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Friberg, Anders, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2926-6518
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Publications (10 of 73) Show all publications
Gulz, T., Holzapfel, A. & Friberg, A. (2019). Developing a Method for Identifying Improvisation Strategies in Jazz Duos. In: M. Aramaki, O. Derrien, R. Kronland-Martinet, S. Ystad (Ed.), Proc. of the 14th International Symposium on CMMR: . Paper presented at 14th International Symposium on CMMR, Marseille, France, Oct. 14-18, 2019 (pp. 482-489). Marseille Cedex
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Method for Identifying Improvisation Strategies in Jazz Duos
2019 (English)In: Proc. of the 14th International Symposium on CMMR / [ed] M. Aramaki, O. Derrien, R. Kronland-Martinet, S. Ystad, Marseille Cedex, 2019, p. 482-489Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The primary purpose of this paper is to describe a method to investigate the communication process between musicians performing improvisation in jazz. This method was applied in a first case study. The paper contributes to jazz improvisation theory towards embracing more artistic expressions and choices made in real life musical situations. In jazz, applied improvisation theory usually consists of scale and harmony studies within quantized rhythmic patterns. The ensembles in the study were duos performed by the author at the piano and horn players (trumpet, alto saxophone, clarinet and trombone). Recording sessions involving the ensembles were conducted. The recording was transcribed using software and the produced score together with the audio recording was used when conducting in-depth interviews, to identify the horn player’s underlying musical strategies. The strategies were coded according to previous research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Marseille Cedex: , 2019
Keywords
improvisation, jazz, improvisation strategies, musical interaction, musical communication
National Category
Music
Research subject
Media Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263053 (URN)9791097498016 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Symposium on CMMR, Marseille, France, Oct. 14-18, 2019
Note

QC 20191029

Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Elowsson, A. & Friberg, A. (2019). Modeling Music Modality with a Key-Class Invariant Pitch Chroma CNN. In: : . Paper presented at 20th International Society for Music In-formation Retrieval Conference, Delft, Netherlands, November 4-8, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Music Modality with a Key-Class Invariant Pitch Chroma CNN
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a convolutional neural network (CNN) that uses input from a polyphonic pitch estimation system to predict perceived minor/major modality in music audio. The pitch activation input is structured to allow the first CNN layer to compute two pitch chromas focused on dif-ferent octaves. The following layers perform harmony analysis across chroma and time scales. Through max pooling across pitch, the CNN becomes invariant with re-gards to the key class (i.e., key disregarding mode) of the music. A multilayer perceptron combines the modality ac-tivation output with spectral features for the final predic-tion. The study uses a dataset of 203 excerpts rated by around 20 listeners each, a small challenging data size re-quiring a carefully designed parameter sharing. With an R2 of about 0.71, the system clearly outperforms previous sys-tems as well as individual human listeners. A final ablation study highlights the importance of using pitch activations processed across longer time scales, and using pooling to facilitate invariance with regards to the key class.

Keywords
Pitch chroma, invariance, modelling, audio analysis, perceptual features, CNN
National Category
Signal Processing Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262662 (URN)
Conference
20th International Society for Music In-formation Retrieval Conference, Delft, Netherlands, November 4-8, 2019
Note

QC 20191018

Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Addessi, A. R., Anelli, F., Benghi, D. & Friberg, A. (2017). Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Research Foundation, 2017
Keywords
reflexive interaction, children's music improvisation, child-computer interaction, assessment of children's performance, MIROR-Impro
National Category
Psychology Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202432 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065 (DOI)000392640800001 ()2-s2.0-85012048713 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 258338
Note

QC 20170306

Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Friberg, A. (2017). Commentary on Polak How short is the shortest metric subdivision?. Empirical Musicology Review, 12(3-4), 227-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commentary on Polak How short is the shortest metric subdivision?
2017 (English)In: Empirical Musicology Review, ISSN 1559-5749, E-ISSN 1559-5749, Vol. 12, no 3-4, p. 227-228Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This commentary relates to the target paper by Polak on the shortest metric subdivision by presenting measurements on West-African drum music. It provides new evidence that the perceptual lower limit of tone duration is within the range 80-100 ms. Using fairly basic measurement techniques in combination with a musical analysis of the content, the original results in this study represents a valuable addition to the literature. Considering the relevance for music listening, further research would be valuable for determining and understanding the nature of this perceptual limit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OHIO STATE UNIV, SCH MUSIC, 2017
Keywords
meter perception, West-African drumming, metric subdivisions, perceptual limits
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232302 (URN)000436394100008 ()
Note

QC 20180718

Available from: 2018-07-18 Created: 2018-07-18 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Addessi, A. R., Anelli, F., Benghi, D. & Friberg, A. (2017). Corrigendum: Child-computer interaction at the beginner stage of music learning: Effects of reflexive interaction on children's musical improvisation [Front. Psychol.8 (2017)(65)]. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(MAR), Article ID 399.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum: Child-computer interaction at the beginner stage of music learning: Effects of reflexive interaction on children's musical improvisation [Front. Psychol.8 (2017)(65)]. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no MAR, article id 399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A corrigendum on Corrigendum: Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation by Addessi, A. R., Anelli, F., Benghi, D., and Friberg, A. (2017). Front. Psychol. 8:65. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065 In the original article, there was an error. "she plays C3" was used instead of "it plays C3." A correction has been made to Observation and Theoretical Framework of Reflexive Interaction, paragraph 3: The little girl plays two consecutive notes, C2 and A2, and then stops to wait for the response of the system. The system responds by repeating the same notes. The child then play a single note, G2, and the system responds with a single note but this time introduces a variation: it plays C3, thus introducing a higher register. The girl, following the change introduced by the system, moves toward the higher register and plays a variant of the initial pattern, namely: D2-A2-E2-C3, and introduces a particular rhythm pattern. This "reflexive" event marks the beginning of a dialogue based on repetition and variation: the rhythmic-melodic pattern will be repeated and varied by both the system and the child in consecutive exchanges, until acquiring the form of a complete musical phrase. At some point in the dialogue, the child begins to accompany the system's response with arm movements synchronized with the rhythmic-melodic patterns, creating a kind of music-motor composition. In addition, EG1 and EG2 are incorrectly referred to within the text. A correction has been made to Duet Task, sub-section Results for Each Evaluative Criterion of the Duet Task, paragraph Reflexive Interaction: The data of Reflexive Interaction show that the EG2 obtained the highest score (4.17), followed by the CG (3.33) and the EG1 (2.61); see Table 6 and Figure 7. The difference between EG2, which only use the system with reflexive interaction, and EG1, which did not use the system with reflexive interaction, is significant (p = 0.043). Therefore, it could be said that the use of MIROR-Impro can enhance the use of the reflexive behaviors: mirroring, turn-taking, and co-regulation. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the Reflexive Interaction and the total score (r = 0.937; p < 0.01), and all other evaluative criteria, with correlations ranging from r = 0.87 (p < 0.01) for Musical Quality to r = 0.92 (p < 0.01) for Musical Organization. Thus, the higher the children's use of reflexive interaction, the better their results in each criterion and in the ability to improvise. This result can support the hypothesis that reflexive interaction is a fundamental component of musical improvised dialog. Instead, although the differences between the CG and the Experimental Groups 1 and 2 indicate that the use of the MIROR Impro appears to be "necessary" (CG > EG1) and "sufficient" (CG < EG2) to improve the ability to improvise, we cannot generalize these results because the results are not statistically significant (t-test, comparing CG and EG1: p = 0.388; CG and EG2: p = 0.285). Finally, due to the resolution of Figures 5-9 being low, they have been replaced with new figures with a higher resolution. The corrected Figures, Figures 5-9 appear below. The authors apologize for these errors and state that these do not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keywords
Assessment of children's performance, Child-computer interaction, Children's music improvisation, MIROR-Impro, Reflexive interaction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216540 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00399 (DOI)000397995700001 ()2-s2.0-85018622205 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171124

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
Friberg, A., Choi, K., Schön, R., Downie, J. S. & Elowsson, A. (2017). Cross-cultural aspects of perceptual features in K-pop: A pilot study comparing Chinese and Swedish listeners. In: 2017 ICMC/EMW - 43rd International Computer Music Conference and the 6th International Electronic Music Week: . Paper presented at 43rd International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2017 and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, EMW 2017, Shanghai, China, 15 October 2017 through 20 October 2017 (pp. 291-296). Shanghai Conservatory of Music
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-cultural aspects of perceptual features in K-pop: A pilot study comparing Chinese and Swedish listeners
Show others...
2017 (English)In: 2017 ICMC/EMW - 43rd International Computer Music Conference and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, Shanghai Conservatory of Music , 2017, p. 291-296Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In previous studies it has been shown that perceptual features can be used as an intermediate representation in music processing to model higher-level semantic descriptions. In this pilot study, we focused on the cross-cultural aspect of such perceptual features, by asking both Chinese and Swedish listeners to rate a set of K-Pop samples using a web-based questionnaire. The music samples were selected from a larger set, previously rated in terms of different emotion labels. The selection procedure of the subset was carefully designed to maximize both the variation of emotion and genre. The listeners rated eight perceptual features: dissonance, speed, rhythmic complexity, rhythmic clarity, articulation, harmonic complexity, modality, and pitch. The results indicated a small but significant difference in the two groups, regarding the average speed and rhythmic complexity. In particular the perceived speed of hip hop was different for the two groups. We discuss the overall consistency of the ratings using this methodology in relation to the interface, selection and number of subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Shanghai Conservatory of Music, 2017
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222072 (URN)2-s2.0-85040042737 (Scopus ID)9780984527465 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2017 and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, EMW 2017, Shanghai, China, 15 October 2017 through 20 October 2017
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012 -4685
Note

QC 20180131

Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-01-31Bibliographically approved
Elowsson, A. & Friberg, A. (2017). Predicting the perception of performed dynamics in music audio with ensemble learning. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(3), 2224-2242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting the perception of performed dynamics in music audio with ensemble learning
2017 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 2224-2242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By varying the dynamics in a musical performance, the musician can convey structure and different expressions. Spectral properties of most musical instruments change in a complex way with the performed dynamics, but dedicated audio features for modeling the parameter are lacking. In this study, feature extraction methods were developed to capture relevant attributes related to spectral characteristics and spectral fluctuations, the latter through a sectional spectral flux. Previously, ground truths ratings of performed dynamics had been collected by asking listeners to rate how soft/loud the musicians played in a set of audio files. The ratings, averaged over subjects, were used to train three different machine learning models, using the audio features developed for the study as input. The highest result was produced from an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons with an R2 of 0.84. This result seems to be close to the upper bound, given the estimated uncertainty of the ground truth data. The result is well above that of individual human listeners of the previous listening experiment, and on par with the performance achieved from the average rating of six listeners. Features were analyzed with a factorial design, which highlighted the importance of source separation in the feature extraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2017
Keywords
Performed dynamics, dynamics, music, timbre, ensemble learning, perceptual features
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204657 (URN)10.1121/1.4978245 (DOI)000398962500101 ()2-s2.0-85016561050 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Lindborg, P. M. & Friberg, A. (2016). Personality Traits Bias the Perceived Quality of Sonic Environment. Applied Sciences: APPS, 6(12), Article ID 405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality Traits Bias the Perceived Quality of Sonic Environment
2016 (English)In: Applied Sciences: APPS, ISSN 1454-5101, E-ISSN 1454-5101, Vol. 6, no 12, article id 405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There have been few empirical investigations of how individual differences influence the perception of the sonic environment. The present study included the Big Five traits and noise sensitivity as personality factors in two listening experiments (n = 43, n = 45). Recordings of urban and restaurant soundscapes that had been selected based on their type were rated for Pleasantness and Eventfulness using the Swedish Soundscape Quality Protocol. Multivariate multiple regression analysis showed that ratings depended on the type and loudness of both kinds of sonic environments and that the personality factors made a small yet significant contribution. Univariate models explained 48% (cross-validated adjusted R2) of the variation in Pleasantness ratings of urban soundscapes, and 35% of Eventfulness. For restaurant soundscapes the percentages explained were 22% and 21%, respectively. Emotional stability and noise sensitivity were notable predictors whose contribution to explaining the variation in quality ratings was between one-tenth and nearly half of the soundscape indicators, as measured by squared semipartial correlation. Further analysis revealed that 36% of noise sensitivity could be predicted by broad personality dimensions, replicating previous research. Our study lends empirical support to the hypothesis that personality traits have a significant though comparatively small influence on the perceived quality of sonic environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2016
Keywords
Big Five, Environment, Noise sensitivity, Perception, Personality, Psychoacoustics, Soundscape
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199410 (URN)10.3390/app6120405 (DOI)000389533400030 ()2-s2.0-85007507451 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170109

Available from: 2017-01-05 Created: 2017-01-05 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Lindborg, P. & Friberg, A. K. (2015). Colour Association with Music is Mediated by Emotion: Evidence from an Experiment using a CIE Lab Interface and Interviews. PLoS ONE, 10(12), Article ID e0144013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colour Association with Music is Mediated by Emotion: Evidence from an Experiment using a CIE Lab Interface and Interviews
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0144013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Crossmodal associations may arise at neurological, perceptual, cognitive, or emotional levels of brain processing. Higher-level modal correspondences between musical timbre and visual colour have been previously investigated, though with limited sets of colour. We developed a novel response method that employs a tablet interface to navigate the CIE Lab colour space. The method was used in an experiment where 27 film music excerpts were presented to participants (n = 22) who continuously manipulated the colour and size of an on-screen patch to match the music. Analysis of the data replicated and extended earlier research, for example, that happy music was associated with yellow, music expressing anger with large red colour patches, and sad music with smaller patches towards dark blue. Correlation analysis suggested patterns of relationships between audio features and colour patch parameters. Using partial least squares regression, we tested models for predicting colour patch responses from audio features and ratings of perceived emotion in the music. Parsimonious models that included emotion robustly explained between 60% and 75% of the variation in each of the colour patch parameters, as measured by cross-validated R2. To illuminate the quantitative findings, we performed a content analysis of structured spoken interviews with the participants. This provided further evidence of a significant emotion mediation mechanism, whereby people tended to match colour association with the perceived emotion in the music. The mixed method approach of our study gives strong evidence that emotion can mediate crossmodal association between music and visual colour. The CIE Lab interface promises to be a useful tool in perceptual ratings of music and other sounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLOS, 2015
Keywords
crossmodal association; perception; emotion; music; colour, CIE Lab
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177108 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0144013 (DOI)000366902700044 ()2-s2.0-84955589525 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-14 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Lindeberg, T. & Friberg, A. (2015). Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields. PLoS ONE, 10(3), Article ID e0119032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales.

For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions.

When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions.

It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Plos, 2015
Keywords
Automatic Speech Recognition, Cat Striate Cortex, Inferior Colliculus, Feature-Extraction, Scale Selection, Natural Sounds, Gabor Analysis, Visual-Cortex, Time-Domain, Filter
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-160565 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0119032 (DOI)000352134700031 ()25822973 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84926628005 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-4766,2012-4685,2014-4083EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FET-Open 618067
Note

QC 20150407

Available from: 2015-02-24 Created: 2015-02-24 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2926-6518

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