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Publications (10 of 141) Show all publications
Korman, M., Välja, M., Björkman, G., Ekstedt, M., Vernotte, A. & Lagerström, R. (2017). Analyzing the effectiveness of attack countermeasures in a SCADA system. In: Proceedings - 2017 2nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids, CPSR-SG 2017 (part of CPS Week): . Paper presented at 2nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids, CPSR-SG 2017, 21 April 2017 (pp. 73-78). Association for Computing Machinery, Inc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the effectiveness of attack countermeasures in a SCADA system
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 2nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids, CPSR-SG 2017 (part of CPS Week), Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, p. 73-78Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The SCADA infrastructure is a key component for power grid operations. Securing the SCADA infrastructure against cyber intrusions is thus vital for a well-functioning power grid. However, the task remains a particular challenge, not the least since not all available security mechanisms are easily deployable in these reliability-critical and complex, multi-vendor environments that host modern systems alongside legacy ones, to support a range of sensitive power grid operations. This paper examines how effective a few countermeasures are likely to be in SCADA environments, including those that are commonly considered out of bounds. The results show that granular network segmentation is a particularly effective countermeasure, followed by frequent patching of systems (which is unfortunately still difficult to date). The results also show that the enforcement of a password policy and restrictive network configuration including whitelisting of devices contributes to increased security, though best in combination with granular network segmentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2017
Keywords
Cyber security, SCADA system, Security controls, Threat modeling, Vulnerability assessment, Electric power system security, Electric power transmission networks, Legacy systems, SCADA systems, Smart power grids, Multi-vendor environment, Network configuration, Network segmentation, Power grid operations, Vulnerability assessments, Network security
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216532 (URN)10.1145/3055386.3055393 (DOI)2-s2.0-85019036296 (Scopus ID)9781450349789 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids, CPSR-SG 2017, 21 April 2017
Note

QC 20171128

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Lagerström, R., Johnson, P. & Ekstedt, M. (2017). Automatic Design of Secure Enterprise Architecture. In: Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND DEMONSTRATIONS (EDOCW 2017): . Paper presented at 21st IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), OCT 10-13, 2017, Quebec City, CANADA (pp. 65-70). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Design of Secure Enterprise Architecture
2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND DEMONSTRATIONS (EDOCW 2017) / [ed] Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 65-70Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Architecture models mainly have three functions; 1) document, 2) analyze, and 3) improve the system under consideration. All three functions have suffered from being time-consuming and expensive, mainly due to being manual processes in need of hard to find expertise. Recent work has however automated both the data collection and the analysis. In order for enterprise architecture modeling to finally become free of manual labor the design function also needs to be automated. In this position paper we propose the Automatic Designer. A solution that employs machine learning techniques to realize the design of (near) optimal architecture solutions. This particular implementation is focused on security analysis, but could easily be extended to other topics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops-EDOCW, ISSN 2325-6583
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220665 (URN)10.1109/EDOCW.2017.19 (DOI)000417417800011 ()2-s2.0-85043595735 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1568-3 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), OCT 10-13, 2017, Quebec City, CANADA
Note

QC 20171229

Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved
Vernotte, A., Johnson, P., Ekstedt, M. & Lagerström, R. (2017). In-Depth Modeling of the UNIX Operating System for Architectural Cyber Security Analysis. In: Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND DEMONSTRATIONS (EDOCW 2017): . Paper presented at 21st IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), OCT 10-13, 2017, Quebec City, CANADA (pp. 127-136). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-Depth Modeling of the UNIX Operating System for Architectural Cyber Security Analysis
2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS AND DEMONSTRATIONS (EDOCW 2017) / [ed] Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 127-136Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

ICT systems have become an integral part of business and life. At the same time, these systems have become extremely complex. In such systems exist numerous vulnerabilities waiting to be exploited by potential threat actors. pwnPr3d is a novel modelling approach that performs automated architectural analysis with the objective of measuring the cyber security of the modeled architecture. Its integrated modelling language allows users to model software and hardware components with great level of details. To illustrate this capability, we present in this paper the metamodel of UNIX, operating systems being the core of every software and every IT system. After describing the main UNIX constituents and how they have been modelled, we illustrate how the modelled OS integrates within pwnPr3d's rationale by modelling the spreading of a self-replicating malware inspired by WannaCry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops-EDOCW, ISSN 2325-6583
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220666 (URN)10.1109/EDOCW.2017.26 (DOI)000417417800020 ()2-s2.0-85043606711 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1568-3 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC), OCT 10-13, 2017, Quebec City, CANADA
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607109Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Note

QC 20180108

Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P., Lagerström, R., Ekstedt, M. & Franke, U. (2016). Can the Common Vulnerability Scoring System be Trusted?: A Bayesian Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can the Common Vulnerability Scoring System be Trusted?: A Bayesian Analysis
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is the state-of-the art system for assessing software vulnerabilities. However, it has been criticized for lack of validity and practitioner relevance. In this paper, the credibility of the CVSS scoring data found in five leading databases – NVD, X-Force, OSVDB, CERT-VN, and Cisco – is assessed. A Bayesian method is used to infer the most probable true values underlying the imperfect assessments of the databases, thus circumventing the problem that ground truth is not known. It is concluded that with the exception of a few dimensions, the CVSS is quite trustworthy. The databases are relatively consistent, but some are better than others. The expected accuracy of each database for a given dimension can be found by marginalizing confusion matrices. By this measure, NVD is the best and OSVDB is the worst of the assessed databases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2016
Keywords
cyber security, software vulnerability, CVSS, information security
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200695 (URN)10.1109/TDSC.2016.2644614 (DOI)
Note

QC 20170202

Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-15Bibliographically approved
Kordy, B., Ekstedt, M. & Kim, D. S. (2016). Preface. In: 3rd International Workshop on Graphical Models for Security, GraMSec 2016: . Paper presented at 27 June 2016 through 27 June 2016 (pp. V-VI). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preface
2016 (English)In: 3rd International Workshop on Graphical Models for Security, GraMSec 2016, Springer, 2016, p. V-VIConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195505 (URN)2-s2.0-84988497608 (Scopus ID)9783319462622 (ISBN)
Conference
27 June 2016 through 27 June 2016
Note

QC 20161125

Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P., Vernotte, A., Ekstedt, M. & Lagerström, R. (2016). pwnPr3d: an Attack Graph Driven Probabilistic Threat Modeling Approach. In: Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), 2016 11th International Conference on: . Paper presented at International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>pwnPr3d: an Attack Graph Driven Probabilistic Threat Modeling Approach
2016 (English)In: Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), 2016 11th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we introduce pwnPr3d, a probabilistic threat modeling approach for automatic attack graph generation based on network modeling. The aim is to provide stakeholders in organizations with a holistic approach that both provides high-level overview and technical details. Unlike many other threat modeling and attack graph approaches that rely heavily on manual work and security expertise, our language comes with built-in security analysis capabilities. pwnPr3d generates probability distributions over the time to compromise assets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
Keywords
:Threat Modeling; Network Security; Attack Graphs
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200698 (URN)10.1109/ARES.2016.77 (DOI)000391214400034 ()2-s2.0-85015304142 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES)
Note

QC 20170202

Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P., Vernotte, A., Gorton, D., Ekstedt, M. & Lagerström, R. (2016). Quantitative Information Security Risk Estimation using Probabilistic Attack Graphs. In: RISK: International Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk-driven Testing: 4th International Workshop, RISK 2016, Held in Conjunction with ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, October 18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Paper presented at 4th International Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Driven Quality Assurance, RISK 2016 held in conjunction with 28th International Conference on Testing Software and Systems, ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, 18 October 2016 through 18 October 2016 (pp. 37-52). Springer, 10224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative Information Security Risk Estimation using Probabilistic Attack Graphs
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2016 (English)In: RISK: International Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk-driven Testing: 4th International Workshop, RISK 2016, Held in Conjunction with ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, October 18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2016, Vol. 10224, p. 37-52Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes an approach, called pwnPr3d, for quantitatively estimating information security risk in ICT systems. Unlike many other risk analysis approaches that rely heavily on manual work and security expertise, this approach comes with built-in security risk analysis capabilities. pwnPr3d combines a network architecture modeling language and a probabilistic inference engine to automatically generate an attack graph, making it possible to identify threats along with the likelihood of these threats exploiting a vulnerability. After defining the value of information assets to their organization with regards to confidentiality, integrity and availability breaches, pwnPr3d allows users to automatically quantify information security risk over time, depending on the possible progression of the attacker. As a result, pwnPr3d provides stakeholders in organizations with a holistic approach that both allows high-level overview and technical details.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 0302-9743 ; 10224
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200700 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-57858-3_4 (DOI)000426090100004 ()2-s2.0-85018370233 (Scopus ID)9783319578576 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk Driven Quality Assurance, RISK 2016 held in conjunction with 28th International Conference on Testing Software and Systems, ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, 18 October 2016 through 18 October 2016
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies AgencyEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607109
Note

QC 20171030

Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Rocha Flores, W. & Ekstedt, M. (2016). Shaping intention to resist social engineering through transformational leadership, information security culture and awareness. Computers & security (Print), 59, 26-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shaping intention to resist social engineering through transformational leadership, information security culture and awareness
2016 (English)In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 59, p. 26-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186098 (URN)10.1016/j.cose.2016.01.004 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-05-02 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P. & Ekstedt, M. (2016). The Tarpit - A general theory of software engineering. Information and Software Technology, 70, 181-203
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Tarpit - A general theory of software engineering
2016 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 70, p. 181-203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Recent years have seen an increasing interest in general theories of software engineering. As in other academic fields, these theories aim to explain and predict the key phenomena of the discipline. Objective: The present article proposes a general theory of software engineering that we have labeled the Tarpit theory, in reference to the 1982 epigram by Alan Perlis. Method: An integrative theory development approach was employed to develop the Tarpit theory from four underlying theoretical fields: (i) languages and automata, (ii) cognitive architecture, (iii) problem solving, and (iv) organization structure. Its applicability was explored in three test cases. Results: The theory demonstrates an explanatory and predictive potential for a diverse set of software engineering phenomena. It demonstrates a capability of explaining Brooks's law, of making predictions about domain-specific languages, and of evaluating the pros and cons of the practice of continuous integration. Conclusion: The presented theory appears capable of explaining and predicting a wide range of software engineering phenomena. Further refinement and application of the theory remains as future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Software engineering, Theory, Languages and automata, Cognitive architecture, Problem solving, Organization structure
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181342 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2015.06.001 (DOI)000367697600014 ()2-s2.0-84949534567 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160205

Available from: 2016-02-05 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Holm, H., Korman, M. & Ekstedt, M. (2015). A Bayesian network model for likelihood estimations of acquirement of critical software vulnerabilities and exploits. Information and Software Technology, 58, 304-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bayesian network model for likelihood estimations of acquirement of critical software vulnerabilities and exploits
2015 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 58, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software vulnerabilities in general, and software vulnerabilities with publicly available exploits in particular, are important to manage for both developers and users. This is however a difficult matter to address as time is limited and vulnerabilities are frequent. Objective: This paper presents a Bayesian network based model that can be used by enterprise decision makers to estimate the likelihood that a professional penetration tester is able to obtain knowledge of critical vulnerabilities and exploits for these vulnerabilities for software under different circumstances. Method: Data on the activities in the model are gathered from previous empirical studies, vulnerability databases and a survey with 58 individuals who all have been credited for the discovery of critical software vulnerabilities. Results: The proposed model describes 13 states related by 17 activities, and a total of 33 different datasets. Conclusion: Estimates by the model can be used to support decisions regarding what software to acquire, or what measures to invest in during software development projects.

Keywords
Cyber security, Vulnerabilities, Exploits, Statistical model, Security metrics
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159347 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2014.07.001 (DOI)000347022800018 ()2-s2.0-84914169057 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150202

Available from: 2015-02-02 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3922-9606

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