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Benyahia Erdal, N., Adolfsson, K. H., Pettersson, T. & Hakkarainen, M. (2018). Green Strategy to Reduced Nanographene Oxide through Microwave Assisted Transformation of Cellulose. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 6(1), 1245-1255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green Strategy to Reduced Nanographene Oxide through Microwave Assisted Transformation of Cellulose
2018 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1245-1255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A green strategy for fabrication of biobased reduced nanographene oxide (r-nGO) was developed. Cellulose derived nanographene oxide (nGO) type carbon nanodots were reduced by microwave assisted hydrothermal treatment with superheated water alone or in the presence of caffeic acid (CA), a green reducing agent. The carbon nanodots, r-nGO and r-nGO-CA, obtained through the two different reaction routes without or with the added reducing agent, were characterized by multiple analytical techniques including FTIR, XPS, Raman, XRD, TGA, TEM, AFM, UV-vis, and DLS to confirm and evaluate the efficiency of the reduction reactions. A significant decrease in oxygen content accompanied by increased number of sp2 hybridized functional groups was confirmed in both cases. The synergistic effect of superheated water and reducing agent resulted in the highest C/O ratio and thermal stability, which also supported a more efficient reduction. Interesting optical properties were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy where nGO, r-nGO, and r-nGO-CA all displayed excitation dependent fluorescence behavior. r-nGO-CA and its precursor nGO were evaluated toward osteoblastic cells MG-63 and exhibited nontoxic behavior up to 200 μg mL-1, which gives promise for utilization in biomedical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Biobased, Biomass, Carbon nanodots, Hydrothermal, Microwave, Reducing agent
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-221151 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03566 (DOI)000419536800131 ()2-s2.0-85040200237 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180115

Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Erdal, N. B., Adolfsson, K. H., De Lima, S. & Hakkarainen, M. (2018). In vitro and in vivo effects of ophthalmic solutions on silicone hydrogel bandage lens material Senofilcon A. Clinical and experimental optometry, 101(3), 354-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro and in vivo effects of ophthalmic solutions on silicone hydrogel bandage lens material Senofilcon A
2018 (English)In: Clinical and experimental optometry, ISSN 0816-4622, E-ISSN 1444-0938, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 354-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Acuvue Oasys silicone hydrogel contact lenses (Senofilcon A) are used as bandage lenses and often combined with ophthalmic solutions in the treatment of ocular diseases. Concerns have been raised regarding the compatibility and effect of eye-drop solutions on the bandage lenses, which have led to frequent replacement of lenses causing clinical problems. Some patients experience pain or discomfort during treatments and the accumulation of drugs and preservatives in lenses has been suggested as a possible reason. The aim with this study was to investigate the effect of ophthalmic solutions on silicone hydrogel bandage lens material Senofilcon A in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The effect of three common ophthalmic solutions Isopto-Maxidex, Timosan and Oftaquix on Acuvue Oasys (Senofilcon A) bandage lenses was evaluated. An in vitro model method was developed where drug and preservative uptake by Acuvue Oasys was monitored with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. Surface morphology changes of the lenses were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The method was then implemented for the in vivo pilot study evaluating lenses worn by patients. Results: In vitro model study monitoring the drug and preservatives uptake showed that the active ingredients from all the eye drops together with preservatives were taken up by the lenses in significant amounts. For the in vivo study no traces of active ingredients or preservatives could be found on the worn and treated lenses regardless of time being worn or dosage profiles. The surface morphology changes in the in vivo study were also minor in contrast to the changes observed in the in vitro scanning electron microscopy images. Conclusion: The in vivo results demonstrate minor effects of the ophthalmic solutions on the worn lenses. These results do not support the building up of preservatives and drugs on the contact lenses as the cause of pain or discomfort experienced by some patients, which is encouraging for the use of bandage lenses in combination with ophthalmic solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
contact lenses, laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, ophthalmic solutions, Senofilcon A
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227741 (URN)10.1111/cxo.12652 (DOI)000430915000006 ()29323424 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040612780 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180515

Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Xu, Y., Hua, G., Hakkarainen, M. & Odelius, K. (2018). Isosorbide as Core Component for Tailoring Biobased Unsaturated Polyester Thermosets for a Wide Structure- Property Window. Biomacromolecules, 19(7), 3077-3085
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isosorbide as Core Component for Tailoring Biobased Unsaturated Polyester Thermosets for a Wide Structure- Property Window
2018 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 3077-3085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biobased unsaturated polyester thermosets as potential replacements for petroleum-based thermosets were designed. The target of incorporating rigid units, to yield thermosets with high thermal and mechanical performance, both in the biobased unsaturated polyester (UP) and reactive diluent (RD) while retaining miscibility was successfully achieved. The biobased unsaturated polyester thermosets were prepared by varying the content of isosorbide, 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, and succinic anhydride in combination with the reactive diluent isosorbide-methacrylate (IM). Isosorbide was chosen as the main component in both the UP and the RD to enhance the rigidity of the formed thermosets, to overcome solubility issues commonly associated with biobased UPs and RDs and volatility and toxicity associated with styrene as RD. All UPs had good solubility in the RD and the viscosity of the mixtures was primarily tuned by the feed ratio of isosorbide but also by the amount of maleic anhydride. The flexural modulus and storage modulus were tailorable by altering the monomer composition The fabricated thermosets had superior thermal and mechanical properties compared to most biobased UP thermosets with thermal stability up to about 250 degrees C and a storage modulus at 25 degrees C varying between 0.5 and 3.0 GPa. These values are close to commercial petroleum-based UP thermosets. The designed tailorable biobased thermosets are, thus, promising candidates to replace their petroleum analogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232790 (URN)10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00661 (DOI)000438470800071 ()29897737 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048725262 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180803

Available from: 2018-08-03 Created: 2018-08-03 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Feng, Z., Odelius, K., Rajarao, G. K. & Hakkarainen, M. (2018). Microwave carbonized cellulose for trace pharmaceutical adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 346, 557-566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave carbonized cellulose for trace pharmaceutical adsorption
2018 (English)In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 346, p. 557-566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A promising sustainable strategy to valorize cellulose to high-value adsorbents for trace pharmaceuticals, like diclofenac sodium (DCF), in the water is demonstrated. Carbon nanospheres (CN) as the DCF adsorbent were derived from cellulose through a one-pot microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization method. CN exhibited efficient DCF removal (100% removal of 0.001 mg/mL DCF in 30 s and 59% removal of 0.01 mg/mL DCF in 1 h). The adsorption kinetics and isotherm data were well-fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous as confirmed by the thermodynamic parameters. Multiple characterization techniques including SEM/EDS, FTIR, FTIR-imaging and zeta potential were applied to qualitatively investigate the adsorption process. π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding were proposed as the dominant adsorption interactions. CN also demonstrated effective adsorption capacity towards three other commonly-detected contaminants in the wastewater including ketoprofen (KP), benzophenone (BZP), and diphenylamine (DPA), each bearing partial structural similarity with DCF. The affinity of the contaminants towards CN followed the order DPA > BZP > DCF > KP, which could be explained by the different configurations and chemical units. It was speculated that for DCF and KP, the steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion produced by dissociated carboxyl groups can impede the adsorption process as compared to DPA and BZP. This methodology could offer further insights into the drug adsorption on the cellulose-derived carbon adsorbents and the use of bioderived carbons for treatment of wastewaters contaminated with pharmaceuticals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Adsorption, Carbon nanosphere, Carbonization, Cellulose, Diclofenac, Microwave
National Category
Chemical Sciences Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227509 (URN)10.1016/j.cej.2018.04.014 (DOI)000432878400057 ()2-s2.0-85045434362 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Wu, D., Samanta, A., Srivastava, R. K. & Hakkarainen, M. (2018). Nano-graphene oxide functionalized bioactive poly(lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds. Materials, 11(4), Article ID 566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-graphene oxide functionalized bioactive poly(lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds
2018 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A versatile and convenient way to produce bioactive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is described. PLA and PCL are extensively used as biocompatible scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Here, biobased nano graphene oxide dots (nGO) are incorporated in PLA or PCL electrospun scaffolds during the electrospinning process aiming to enhance the mechanical properties and endorse osteo-bioactivity. nGO was found to tightly attach to the fibers through secondary interactions. It also improved the electrospinnability and fiber quality. The prepared nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited enhanced mechanical properties, increased hydrophilicity, good cytocompatibility and osteo-bioactivity. Therefore, immense potential for bone tissue engineering applications is anticipated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2018
Keywords
Biomineralization, Graphene oxide, Mechanical properties, PCL, PLA, Scaffold
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227624 (URN)10.3390/ma11040566 (DOI)000434710200108 ()2-s2.0-85045050100 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180517

Available from: 2018-05-17 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Feng, Z., Odelius, K. & Hakkarainen, M. (2018). Tunable chitosan hydrogels for adsorption: Property control by biobased modifiers. Carbohydrate Polymers, 196, 135-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tunable chitosan hydrogels for adsorption: Property control by biobased modifiers
2018 (English)In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 196, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sustainable strategy to fabricate chitosan-based composite hydrogels with tunable properties and controllable adsorption capacity of trace pharmaceuticals was demonstrated. Two biobased modifiers were utilized to tune the properties, nano-graphene oxide (nGO) derived from chitosan via microwave-assisted carbonization and oxidation, and genipin as the crosslinking agent. An increase in genipin content facilitated an increase in the degree of crosslinking as shown by improved storage modulus and decreased swelling ratio. Increasing nGO content changed the surface microtopography of the hydrogel which correlated with the surface wettability. nGO also catalyzed the genipin-crosslinking reaction. The hydrogel was further shown to be an effective adsorbent for a common anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF), with the removal efficiency ranging from 91 to 100% after 48 h. DCF adsorption efficiency could be tuned through simple alteration of nGO and genipin concentration, which provides promising potential for this environmental-friendly adsorbent in removal of DCF from pharmaceutical waste water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Adsorbent, Biobased, Chitosan, Graphene oxide, Hydrogel, Pharmaceutical
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228696 (URN)10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.05.029 (DOI)000436571600016 ()2-s2.0-85047074150 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180530

Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Feng, Z., Simeone, A., Odelius, K. & Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Biobased Nanographene Oxide Creates Stronger Chitosan Hydrogels with Improved Adsorption Capacity for Trace Pharmaceuticals. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5(12), 11525-11535
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biobased Nanographene Oxide Creates Stronger Chitosan Hydrogels with Improved Adsorption Capacity for Trace Pharmaceuticals
2017 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 11525-11535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A promising green strategy for the fabrication of fully biobased chitosan adsorbents for wastewater purification is presented. Nanographene oxide (nGO)-type carbon dots were derived from chitosan (nGOCS) or from cellulose (nGOCL) through a two-step process including microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization and oxidation. Finally, nGO were evaluated as biobased property enhancers in chitosan hydrogel adsorbents. Macroporous chitosan hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking with genipin, and the incorporation of nGO into these hydrogels was shown to facilitate the cross-linking reaction leading to more robust 3D cross-linked networks. This was evidenced by the increased storage modulus and by the swelling ratio that decreased from 5.7 for pristine chitosan hydrogel to 2.6 for hydrogel with 5 mg/mL nGOCS and 3.3 for hydrogel with 5 mg/mL nGOCL. As a further proof of the concept the hydrogels were shown to be effective adsorbent for the common anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). Here, the addition of nGO promoted the DCF adsorption process leading to 100% removal of DCF after only 5 h. The synergistic effect of electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and pi-pi stacking could explain the high adsorption of DCF on the hydrogels. The developed biobased CS/nGO hydrogels are thus promising adsorbents with great potential for purification of trace pharmaceuticals from wastewater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keywords
Graphene oxide, Carbon dot, Hydrogel, Diclofenac sodium, Genipin, Microwave, Waste water purification, Adsorbent
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220462 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02809 (DOI)000417341900044 ()2-s2.0-85042358833 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171221

Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Xu, H., Xie, L., Li, J. & Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Coffee Grounds to Multifunctional Quantum Dots: Extreme Nanoenhancers of Polymer Biocomposites. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(33), 27972-27983
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coffee Grounds to Multifunctional Quantum Dots: Extreme Nanoenhancers of Polymer Biocomposites
2017 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 33, p. 27972-27983Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Central to the design and execution of nanocomposite strategies is the invention of polymer-affinitive and multifunctional nanoreinforcements amenable to economically viable processing. Here, a microwave-assisted approach enabled gram-scale fabrication of polymer-affinitive luminescent quantum dots (QDs) from spent coffee grounds. The ultrasmall dimensions (approaching 20 nm), coupled with richness of diverse oxygen functional groups, conferred the zero-dimensional QDs with proper exfoliation and uniform dispersion in poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix The unique optical properties of QDs were inherited by PLLA nano composites, giving intensive luminescence and high visible transparency, as well as nearly 100% UV-blocking ratio in the full-UV region at only 0.5 wt % QDs. The strong anchoring of PLLA chains at the nanoscale surfaces of QDs facilitated PLLA crystallization, which was accompanied by substantial improvements in thermomechanical and tensile properties. With 1 wt % QDs, for example, the storage modulus at 100 degrees C and tensile strength increased over 2500 and 69% compared to those of pure PLLA (4 and 57.3 MPa), respectively. The QD-enabled energy-dissipating and flexibility-imparting mechanisms upon tensile deformation, including the generation of numerous shear bands, crazing, and nanofibrillation, gave an unusual combination of elasticity and extensibility for PLLA nanocomposites. This paves the way to biowaste-derived nanodots with high affinity to polymer for elegant implementation of distinct light management and extreme nanoreinforcements in an ecofriendly manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214503 (URN)10.1021/acsami.7b09401 (DOI)000408518800070 ()28770986 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028084609 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170929

Available from: 2017-09-29 Created: 2017-09-29 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Albertsson, A.-C. & Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed to degrade Suitably designed degradable polymers can play a role in reducing plastic waste. Science, 358(6365), 872-873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designed to degrade Suitably designed degradable polymers can play a role in reducing plastic waste
2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6365, p. 872-873Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2017
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219332 (URN)10.1126/science.aap8115 (DOI)000415293000027 ()29146799 (PubMedID)
Note

QC 20171204

Available from: 2017-12-04 Created: 2017-12-04 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
Michalak, M., Kwiecien, I., Kwiecien, M., Adamus, G., Odelius, K., Hakkarainen, M. & Kurcok, P. (2017). Diversifying Polyhydroxyalkanoates - End-Group and Side-Chain Functionality. Current Organic Synthesis, 14(6), 757-767
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversifying Polyhydroxyalkanoates - End-Group and Side-Chain Functionality
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2017 (English)In: Current Organic Synthesis, ISSN 1570-1794, E-ISSN 1875-6271, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 757-767Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a natural origin biodegradable polyesters consisted of various 3-and 4-hydroxyacid derived repeating units produced by microorganisms as energy storage. PHAs have been intensively studied due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility enabling their use both in packaging and agriculture as well as in medicine and pharmacy. PHAs obtained via biotechnological routes can possess various functional groups in their side chains. However, the diversity in their functionality is limited due to issues of conservation of functional groups during the polymer formation. Objective: The review focuses on recent progress in the area of synthesis of PHAs functionalized with various reactive as well as bioactive end and side groups. Conclusion: A potent route to resolve the problem of functional group diversity in natural origin PHAs involves post-polymerization modification, where the desired side groups can be created. On the contrary, synthetically produced PHA analogs obtained directly via ring-opening polymerization of beta-lactones offer various functionalities at different position throughout the polymer chain. The desired alpha-and omega-end groups can be introduced into the polymer chain using specific polymerization, initiation or termination strategies, respectively. The preferred side chain functionality is obtained by choosing the appropriate beta-lactone monomers bearing respective functional groups. All functional groups may also be subjected to additional chemical modification. The degradation of PHA as a method for producing functional polymers as well as their possible further applications are also discussed.

Keywords
Polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), functional polymer, ring-opening polymerization, side-chain functionalization, reactive end groups
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220305 (URN)000416527500002 ()2-s2.0-85038446882 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171221

Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7790-8987

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