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Carlson, A., Shapturenka, P., Eriksson, B., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Wreland Lindström, R. (2018). Electrode parameters and operating conditions influencing the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochimica Acta, 277, 151-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrode parameters and operating conditions influencing the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells
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2018 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 277, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A deeper understanding of porous electrode preparation and performance losses is necessary to advance the anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) technology. This study has investigated the performance losses at 50 °C for varied: Tokuyama AS-4 ionomer content in the catalyst layer, Pt/C loading and catalyst layer thickness at the anode and cathode, relative humidity, and anode catalyst. The prepared gas diffusion electrodes in the interval of ionomer-to-Pt/C weight ratio of 0.4–0.8 or 29–44 wt% ionomer content show the highest performance. Varying the loading and catalyst layer thickness simultaneously shows that both the cathode and the anode influence the cell performance. The effects of the two electrodes are shown to vary with current density and this is assumed to be due to non-uniform current distribution throughout the electrodes. Further, lowering the relative humidity at the anode and cathode separately shows small performance losses for both electrodes that could be related to lowered ionomer conductivity. Continued studies are needed to optimize, and understand limitations of, each of the two electrodes to obtain improved cell performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
AEMFC, Electrode morphology, Electrode performance, Ionomer content, Pt/C catalyst
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228724 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2018.04.137 (DOI)000433044200017 ()2-s2.0-85046745654 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Lindahl, N., Eriksson, B., Groenbeck, H., Wreland Lindström, R., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Wickman, B. (2018). Fuel Cell Measurements with Cathode Catalysts of Sputtered Pt3Y Thin Films. ChemSusChem, 11(9), 1438-1445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fuel Cell Measurements with Cathode Catalysts of Sputtered Pt3Y Thin Films
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2018 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1438-1445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fuel cells are foreseen to have an important role in sustainable energy systems, provided that catalysts with higher activity and stability are developed. In this study, highly active sputtered thin films of platinum alloyed with yttrium (Pt3Y) are deposited on commercial gas diffusion layers and their performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is measured. After acid pretreatment, the alloy is found to have up to 2.5 times higher specific activity than pure platinum. The performance of Pt3Y is much higher than that of pure Pt, even if all of the alloying element was leached out from parts of the thin metal film on the porous support. This indicates that an even higher performance is expected if the structure of the Pt3Y catalyst or the support could be further improved. The results show that platinum alloyed with rare earth metals can be used as highly active cathode catalyst materials, and significantly reduce the amount of platinum needed, in real fuel cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
electrocatalysis, fuel cells, platinum, rare earths, thin films
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228426 (URN)10.1002/cssc.201800023 (DOI)000431975700006 ()29513396 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85044870915 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Mesfun, S., Lundgren, J., Toffolo, A., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Engvall, K. (2017). Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-SNG plant. In: 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017: . Paper presented at 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of an electrolysis unit for producer gas conditioning in a bio-SNG plant
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2017 (English)In: 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Producer gas from biomass gasification contains impurities like tars, particles, alkali salts and sulfur/nitrogen compounds. As a result a number of process steps are required to condition the producer gas before utilization as a syngas and further upgrading to final chemicals and fuels. Here, we study the concept of using molten carbonate electrolysis cells (MCEC) both to clean and to condition the composition of a raw syngas stream, from biomass gasification, for further upgrading into SNG. A mathematical MCEC model is used to analyze the impact of operational parameters, such as current density, pressure and temperature, on the quality and amount of tailored syngas produced. Investment opportunity is evaluated as an economic indicator of the processes considered. Results indicate that the production of SNG can be boosted by approximately 50% without the need of an additional carbon source, i.e. for the same biomass input as in standalone operation of the GoBiGas plant.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233923 (URN)2-s2.0-85048615505 (Scopus ID)
Conference
30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2017
Note

cited By 0. QC 20181003

Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2018-10-03Bibliographically approved
Rashtchi, H., Acevedo Gomez, Y., Raeissi, K., Shamanian, M., Eriksson, B., Zhiani, M., . . . Wreland Lindström, R. (2017). Performance of a PEM fuel cell using electroplated Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P stainless steel bipolar plates. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 164(13), F1427-F1436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of a PEM fuel cell using electroplated Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P stainless steel bipolar plates
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2017 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 13, p. F1427-F1436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance and durability of 316L stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) electroplated with Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P coatings are investigated in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), using a commercial Pt/C Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The effect of the BPP coatings on the electrochemical performance up to 115 h is evaluated from polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with interfacial contact resistance (ICR) measurements between the coatings and the gas diffusion layer. The results show that all the coatings decrease the ICR in comparison to that of uncoated 316L BPP. The Ni-Mo coated BPP shows a low and stable ICR and the smallest effects on MEA performance, including catalyst activity/usability, cathode double layer capacitance, and membrane and ionomer resistance build up with time. After electrochemical evaluation, the BPPs as well as the water effluents from the cell are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectroscopies. No significant degradation of the coated surface or enhancement in metal release is observed. However, phosphorus addition to the coating does not show to improve its properties, as deterioration of the MEA and consequently fuel cell performance losses is observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2017
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215731 (URN)10.1149/2.0771713jes (DOI)000418409800166 ()2-s2.0-85033682707 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20171023

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
Sevencan, S., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Alvfors, P. (2016). Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre. Energy and Buildings, 111, 218-223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 111, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy use of data centres is increasing as the data storage needs increase. One of the largest items in the energy use of these facilities is cooling. A fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system can efficiently meet such a centre's need for cooling and in the meantime generate enough electricity for the centre and more. In this paper the economic feasibility of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system that meets the energy demands of such a facility is investigated using operational data from an existing data centre in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that although the system is not feasible with current energy prices and technology it may be feasible in the future with the projected changes in energy prices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Fuel cell, Combined cooling heating and power, Data centre, Feasibility
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179131 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.11.012 (DOI)000369191100020 ()2-s2.0-84949493559 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160111. QC 20160304

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Rashtchi, H., Raeissi, K., Shamanian, M., Acevedo Gomez, Y., Lagergren, C., Lindström, R. & Rajaei, V. (2016). Evaluation of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P Electroplated Coatings on Stainless Steel for PEM Fuel Cells Bipolar Plates. Fuel Cells, 16(6), 784-800
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-P Electroplated Coatings on Stainless Steel for PEM Fuel Cells Bipolar Plates
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2016 (English)In: Fuel Cells, ISSN 1615-6846, E-ISSN 1615-6854, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 784-800Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stainless steel bipolar plates (BPPs) are the preferred choice for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); however, a surface coating is needed to minimize contact resistance and corrosion. In this paper, Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P coatings were electroplated on stainless steel BPPs and investigated by XRD, SEM/EDX, AFM and contact angle measurements. The performance of the BPPs was studied by corrosion and conduction tests and by measuring their interfacial contact resistances (ICRs) ex situ in a PEMFC set-up at varying clamping pressure, applied current and temperature. The results revealed that the applied coatings significantly reduce the ICR and corrosion rate of stainless steel BPP. All the coatings presented stable performance and the coatings electroplated at 100 mA cm−2showed even lower ICR than graphite. The excellent properties of the coatings compared to native oxide film of the bare stainless steel are due to their higher contact angle, crystallinity and roughness, improving hydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. Hence, the electroplated coatings investigated in this study have promising properties for stainless steel BPPs and are potentially good alternatives for the graphite BPP in PEMFC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Alloys, Bipolar Plate, Electroplated Coatings, Fuel Cells, Interfacial Contact Resistance, Molybdenum, PEM Fuel Cell, Wettability, Alloying, Coatings, Contact angle, Contact resistance, Corrosion, Corrosion rate, Gas fuel purification, Graphite, Nickel, Oxide films, Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), Wetting, Bipolar plates, Electrical conductivity, Electroplated coating, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFCs), Stable performance, Stainless steel bipolar plates, Stainless steel
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201882 (URN)10.1002/fuce.201600062 (DOI)000392531900014 ()2-s2.0-84992349867 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20170308

Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, B., Jaouen, F., Lindbergh, G., Wreland Lindström, R. & Lagergren, C. (2015). Degradation and lifetime evaluation of Fe-N-C based catalyst in PEMFC. In: Proceedings of the 6th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015: . Paper presented at 6th European Fuel Cell Technology and Applications Conference - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, 16 December 2015 through 18 December 2015 (pp. 223-224). ENEA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation and lifetime evaluation of Fe-N-C based catalyst in PEMFC
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, ENEA , 2015, p. 223-224Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The restricted lifetime of Fe-N-C based catalysts is often assumed to be connected to the operating temperature. This study will investigate how the cell performance, electrode structure and composition vary over time, at different cell temperatures. At lower temperature, one may expect an increase in radical's stability, but a decrease in reactivity. Results show that the electrode degenerates over time, and that the electrochemical performance decay is similar for 40, 60, and 80° C. However, the loss of active sites is higher at higher temperature. This suggests that indirect production of radicals via H2O2 production during ORR is higher at higher temperatures and is a key degradation mechanism for this Fe-N-C catalyst.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ENEA, 2015
Keywords
Degradation, NPMC, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), Catalysts, Electrochemical electrodes, Electrodes, Cell temperature, Degradation mechanism, Electrochemical performance, Electrode structure, Lifetime evaluation, Lower temperatures, Operating temperature, Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202902 (URN)2-s2.0-84994570920 (Scopus ID)9788882863241 (ISBN)
Conference
6th European Fuel Cell Technology and Applications Conference - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, 16 December 2015 through 18 December 2015
Note

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-03-07Bibliographically approved
Hu, L., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2015). Electrode Kinetics of the Ni Porous Electrode for Hydrogen Production in a Molten Carbonate Electrolysis Cell (MCEC). Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162(9), F1020-F1028
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrode Kinetics of the Ni Porous Electrode for Hydrogen Production in a Molten Carbonate Electrolysis Cell (MCEC)
2015 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 9, p. F1020-F1028Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the kinetics of a porous nickel electrode for hydrogen production in a molten carbonate electrolysis cell. Stationary polarization data for the Ni electrode were recorded under varying gas compositions and temperatures. The slopes of these iR-corrected polarization curves were analyzed at low overpotential, under the assumption that the porous electrode was under kinetic control with mass-transfer limitations thus neglected. The exchange current densities were calculated numerically by using a simplified porous electrode model. Within the temperature range of 600-650 degrees C, the reaction order of hydrogen is not constant; the value was found to be 0.49-0.44 at lower H-2 concentration, while increasing to 0.79-0.94 when containing 25-50% H-2. The dependence on CO2 partial pressure increased from 0.62 to 0.86 with temperature. The reaction order of water showed two cases as did hydrogen. For lower H2O content (10-30%), the value was in the range of 0.47-0.67 at 600-650 degrees C, while increasing to 0.83-1.07 with 30-50% H2O. The experimentally obtained partial pressure dependencies were high, and therefore not in agreement with any of the mechanisms suggested for hydrogen production in molten carbonate salts in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2015
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173295 (URN)10.1149/2.0491509jes (DOI)000359177100077 ()2-s2.0-84937054026 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150909

Available from: 2015-09-09 Created: 2015-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hu, L., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2015). Electrode kinetics of the NiO porous electrode for oxygen production in the molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC). Faraday discussions (Online), 182, 493-509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrode kinetics of the NiO porous electrode for oxygen production in the molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC)
2015 (English)In: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 182, p. 493-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of a molten carbonate electrolysis cell (MCEC) is to a great extent determined by the anode, i.e. the oxygen production reaction at the porous NiO electrode. In this study, stationary polarization curves for the NiO electrode were measured under varying gas compositions and temperatures. The exchange current densities were calculated numerically from the slopes at low overpotential. Positive dependency on the exchange current density was found for the partial pressure of oxygen. When the temperature was increased in the range 600-650 degrees C, the reaction order of oxygen decreased from 0.97 to 0.80. However, there are two different cases for the partial pressure dependency of carbon dioxide within this temperature range: positive values, 0.09-0.30, for the reaction order at lower CO2 concentration, and negative values, -0.26-0.01, with increasing CO2 content. A comparison of theoretically obtained data indicates that the oxygen-producing reaction in MCEC could be reasonably satisfied by the reverse of oxygen reduction by the oxygen mechanism I, an n = 4 electron reaction, assuming a low coverage of oxide ions at high CO2 content and an intermediate coverage for a low CO2 concentration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-177977 (URN)10.1039/c5fd00011d (DOI)000364153200027 ()26211875 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946561934 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151202

Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Rexed, I., della Pietra, M., McPhail, S., Lindbergh, G. & Lagergren, C. (2015). Molten carbonate fuel cells for CO2 separation and segregation by retrofitting existing plants - An analysis of feasible operating windows and first experimental findings. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 35, 120-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molten carbonate fuel cells for CO2 separation and segregation by retrofitting existing plants - An analysis of feasible operating windows and first experimental findings
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 35, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) used as active carbon dioxide concentrator units are a promising solution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from traditional combustion plants. The cell reaction transfers carbonate ions from the cathode to the anode and allows the fuel cell to simultaneously produce power and separate CO2 from a stream of flue gas. Carbon dioxide separation is of high interest for use in natural gas combined cycles and coal gas combustion plants, as a large part of anthropogenic CO2 worldwide originates from such installations. The flue gas from these types of combustion technologies typically contains 3-15% CO2, which is in the lower operational range of the MCFC. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility to retrofit existing power plants with MCFC to reduce the total release of CO2 without necessarily reducing the power output, and to understand which kind of power plant could have the major benefits with an MCFC retrofitting. The performance of lab scale MCFC fed with simulated flue gas was evaluated, and a number of operational parameters, such as utilization factor and cathode humidification were varied to study the effect on fuel cell performance. The results show that it is feasible to operate the MCFC as a CO2 separator for simulated gas turbine flue gas; however, the voltage drop due to low CO2 concentration may restrict the operating window depending on various operating conditions.

Keywords
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Carbon capture, single cell, button cell, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154552 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.01.012 (DOI)000352328800011 ()2-s2.0-84923337300 (Scopus ID)
Projects
MCFC-CONTEX
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 245171
Note

QC 20150508. Updated from manuscript to article in journal.

Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2268-5042

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