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Su, C., Madani Larijani, H. & Palm, B. (2019). Building heating solutions in China: A spatial techno-economic and environmental analysis. Energy Conversion and Management, 179, 201-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building heating solutions in China: A spatial techno-economic and environmental analysis
2019 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 179, p. 201-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast urbanization process and promotion of life standard in China requires a great amount of energy input in building heating sector. North China now faces challenges of upgrading existing fossil fuel based high emission district heating systems into more environmental friendly heating systems. South China is discussing to choose proper building heating solutions for new and existing buildings which lack proper heating facilities. Renewable heating technologies such as ground source heat pump and air source heat pump are candidates to upgrade traditional heating solutions such as fossil fuel boilers and electric heaters. In order to find the most feasible building heating solution for different geolocations of China, this paper proposes a spatial data based techno-economic and environmental analysis methodology to fulfill such research gap. Case studies are carried out in two selected cities by using proposed methodology. Evaluation model shows that, heat pumps is quite competitive in south China compared with electric heaters, whereas in north China heat pumps have to reach several preconditions to be competitive with coal boiler district heating system under current techno-economic and environmental situations. In north China, a heat pump should reach a minimum seasonal coefficient of performance of 2.5-3.7 (for ground source heat pump) or 2.7-3.0 (for air source heat pump) to become CO2 and PM2.5 emission neutral as well as economically competitive compared with coal boiler district heating system. The advantage of proposed methodology is its simplicity in execution and could be repeated to other areas as the data required are available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Spatial data analysis, District heating, Electric heating, Heat pump, Building heating solution, China
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240345 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.10.062 (DOI)000451490200017 ()2-s2.0-85055623234 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181217

Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Xu, T., Chiu, J. N., Palm, B. & Sawalha, S. (2019). Experimental investigation on cylindrically macro-encapsulated latent heat storage for space heating applications. Energy Conversion and Management, 182, 166-177
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation on cylindrically macro-encapsulated latent heat storage for space heating applications
2019 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 182, p. 166-177Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) units with heating systems in buildings is regarded as a promising technology for heating load management; however, so far a limited number of experimental studies have been reported that focus on space heating applications on a representative scale. In this study, we develop and test a 0.38 m3 LHTES unit containing cylindrically macro-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) with a melting temperature range of 44–53 °C and with gross mass of 154 kg. The unit has been tested with two tank orientations, horizontal and vertical. In the horizontal orientation tests, parametric studies show that increasing the difference between heat transfer fluid (HTF) supply temperatures and phase-change temperatures of PCMs, as well as increasing HTF flowrates, can both reduce the complete melting/solidification and complete charging/discharging time. Non-linear charging/discharging rates in PCMs are observed. The vertical orientation enables the forming of either a stratified or mixed flow regime in the tank. For charging, the stratified flow provides higher charging rates in PCMs compared to the mixed flow. When discharging the unit with a stratified HTF flow at 35 °C, lower HTF flowrates prolong the discharging time during which the released heat sustains an outlet temperature above 45 °C. Finally, comparisons between horizontal and vertical orientation tests reveal that although the vertical orientation can shorten the charging/discharging time by up to 20% for the entire unit to reach an energy density of 30 kWh/m3, it leads to decrease in PCM thermal capacity by at most 8.2%. The speculated cause of this loss is phase segregation suggested by observed fluid motions in PCM cylinders. This study comprehensively characterizes an LHTES unit providing insights to optimizing its operating strategies considering its coupling with space heating systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241056 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.12.056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059382278 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20190117

Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Paulino, T. D., de Oliveira, R. N., Maia, A. A., Palm, B. & Machado, L. (2019). Modeling and experimental analysis of the solar radiation in a CO2 direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump. Applied Thermal Engineering, 160-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and experimental analysis of the solar radiation in a CO2 direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump
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2019 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work is presented the dynamic model of an evaporator of a Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump (DX-SAHP), charged with CO2. This dynamic model was used to analyze the evaporator response to sudden variations in the solar radiation. Two strategies are used to make the system reach the steady state after the heat pump start-up. The first one is the usual balances of mass, energy and momentum. The second strategy consisted in impose an equal refrigerant mass flow rate at the evaporator inlet and outlet. Both strategies were able to conduct the system to a steady state, however, the second one required less computational effort. The mathematical model was validated using experimental data and employed to perform several simulations. The results obtained with the mathematical model revealed that a small variation of the solar radiation leads to a significant variation in the superheat, therefore requiring an immediate action of the expansion device. It was concluded that an Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV) would be better suited to meet the needs of rapid interventions on the mass flow rate at the evaporator inlet, and also because the DX-SAHP could operate in a continuous transient condition in some seasons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Direct expansion, Expansion device, Experimental analysis, Modeling, Solar-assisted heat pump, Carbon dioxide, Dynamic models, Evaporators, Heat pump systems, Mass transfer, Models, Pumps, Solar radiation, Computational effort, Electronic expansion valves, Expansion devices, Small variations, Solar assisted heat pump, Transient conditions, Expansion
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248201 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.11.045 (DOI)000460845100017 ()2-s2.0-85056692273 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190412

Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Su, C., Madani Larijani, H. & Palm, B. (2019). Spatial Data Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Potential Analysis in China, a Case of Qingdao City. In: Yan, J Yang, HX Li, H Chen, X (Ed.), INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR ENERGY TRANSITIONS: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 22-25, 2018, Hong Kong, HONG KONG (pp. 6099-6104). ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Data Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Potential Analysis in China, a Case of Qingdao City
2019 (English)In: INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR ENERGY TRANSITIONS / [ed] Yan, J Yang, HX Li, H Chen, X, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2019, p. 6099-6104Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, China faces challenges of further implementing heat pump technology for meeting building heating and cooling demand. The utilization of heat pumps, especially ground source heat pump (GSHP) is associated with a number of geological, hydrological as well as meteorological criteria. Thus it is essential to systematically address the feasibility of ground source heat pumps application using quantitative evaluation. Spatial data analysis is a method widely used in energy field to investigate renewable energy potential. Therefore, this study strives to provide an estimation of electricity driven GSHP's potential in north China using spatial data assisted tools. Followed by a case study using the methodology recommended, a spatial data assisted GSHP potential evaluation model is built for Qingdao city in north China. The evaluation model is constructed and analyzed through spatial data processing software visualized by ground source heat pump potential maps. The result maps show that, places with most potential of GSHP application locate in south Qingdao close to the sea. Such places have a higher ground extractable heat and relatively low drilling cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 158
Keywords
spatial data analysis, ground source heat pump, China
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255232 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.504 (DOI)000471031706071 ()2-s2.0-85063864787 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), AUG 22-25, 2018, Hong Kong, HONG KONG
Note

QC 20190730

Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-08-02Bibliographically approved
Abuasbeh, M. (2018). Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Insight into the future. Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Insight into the future
2018 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems, such as Aquifer thermal energy storage(ATES) are used in several countries. The regulation and research on the potential impacts of ATESon groundwater resources and the subsurface environment often lag behind the technologicaldevelopment of an ever-growing demand for this renewable energy source. The lack of a clear andscientifically supported risk management strategy implies that potentially unwanted risks might betaken at vulnerable locations such as near well fields used for drinking water production. At othersites, on the other side, the application of ATES systems is avoided without proper reasons. Thisresults in limiting the utilization of the ATES technology in many occasions, affecting the possibilityto increase the share of renewable energy use. Therefore, further studies to characterizegroundwater resources, performance monitoring and identification of environmental impacts areneeded to understand the advantages and limitations of ATES systems.

The environmental impact and technical performance of a Low Temperature ATES (LT-ATES)system in operation since 2016 is presented. The system is called Rosenborg and is owned byVasakronan. It is located in the northern part of Stockholm, on a glaciofluvial deposit called theStockholm esker. The ATES system is used to heat and cool two commercial buildings with a totalarea of around 30,000 m2. The ATES consists of 3 warm and 2 cold pumping wells that are able topump up to 50 liters per second.

Analysis of groundwater sampling included a period of 9 months prior to ATES operation as well asthe first full season of heating and cooling operation. The sampling was conducted in a group ofwells in the vicinity of the installation and within the system. Means of evaluation constituted astatistical approach that included Kruskal-Wallis test by ranks, to compare the wells before and afterthe ATES was used. Then principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis were used tostudy the ground water conditions change before and after the ATES. Aquifer Variation Ratio(AVR) was suggested as mean to evaluate the overall conditions of the aquifer pre- and post- ATES.

The results showed some variations in redox potential, particularly at the cold wells which likely wasdue to the mixing of groundwater considering the different depths of groundwater beingabstracted/injected from different redox zones. Arsenic, which has shown to be sensitive to hightemperatures in other research showed a decrease in concentration. A lower specific conductivityand total hardness at the ATES well compared to their vicinity was found. That indicates that theyare less subject to salinization and that no accumulation has occurred to date. It is evident that theenvironmental impact from ATES is governed by the pre-conditions in soil- and groundwater. ThePCA and clustering analysis showed very little change in the overall conditions in the aquifer whencomparing the ATES before and after operation. Temperature change showed negligible impact.This can be mainly attributed to the relatively small temperature change (+6 and – 5 degrees) fromthe undisturbed Aquifer temperature which is 10.5°C.

Performance of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems for seasonal thermal storagedepends on the temperature of the extracted/injected groundwater, water pumping rates and thehydrogeological conditions of the aquifer. ATES systems are therefore often designed to work witha temperature difference between the warm side and cold side of the aquifer without riskinghydraulic and thermal intrusion between them, and avoiding thermal leakage to surrounding area, i.e. optimize hydraulic and thermal recovery. The hydraulic and thermal recovery values of the first yearof operation in Rosenorg weres 1.37 and 0.33, respectively, indicating that more storage volume(50500m3) was recovered during the cooling season than injected (36900m3) in the previous heatingseason.

Monitoring the operation of pumping and observation wells is crucial for the validation of ATESgroundwater models utilized for their design, and measured data provides valuable information forresearchers and practitioners working in the field. After months of planning and installation work,selected measurements recorded in an ATES monitoring project in Sweden during the first threeseasons of operation are reported in this report.

The monitoring system consists of temperature sensors and flow meters placed at the pumpingwells, a distributed temperature-sensing rig employing fiber optic cables as linear sensor andmeasuring temperature every 0.25 m along the depth of all pumping and several observation wells,yielding temporal and spatial variation data of the temperature in the aquifer. The heat injection andextraction to and from the ground is measured using power meters at the main line connecting thepumping wells to the system. The total heat and cold extracted from the aquifer during the firstheating and cooling season is 190MWh and 237MWh, respectively. A total of 143 MWh of heatwere extracted during the second heating season. The hydraulic and thermal recovery values of thefirst year of operation was 1.37 and 0.33, respectively, indicating that more storage volume(50500m3) was recovered during the cooling season than injected (36900m3) in the previous heatingseason. The DTS data showed traces of the thermal front from the warm storage reaching the coldone. Only 33% of the thermal energy was recovered. These losses are likely due to ambientgroundwater flow as well as conduction losses at the boundaries of the storage volume. Additionally,the net energy balance over the first year corresponds to 0.12 which indicates a total net heating ofthe ATES over the first year. It is recommended to increase the storage volume and achieve morehydraulic and thermal balance in the ATES system. This can enhance the thermal recovery andoverall performance. Continuous monitoring of the ATES is and will be ongoing for at least 3 moreyears. The work presented in this report is an initial evaluation of the system aiming to optimize theATES performance.

Furthermore, data management and processing tool has been established for the ATES system in Rosenborg. Additionally, a conceptual model of the ATES area has been established. Current andfuture work is focussed on completing a full scale numerical model in FEFLOW and validated themodel (both hydraulically and thermally) with the available monitoring data. Furthermore,establishing recommendations for optimum design and operation of ATES system.

Abstract [sv]

Att lagra värme och kyla under markytan, exempelvis i grundvattnet i en akvifer, används världenrunt. Oftast arbetar dessa system med två brunnsgrupper, en kall och en varmgrupp, som viavärmeväxlare och eller värmepumpar till ett energisystem i en fastighet.

Syftet med ett säsongslager i en akvifer är oftast att arbeta inom rimliga temperaturer och vattenuttagoch garantera att det kalla och det varma lagret inte påverkar varandra, samt att systemet i sin helhetinte påverkar förhållanden i det omgivande grundvattnet.

Regelverk och forskning inom akviferlager ligger tyvärr några år bakom marknaden och dentekologiska utvecklingen, trots stort intresse för förnyelsebara energikällor. Bristen av vetenskapligtframtagen kunskap inom området medför därmed en ökad risk för fel i konstruktion, fel inom 

framtagning av underlag för bedömning av tillståndsansökningar samt för förorening avgrundvattnet. Det kan även hända att akviferlager förbjuds baserad på fel grunder. Eftersom dettakan resultera i en begränsad användning av denna förnyelsebara energikälla är det viktigt att utökakunskapsnivån inom karakterisering av grundvattenresurser, miljöpåverkan av akviferlager samtmätning och uppföljning av dessa system.

Miljöpåverkan och prestandauppföljning har under detta projekt utförts i ett lågt tempereratakviferlager, Rosenborg, som äggs av Vasakronan och som är i drift sedan 2016. Anläggningen ärplacerat i en del av Solnastad som passerar Stockhoms åsen.

Grundvattenkemi kan studeras med hjälp av regelbundna provtagningar och statistiska analyser.Provtagningar utfördes i observationsbrunnar placerade innanför och utanför lagret, och pågick frånoch med 9 månader innan anläggningen satts i drift till och med slutat av effsysprojektet, dvsprovtagningskampanjen inkluderade en helt kyl och värmelagringssäsong. Utvärderingen inkluderadeStatistiska metoder så som Kruskal-Wallis rangordningstester samt en data-driven metod så kalladPCA (från engelskan Principal Component Analysis) har använts, även klusteranalyser användes föratt studera och jämföra variationer i specifika kemiska komponenter i brunnarna före och efterdriftsättningen av akviferlagret. Varibeln AVR (Akvifer Variation Ratio) föreslogs som ett sätt attutvärdera kemisk påverkan i akviferen före och efter driftsättning på ett mer övergripande sätt.

Den kemiska analysen visade Redox variationer i de kalla brunnarna, som sannolikt berodde påblandning av grundvatten från olika djup (olika Redox potential). Arsenik, som är kännslig till högretemperaturer enligt tidigare utfört arbete, visade en minskning i koncentration. Akviferlagret visadeen lägre hårdhet (proportionell mängd kalcium och magnesium) och lägre konduktivitet än detomgivande grundvattnet, som betyder att lagret har varit mindre känslig till intrång av saltvatten frånomgivningen. PCA och klusteranalysen visade små ändringar före och efter driften. Detkonstaterades att temperaturändringarna (+6 K sommartid och -5 K vintertid) hade en försumbarpåverkan i relation till akviferens ostörda temperatur (10,5°C).

Eftersom energiprestanda i ett akviferlager är beroende av hydrauliska och termiska aspekter hardessa studerats i projektet genom att jämföra volymmängder grundvatten som pumpades ut och insamt utifrån temperaturbalansen över året, båda med hänsyn till akviferens hydrogeologiskaförhållanden. Begreppen hydraulisk och termisk återhämtning har använts för kvantifiering avakviferens prestanda. Resultatet för det första året blev en hydraulisk återhämtning lika med 1,37 ochden termiska återhämtningen 0,33. Den hydrauliska återhämtningen av 1,37 betyder att en störreandel (37%) av lagrets vattenvolym återanvändes under kyluttaget jämfört med värmeuttagsperioden.Den termiska återhämtningen, som är relaterad till den önskade temperaturnivån (10,5°C) ellerbörvärde har det första året visar att 67% mindre kyla har plockat upp i relation till värmeuttaget.Det är viktigt att hålla i åtanke att denna indikatör är starkt beroende på börvärdet somdriftpersonalen bestämmer. Mer förståelse kring hur det hydrauliska och termiska prestanda kan tasfram i fortsättningsprojektet med hjälp av uppföljning av vattenflöden, nivåer ochgrundvattentemperaturer i systemet som utförs via en state of the art mätsystem som har applicerasunder projektet. Av speciell relevans är det fiberoptiska systemet som har installerats i samtligapumpbrunnar samt i ett antal observationsbrunnar i akviferlagret. Systemet mäter var 25 centimeteroch täcker det mesta av lagrets volym. Mätningarna kan i fortsättningen användas för att validera ennumerisk modell som har tagits fram inom projektet med programmet FEFLOW.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: , 2018. p. 42
Keywords
Heating, Free cooling, Heat pump, Thermal Energy storage, Aquifer, ATES, Groundwater, Monitoring, DTS, Värme, kyla, akviferlager, Termiska energilager
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243835 (URN)
Projects
Effsys Expand P22: Heating and cooling from aquifer layers an insight into the future/Värme och kyla från akviferlager en inblick i framtiden
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, Projektnummer 40942-1 Effsys Expand P22
Note

QC 20190211

Available from: 2019-02-06 Created: 2019-02-06 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Mazzotti, W., Jiang, Y., Monzó, P., Lazzarotto, A., Acuña, J. & Palm, B. (2018). Design of a Laboratory BoreholeStorage model. In: Jeffrey Spitler, José Acuña, Michel Bernier, Zhaohong Fang, Signhild Gehlin, Saqib Javed, Björn Palm, Simon J. Rees (Ed.), Research Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at International Ground-Source Heat Pump Association Research Conference 2018 (pp. 400-410).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of a Laboratory BoreholeStorage model
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2018 (English)In: Research Conference Proceedings / [ed] Jeffrey Spitler, José Acuña, Michel Bernier, Zhaohong Fang, Signhild Gehlin, Saqib Javed, Björn Palm, Simon J. Rees, 2018, p. 400-410Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design process of a 4x4 Laboratory Borehole Storage (LABS) model through analytical and numerical analyses. This LABS isintended to generate reference Thermal Response Functions (TRFs) as well as to be a validation tool for borehole heat transfer models. The objective of thisdesign process is to determine suitable geometrical and physical parameters for the LABS. An analytical scaling analysis is first performed and importantscaling constraints are derived. In particular, it is shown that the downscaling process leads to significantly higher values for Neumann and convectiveboundary conditions whereas the Fourier number is invariant. A numerical model is then used to verify the scaling laws, determine the size of the LABS,as well as to evaluate the influence of top surface convection and borehole radius on generated TRFs. An adequate shape for the LABS is found to be aquarter cylinder of radius and height 1.0 m, weighing around 1.2 tonnes. Natural convection on the top boundary proves to have a significant effect on thegenerated TRF with deviations of at least 15%. This convection effect is proposed as an explanation for the difference observed between experimental andanalytical results in Cimmino and Bernier (2015). A numerical reproduction of their test leads to a relative difference of 1.1% at the last reported time.As small borehole radii are challenging to reproduce in a LABS, the effect of the borehole radius on TRFs is investigated. It is found that Eskilson’sradius correction (1987) is not fully satisfactory and a new correction method must be undertaken.

Keywords
Laboratory model, Borehole storage, Downscaling, Thermal response function, Experiment design
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238595 (URN)
Conference
International Ground-Source Heat Pump Association Research Conference 2018
Projects
Deep boreholes for Ground-Source Heat Pumps
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20181106

Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Behi, M., Mirmohammadi, S. A., Ghanbarpour, M., Behi, H. & Palm, B. (2018). Evaluation of a novel solar driven sorption cooling/heating system integrated with PCM storage compartment. Energy, 164, 449-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a novel solar driven sorption cooling/heating system integrated with PCM storage compartment
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2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 449-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently the interest in solar thermal cooling has been growing for Air Conditioning (AC) applications. This paper presents an applied experimental and numerical evaluation of a novel triple-state sorption solar cooling module. The performance of a LiCl-H2O based sorption module (SM) for cooling/heating system with integration of an external energy storage has been evaluated. The dynamic behavior of the SM, which can be driven by solar energy, is presented. Two PCM assisted configurations of the SM have been studied herein; (i) PCM assisted sorption module for cooling applications (ii) PCM assisted sorption module for heating applications. Initially, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the charging/discharging process of the SM without external energy storage. Secondly, the initial experimental configuration was modeled with a PCM integrated storage compartment. The PCM storage compartment was connected to the Condenser/Evaporator (C/E) of the SM. The temporal history of the sorption module's C/E and PCM storage, the cyclic and average performance in terms of cooling/heating capacity, cooling/heating COP, and the total efficiency were experimentally and numerically investigated. Furthermore, PCM charging/discharging power rate and solidification/melting process of the PCM in the integrated storage compartment to the SM were predicted by the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Sorption cooling/heating, Applied energy storage, Phase change material (PCM), Experimental and numerical studies
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239465 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.08.166 (DOI)000448098600036 ()2-s2.0-85053439897 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181126

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Kaern, M. R., Markussen, W. B., Meyer, K. E., Elmegaard, B. & Palm, B. (2018). Experimental comparison and visualization of in-tube continuous and pulsating flow boiling. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 125, 229-242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental comparison and visualization of in-tube continuous and pulsating flow boiling
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 125, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This experimental study investigated the application of fluid flow pulsations for in-tube flow boiling heat transfer enhancement in an 8 mm smooth round tube made of copper. The fluid flow pulsations were introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and were compared with continuous flow generated by a stepper-motor expansion valve in terms of the time-averaged heat transfer coefficient. The cycle time ranged from 1 s to 7 s for the pulsations, the time-averaged refrigerant mass flux ranged from 50 kg m(-2) s(-1) to 194 kg m(-2) and the time-averaged heat flux ranged from 1.1 kW m(-2) to 30.6 kW m(-2). The time-averaged heat transfer coefficients were reduced from transient measurements immediately downstream of the expansion valves with 2 K and 20 K subcooling upstream, resulting in inlet vapor qualities at 0.05 and 0.18, respectively, and covered the saturated flow boiling range up to the dry-out inception. Averaged results of the considered range of vapor qualities, refrigerant mass flux and heat flux showed that the pulsations at low cycle time (1 s) improved the time-averaged heat transfer coefficients by 5.6% and 2.2% for the low and high subcooling, respectively. However, the pulsations at high cycle time (7 s) reduced the time-averaged heat transfer coefficients by 1.8% and 2.3% for the low and high subcooling, respectively, due to significant dry-out when the flow-modulating expansion valve was closed. Furthermore, the flow pulsations were visualized by high-speed camera to assist in understanding the time-periodic flow regimes and the effect they had on the heat transfer performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2018
Keywords
Flow boiling, Flow pulsation, Heat transfer enhancement, Visualization, Flow regime
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233261 (URN)10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.04.060 (DOI)000440118600019 ()2-s2.0-85046355941 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180816

Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Su, C., Madani, H. & Palm, B. (2018). Heating solutions for residential buildings in China: Current status and future outlook. Energy Conversion and Management, 177, 493-510
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heating solutions for residential buildings in China: Current status and future outlook
2018 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, p. 493-510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With continuing of urbanization, improving of life quality as well as combating against air pollution, China is facing comprehensive challenges to supply modem clean heating to a majority of its citizens. For space heating solutions, currently in urban areas of north China, coal based district heating is prevalent. In urban areas of south China, distributed heating solutions are used. In rural areas, de-centralized coal stoves and biomass stoves are still commonly used. As renewable building heating solution, ground source heat pumps are installed for large scale applications. Building floor areas heated by ground source heat pumps increased tremendously during past ten years. Air source heat pump is being promoted in north Chinese rural areas as part of coal to clean heating project. Solar water heater and electric water heater for domestic hot water supply is widely used in north China and gas water boiler is widely used in south China. A series of policies have encouraged clean fossil fuel district heating in north China. National development plans are also supporting and subsidizing renewable heating technology such as heat pumps. Different building heating technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. The choice of building heating solutions for different geolocations of China is strongly affected by spatial parameters such as local climate condition, population distribution, natural resource availability etc. Therefore, a spatial data analysis method is essential to help stakeholders decide proper building heating solutions in different parts of China by key performance indicators reflecting lower primary energy use, economic affordability and lower environmental impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Building heating solution, District heating, Distributed heating, Heat pump, China
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239973 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2018.10.005 (DOI)000451356300040 ()2-s2.0-85054232647 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181211

Available from: 2018-12-11 Created: 2018-12-11 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Xu, T., Navarro-Peris, E., Piscopiello, S., Sawalha, S., Corberán, J. M. & Palm, B. (2018). Large-Capacity Propane Heat Pumps for DHW Production in Residential Buildings. In: Refrigeration Science and Technology: . Paper presented at 13th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants: Natural Refrigerant Solutions for Warm Climate Countries, Valencia, Spain, 18 June 2018 through 20 June 2018 (pp. 1222-1230). Valencia, Spain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-Capacity Propane Heat Pumps for DHW Production in Residential Buildings
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2018 (English)In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, Valencia, Spain, 2018, p. 1222-1230Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using heat pump technology to provide Space Heating (SH) and to produce Domestic Hot Water (DHW) for residential buildings has been widely applied during past decades. In this study, two scenarios adopting large-capacity propane heat pumps are defined and evaluated. These two scenarios, which are named after Scenario A and Scenario B respectively, provide SH and DHW either separately by two units or integrally by one unit. The COP1s of two scenarios are compared based on the simulation results from experimentally validated models. The results show that two scenarios have almost equal efficiency; the relative difference is within 6%. In the optimization analysis of Scenario B, varying DHW heating capacity produced by the desuperheater in the heat pump is modelled. The DHW demand ratio varies from approximately 9% to 20% with no detectable influences on the COP1. The corresponding COP1s and temperature profiles in the heat exchangers are demonstrated. The simulation results indicate that increasing DHW capacity in Scenario B can narrow down the temperature approach in the condenser and insignificantly improves the overall COP1s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia, Spain: , 2018
Series
Refrigeration Science and Technology, ISSN 0151-1637 ; 2018
Keywords
Propane, Heat Pump, Space Heating, Domestic Hot Water, COP
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236097 (URN)10.18462/iir.gl.2018.1382 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049850958 (Scopus ID)9782362150265 (ISBN)
Conference
13th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants: Natural Refrigerant Solutions for Warm Climate Countries, Valencia, Spain, 18 June 2018 through 20 June 2018
Note

QC 20181019

Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9902-2087

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