kth.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 124) Show all publications
Ait Ali, A., Eliasson, J. & Warg, J. (2022). Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers’ valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?. Transport Policy, 116, 188-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers’ valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?
2022 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 116, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social cost-benefit analysis is often used to analyse transport investments, and can also be used for transport operation planning and capacity allocation. If it is to be used for resolving capacity conflicts, however, it is important to know whether transit agencies' timetable requests are consistent with the cost-benefit framework, which is based on passenger preferences. We show how a public transport agency's implicit valuations of waiting time and crowding can be estimated by analysing timetables, apply the method to commuter train timetables in Stockholm, and compare the implicit valuations to the corresponding passenger valuations in the official Swedish cost-benefit analysis guidelines. The results suggest that the agency puts a slightly lower value on waiting time and crowding than the passenger valuations codified in the official guidelines. We discuss possible reasons for this and implications for using cost-benefit analysis for capacity allocation. We also find that optimal frequencies are more sensitive to the waiting time valuation than to that of crowding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Waiting time; Crowding; Cost-benefit analysis; Implicit preference; Commuter train
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-308820 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.11.025 (DOI)000751667100001 ()2-s2.0-85120801115 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220223

Available from: 2022-02-14 Created: 2022-02-14 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, J., Pyddoke, R. & Swardh, J.-E. (2018). Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases. Economics of Transportation, 15, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases
2018 (English)In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 15, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category, and spatial dimensions. The analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups. We also study revenue recycling schemes; when these are included, the combined effect of tax and recycling is progressive. Considering geographical differences; rural areas carry a larger burden of fuel and vehicle taxes than urban areas, and satellites/suburbs carry a larger burden than central cities. However, rural areas are affected remarkably similar regardless of where in the country they are located.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Distributional effects, Equity effects, Fuel tax, Car ownership tax
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235110 (URN)10.1016/j.ecotra.2018.03.001 (DOI)000443458400001 ()2-s2.0-85045105994 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180919

Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Koutoulas, A., Franklin, J. & Eliasson, J. (2017). Assessing Nighttime Deliveries in Stockholm, Sweden. Transportation Research Record, 2605, 54-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Nighttime Deliveries in Stockholm, Sweden
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2605, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Off-peak-hour delivery programs are a promising but challenging concept for promoting sustainable urban logistics. Stockholm, Sweden, initialized a nighttime freight deliveries program in 2014, aimed at a more efficient and environmentally friendly delivery system within the central area of the city. The policy of shifting freight deliveries from daytime to off-peak hours generates a wide range of effects that can be analyzed from several angles. This paper identifies the social costs and benefits, how these are distributed between stakeholders, and their effects on the everyday life and operations of all interested parties. Accord-ing to information and data collected through in-depth interviews with private and public stakeholders, the social benefits mainly consist of increased efficiency and productivity for carriers and receivers, reduced transport costs, fuel cost savings, and reduced congestion and accidents when trucks are moved from peak to off-peak hours. Social costs may include increased noise levels and noise disturbances; additional staff requirements, equipment, and wage costs; and higher risks in handling goods deliveries at nighttime, especially in the case of unassisted deliv-eries. This paper concludes by discussing the lessons learned from the trial, challenges and opportunities that arose during implementation, and the implications for enhancement of off-peak-hour delivery in Stockholm and other cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Transportation Research Board, 2017
Keywords
Off-peak hour deliveries, Social costs and benefits, Sustainable urban logistics, in-depth interviews
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216429 (URN)10.3141/2605-05 (DOI)000413445800006 ()2-s2.0-85054842674 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171102

Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, J. (2017). Congestion pricing. In: The Routledge Handbook of Transport Economics: (pp. 209-226). Taylor and Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion pricing
2017 (English)In: The Routledge Handbook of Transport Economics, Taylor and Francis , 2017, p. 209-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fundamental reason for the existence of cities is that they enable high accessibility. High accessibility is associated both with economic gains such as higher wages and productivity and opportunities to satisfy specialised interests and lifestyles. The history of human civilisation is a history of urbanisation. Scientific and cultural progress rest on two cornerstones: one is the written language, enabling us to communicate innovations and experiences over distance and time; the other is cities, which have always been our engines of innovations and discovery. Since the demand for and the rewards of high accessibility have accelerated over the last two centuries, this has fuelled urbanisation at an ever higher pace. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis, 2017
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236860 (URN)10.4324/9781315726786 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050258427 (Scopus ID)9781317537960 (ISBN)9781138847491 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20181218

Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved
Broman, E. & Eliasson, J. (2017). Market dynamics in on-rail competition. In: Celikoglu, HB Lav, AH Silgu, MA (Ed.), 19th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT2016: . Paper presented at 19th European-Operational-Research-Societies Working Group on Transportation Meeting (EWGT), SEP 05-07, 2016, Tech Univ Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey (pp. 232-244). Elsevier, 22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Market dynamics in on-rail competition
2017 (English)In: 19th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT2016 / [ed] Celikoglu, HB Lav, AH Silgu, MA, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 22, p. 232-244Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On-rail competition is perhaps the most far-reaching form of deregulation of the railways, giving travellers several options on a single line. It aims to lower fairs and raise quality of service, thereby boosting demand and social welfare. Concerns have been raised, however, regarding if effective competition is possible on such a market, allowing two or more operators to be profitable and eliminating through incentives or regulation the purchase by one operator of the others' access rights, thus restoring monopoly. In addition, the effect of competition on total welfare is unclear. The issue of how to regulate the market and conduct capacity allocation in order to maximise welfare is also as yet unanswered. Addressing these issues, the present paper studies a duopoly market through simulations. It builds on the hypothesis that competition occurs between trains with close departure times. Results indicate that total welfare increases significantly when going from profit-maximising monopoly to competition, as consumers make large gains while operators' profits fall. The way the regulator allocates departure slots has significant importance for market outcomes, including prices, frequencies and total welfare. In particular, it is possible to improve welfare by regulating the succession of departures. If trading in access rights is allowed, a would-be monopolist has incentives to buy its competitors' slots for a price they would accept. A monopolist that uses high frequency of departures as a deterrence strategy against competition increases frequency a lot compared to the profit-maximising level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465 ; 22
Keywords
on-rail competition, simulation model, deregulation, Stackelberg game
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211355 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.03.030 (DOI)000404633300024 ()2-s2.0-85019439823 (Scopus ID)
Conference
19th European-Operational-Research-Societies Working Group on Transportation Meeting (EWGT), SEP 05-07, 2016, Tech Univ Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
Note

QC 20170801

Available from: 2017-08-01 Created: 2017-08-01 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Ait Ali, A., Warg, J. & Eliasson, J. (2017). Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm. In: 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary: . Paper presented at 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary (pp. 849-856). Elsevier, 27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm
2017 (English)In: 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 849-856Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465 ; 27
Keywords
train timetabling; socio-economic benefits; railway simulation
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics; Transport Science; Planning and Decision Analysis; Järnvägsgruppen - Kapacitet; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik; The KTH Railway Group - Tribology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211534 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.124 (DOI)000483931700097 ()2-s2.0-85039970574 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary
Projects
Railway capacity allocation
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, H6675
Note

QC 20170822

Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Bastian, A., Börjesson, M. & Eliasson, J. (2017). Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 95, 386-389
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202251 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2016.11.001 (DOI)000392768600026 ()2-s2.0-85006989971 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Bastian, A.; Department for Transport Science, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologySweden; email: anne.bastian@abe.kth.se. QC 20170306

Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M., Brundell-Freij, K. & Eliasson, J. (2017). Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 96, 101-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Accuracy, Demand modeling, Forecast, Transport, Validation
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201016 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2016.12.008 (DOI)000393265100009 ()2-s2.0-85008392745 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170207

Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Cats, O., West, J. & Eliasson, J. (2016). A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects in transit systems. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 89, 43-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects in transit systems
2016 (English)In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 89, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal.A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Agent-based simulation, Capacity, Cost-benefit analysis, Dynamic congestion, Transit assignment, Cost benefit analysis, Cost effectiveness, Mass transportation, Stochastic systems, Travel time, Agent based simulation, Crowding effects, Network reliability, Public transport, Service reliability, Transit systems, Stochastic models
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186912 (URN)10.1016/j.trb.2016.04.001 (DOI)000379281900003 ()2-s2.0-84963517880 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160516

Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2022-06-22Bibliographically approved
Anderstig, C., Berglund, S., Eliasson, J. & Andersson, M. (2016). Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 50, 113-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections
2016 (English)In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIV BATH, 2016
National Category
Economics and Business Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192769 (URN)000381746100001 ()2-s2.0-85019409374 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160926

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-20 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1789-9238

Search in DiVA

Show all publications