibilities of unpredictable events or hardware failures, communication loss often presents a significant mission risk, both in terms of probability and impact, especially in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations. Depending on the circumstances, disconnected robots are either abandoned, or attempt to autonomously back-trace their way to the base station. Although recent results in Communication-Aware Motion Planning can be used to effectively manage connectivity with robots, there are no results focusing on autonomously re-establishing the wireless connectivity of a mobile robot without back-tracing or using detailed a priori information of the network. In this paper, we present a robust and online radio signal mapping method using Gaussian Random Fields, and propose a Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner (RCAMP) that integrates the above signal mapping framework with a motion planner. RCAMP considers both the environment and the physical constraints of the robot, based on the available sensory information. We also propose a self-repair strategy using RCMAP, that takes both connectivity and the goal position into account when driving to a connection-safe position in the event of a communication loss. We demonstrate the proposed planner in a set of realistic simulations of an exploration task in single or multi-channel communication scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
Keywords
Mobile Robots, Self-Repair, Wireless Communication, Communication-Aware Motion Planning
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225803 (URN)000426978202045 ()978-1-5386-2682-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), SEP 24-28, 2017, Vancouver, CANADA
Note

QC 20180409

Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
Colledanchise, M., Murray, R. M. & Ögren, P. (2017). Synthesis of correct-by-construction behavior trees. In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017 (pp. 6039-6046). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 8206502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis of correct-by-construction behavior trees
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 6039-6046, article id 8206502Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study the problem of synthesizing correct-by-construction Behavior Trees (BTs) controlling agents in adversarial environments. The proposed approach combines the modularity and reactivity of BTs with the formal guarantees of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) methods. Given a set of admissible environment specifications, an agent model in form of a Finite Transition System and the desired task in form of an LTL formula, we synthesize a BT in polynomial time, that is guaranteed to correctly execute the desired task. To illustrate the approach, we present three examples of increasing complexity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
National Category
Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224272 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2017.8206502 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041952364 (Scopus ID)9781538626825 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017
Note

QC 20180315

Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Almeida, D., Ambrus, R., Caccamo, S., Chen, X., Cruciani, S., Pinto Basto De Carvalho, J. F., . . . Kragic, D. (2017). Team KTH’s Picking Solution for the Amazon Picking Challenge 2016. In: Warehouse Picking Automation Workshop 2017: Solutions, Experience, Learnings and Outlook of the Amazon Robotics Challenge. Paper presented at ICRA 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Team KTH’s Picking Solution for the Amazon Picking Challenge 2016
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2017 (English)In: Warehouse Picking Automation Workshop 2017: Solutions, Experience, Learnings and Outlook of the Amazon Robotics Challenge, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

In this work we summarize the solution developed by Team KTH for the Amazon Picking Challenge 2016 in Leipzig, Germany. The competition simulated a warehouse automation scenario and it was divided in two tasks: a picking task where a robot picks items from a shelf and places them in a tote and a stowing task which is the inverse task where the robot picks items from a tote and places them in a shelf. We describe our approach to the problem starting from a high level overview of our system and later delving into details of our perception pipeline and our strategy for manipulation and grasping. The solution was implemented using a Baxter robot equipped with additional sensors.

National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215327 (URN)
Conference
ICRA 2017
Note

QC 20171009

Available from: 2017-10-07 Created: 2017-10-07 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Båberg, F., Wang, Y., Caccamo, S. & Ögren, P. (2016). Adaptive object centered teleoperation control of a mobile manipulator. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA): . Paper presented at 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, May 16-21, 2016 (pp. 455-461). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive object centered teleoperation control of a mobile manipulator
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 455-461Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Teleoperation of a mobile robot manipulating and exploring an object shares many similarities with the manipulation of virtual objects in a 3D design software such as AutoCAD. The user interfaces are however quite different, mainly for historical reasons. In this paper we aim to change that, and draw inspiration from the 3D design community to propose a teleoperation interface control mode that is identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint of most Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.

The proposed mobile manipulator control framework thus allows the user to focus on the 3D objects being manipulated, using control modes such as orbit object and pan object, supported by data from the wrist mounted RGB-D sensor. The gripper of the robot performs the desired motions relative to the object, while the manipulator arm and base moves in a way that realizes the desired gripper motions. The system redundancies are exploited in order to take additional constraints, such as obstacle avoidance, into account, using a constraint based programming framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Series
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ISSN 1050-4729
Keywords
virtual object, mobile manipulation, teleoperation
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182902 (URN)10.1109/ICRA.2016.7487166 (DOI)000389516200057 ()2-s2.0-84977527389 (Scopus ID)9781467380263 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, May 16-21, 2016
Projects
TRADR
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-609763 TRADR
Note

QC 20160829

Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2017-01-19Bibliographically approved
Karayiannidis, Y., Smith, C., Barrientos, F. E., Ögren, P. & Kragic, D. (2016). An Adaptive Control Approach for Opening Doors and Drawers Under Uncertainties. IEEE Transactions on robotics, 32(1), 161-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Adaptive Control Approach for Opening Doors and Drawers Under Uncertainties
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2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the problem of robot interaction with mechanisms that afford one degree of freedom motion, e.g., doors and drawers. We propose a methodology for simultaneous compliant interaction and estimation of constraints imposed by the joint. Our method requires no prior knowledge of the mechanisms' kinematics, including the type of joint, prismatic or revolute. The method consists of a velocity controller that relies on force/torque measurements and estimation of the motion direction, the distance, and the orientation of the rotational axis. It is suitable for velocity controlled manipulators with force/torque sensor capabilities at the end-effector. Forces and torques are regulated within given constraints, while the velocity controller ensures that the end-effector of the robot moves with a task-related desired velocity. We give proof that the estimates converge to the true values under valid assumptions on the grasp, and error bounds for setups with inaccuracies in control, measurements, or modeling. The method is evaluated in different scenarios involving opening a representative set of door and drawer mechanisms found in household environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
Adaptive control, calibration and identification, force/motion control, service robots, uncertain kinematics
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184046 (URN)10.1109/TRO.2015.2506154 (DOI)000370764000012 ()2-s2.0-84961994390 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160323

Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Smith, C., Karayiannidis, Y. & Ögren, P. (2016). Whole Body Control of a Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using a Virtual Kinematic Chain. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANOID ROBOTICS, 13(1), Article ID 1550047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whole Body Control of a Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using a Virtual Kinematic Chain
2016 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANOID ROBOTICS, ISSN 0219-8436, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1550047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dual-arm manipulators have more advanced manipulation abilities compared to single-arm manipulators and manipulators mounted on a mobile base have additional mobility and a larger workspace. Combining these advantages, mobile dual-arm robots are expected to perform a variety of tasks in the future. Kinematically, the configuration of two arms that branches from the mobile base results in a serial-to-parallel kinematic structure. In order to respond to external disturbances, this serial-to-parallel kinematic structure makes inverse kinematic computations non-trivial, as the motion of the base has to take the needs of both arms into account. Instead of using the dual-arm kinematics directly, we propose to use a virtual kinematic chain (VKC) to specify the common motion of the two arms. We formulate a constraint-based programming solution which consists of two parts. In the first part, we use an extended serial kinematic chain including the mobile base and the VKC to formulate constraints that realize the desired orientation and translation expressed in the world frame. In the second part, we use the resolved VKC motion to constrain the common motion of the two arms. In order to explore the redundancy of the two arms in an optimization framework, we also provide a VKC-oriented manipulability measure as well as its closed-form gradient. We verify the proposed approach with simulations and experiments that are performed on a PR2 robot, which has two 7 degrees of freedom (DoF) arms and a 3 DoF mobile base.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, 2016
Keywords
Mobile manipulation, dual-arm robot, virtual kinematic chain
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186651 (URN)10.1142/S0219843615500474 (DOI)000374011800006 ()2-s2.0-84963626954 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160531

Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Smith, C., Ögren, P. & Karayiannidis, I. (2015). Cooperative control of a serial-to-parallel structure using a virtual kinematic chain in a mobile dual-arm manipulation application. In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on: . Paper presented at The 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,Sept. 28 2015-Oct. 2 2015, Hamburg, Germany (pp. 2372-2379). Hamburg, Germany: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative control of a serial-to-parallel structure using a virtual kinematic chain in a mobile dual-arm manipulation application
2015 (English)In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, Hamburg, Germany: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2015, p. 2372-2379Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the future mobile dual-arm robots are expected to perform many tasks. Kinematically, the configuration of two manipulators that branch from the same common mobile base results in a serial-to-parallel kinematic structure, which makes inverse kinematic computations non-trivial. The motion of the base has to be decided in a trade-off, taking the needs of both arms into account. We propose to use a Virtual Kinematic Chain (VKC) to specify the common motion of the parallel manipulators, instead of using the two manipulators kinematics directly. With this VKC, we formulate a constraint based programming solution for the robot to respond to external disturbances during task execution. The proposed approach is experimentally verified both in a noise-free illustrative simulation and a real human robot co-manipulation task.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hamburg, Germany: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2015
Keywords
mobile manipulation, dual-arm manipulation, human robot interaction
National Category
Control Engineering Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179638 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2015.7353698 (DOI)000371885402082 ()2-s2.0-84958168371 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,Sept. 28 2015-Oct. 2 2015, Hamburg, Germany
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , 6452
Note

QC 20160105

Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2016-04-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7714-928X

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