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Publications (10 of 74) Show all publications
Henriksson, M., Flärdh, O., Roos, F. & Mårtensson, J. (2019). Implementation of an Optimal Look-Ahead Controller in a Heavy-Duty Distribution Vehicle. In: Proceedings 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV): . Paper presented at 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 9-12 June, Paris (pp. 2202-2207).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of an Optimal Look-Ahead Controller in a Heavy-Duty Distribution Vehicle
2019 (English)In: Proceedings 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2019, p. 2202-2207Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Controlling the longitudinal movement of heavy-duty vehicles based on optimal control can be a cost-efficient way of reducing their fuel consumption. Such controllers today mainly exist for vehicles in haulage applications, in which the velocity is allowed to deviate from a constant set-speed. For distribution vehicles, which is the focus of this paper, the desired and required velocity has large variations, which makes the situation more complex. This paper describes the implementation of an optimal controller in a real heavy-duty distribution vehicle. The optimal control problem is solved offline as a Mixed Integer Quadratic Program, which yields reference trajectories that are tracked online in the vehicle. Some important steps in the procedure of the implementation are, except for designing the controller: developing a positioning system for the test track where the experiments are performed, estimating the parameters of the resistive forces, and setting the velocity constraints. Simulations show a potential of 10% reduction in fuel consumption without increasing the trip time. Experiments are then performed in a Scania truck, with the optimal solution as reference for the existing cruise control functions in the vehicle. It is concluded that in order to verify the fuel savings experimentally, the low-level controllers in the vehicle must be modified such that the tracking error is decreased.

Keywords
look ahead control, optimal control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257748 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2019.8813851 (DOI)2-s2.0-85072268346 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 9-12 June, Paris
Funder
Vinnova, 595602
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Held, M., Flardh, O. & Mårtensson, J. (2019). Optimal Speed Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Urban Driving. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 20(4), 1562-1573
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Speed Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Urban Driving
2019 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1562-1573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fuel efficient driving patterns are well investigated for highway driving, but less so for applications with varying speed requirements, such as urban driving. In this paper, the driving mission of a heavy-duty vehicle in urban driving is formulated as an optimal control problem. The velocity of the vehicle is restricted to be within upper and lower constraints referred to as the driving corridor. The driving corridor is constructed from a test cycle with large variations in the speed profile, together with statistics from vehicles in real operation. The optimal control problem is first solved off-line using Pontryagin's maximum principle. A sensitivity analysis is performed in order to investigate how variations in the driving corridor influence the energy consumption of the optimal solution. The same problem is also solved using a model predictive controller with a receding horizon approach. Simulations are performed in order to investigate how the length of the control horizon influences the potential energy savings. Simulations on a test cycle with varying speed profile show that 7% energy can be saved without increasing the trip time or deviating from a normal driving pattern. A horizon length of 1000 m is sufficient to realize these savings by the model predictive controller. The vehicle model used in these simulations is extended to include regenerative braking in order to investigate its influence on the optimal control policy and the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2019
Keywords
Fuel optimal control, model predictive control, optimal control, intelligent vehicles
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249794 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2018.2853264 (DOI)000463475900030 ()2-s2.0-85051679924 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190424

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Oliveira, R., Cirillo, M., Mårtensson, J. & Wahlberg, B. (2018). Combining Lattice-Based Planning and Path Optimization in Autonomous Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2018, 26 September 2018 through 30 September 2018 (pp. 2090-2097). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Lattice-Based Planning and Path Optimization in Autonomous Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications
2018 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 2090-2097Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lattice-based motion planners are an established method to generate feasible motions for car-like vehicles. However, the solution paths can only reach a discretized approximation of the intended goal pose. Moreover, they can be optimal only with respect to the actions available to the planner, which can result in paths with excessive steering. These drawbacks have a negative impact when used in real systems. In this paper we address both drawbacks by integrating a steering method into a state-of-the-art lattice-based motion planner. Un- like previous approaches, in which path optimization happens in an a posteriori step after the planner has found a solution, we propose an interleaved execution of path planning and path optimization. The proposed approach can run in real-time and is implemented in a full-size autonomous truck, and we show experimentally that it is able to greatly improve the quality of the solutions provided by a lattice planner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Intelligent vehicle highway systems, Motion planning, Steering, Car-like vehicles, Heavy duty vehicles, Lattice planners, Lattice-based, Motion planners, Path optimizations, State of the art, Steering method, Automobile steering equipment
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247124 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2018.8500616 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056776487 (Scopus ID)9781538644522 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2018, 26 September 2018 through 30 September 2018
Note

QC 20190403

Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
Kokogias, S., Svensson, L., Pereira, G. C., Oliveira, R., Zhang, X., Song, X. & Mårtensson, J. (2018). Development of Platform-Independent System for Cooperative Automated Driving Evaluated in GCDC 2016. IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), 19(4), 1277-1289
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Platform-Independent System for Cooperative Automated Driving Evaluated in GCDC 2016
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2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1277-1289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cooperative automated driving is a promising development in reducing energy consumption and emissions, increasing road safety, and improving traffic flow. The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 was an implementation oriented project with the aim to accelerate research and development in the field. This paper describes the development of the two vehicle systems with which KTH participated in GCDC 2016. It presents a reference system architecture for collaborative automated driving as well as its instantiation on two conceptually different vehicles: a Scania truck and the research concept vehicle, built at KTH. We describe the common system architecture, as well as the implementation of a selection of shared and individual system functionalities, such as V2X communication, localization, state estimation, and longitudinal and lateral control. We also present a novel approach to trajectory tracking control for a four-wheel steering vehicle using model predictive control and a novel method for achieving fair data age distribution in vehicular communications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Automated vehicles, cooperative automated driving, cyber-physical system architecture, intelligent transportation systems, model predictive control, vehicular communication
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226785 (URN)10.1109/TITS.2017.2684623 (DOI)000429017300025 ()2-s2.0-85017136485 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180502

Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Lima, P. F., Pereira, G. C., Mårtensson, J. & Wahlberg, B. (2018). Experimental validation of model predictive control stability for autonomous driving. Control Engineering Practice, 81, 244-255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental validation of model predictive control stability for autonomous driving
2018 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 81, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the design of time-varying model predictive control of an autonomous vehicle in the presence of input rate constraints such that closed-loop stability is guaranteed. Stability is proved via Lyapunov techniques by adding a terminal state constraint and a terminal cost to the controller formulation. The terminal set is the maximum positive invariant set of a multi-plant description of the vehicle linear time-varying model. The terminal cost is an upper-bound on the infinite cost-to-go incurred by applying a linear-quadratic regulator control law. The proposed control design is experimentally tested and successfully stabilizes an autonomous Scania construction truck in an obstacle avoidance scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Model predictive control, Stability, Set invariance, Autonomous driving, Automatic control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239756 (URN)10.1016/j.conengprac.2018.09.021 (DOI)000449899500022 ()2-s2.0-85054297364 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190110

Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Pereira, G. C., Lima, P. F., Wahlberg, B., Pettersson, H. & Mårtensson, J. (2018). Linear Time-Varying Robust Model Predictive Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems. In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC): . Paper presented at 57th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018; Centre of the Fontainebleau in Miami Beach Miami; United States; 17 December 2018 through 19 December 2018 (pp. 2659-2666). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linear Time-Varying Robust Model Predictive Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 2659-2666Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a robust model predictive controller for discrete-time nonlinear systems, subject to state and input constraints and unknown but bounded input disturbances. The prediction model uses a linearized time-varying version of the original discrete-time system. The proposed optimization problem includes the initial state of the current nominal model of the system as an optimization variable, which allows to guarantee robust exponential stability of a disturbance invariant set for the discrete-time nonlinear system. From simulations, it is possible to verify the proposed algorithm is real-time capable, since the problem is convex and posed as a quadratic program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Series
IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, ISSN 0743-1546
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245109 (URN)10.1109/CDC.2018.8618866 (DOI)000458114802081 ()2-s2.0-85062174591 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1395-5 (ISBN)
Conference
57th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018; Centre of the Fontainebleau in Miami Beach Miami; United States; 17 December 2018 through 19 December 2018
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Johansson, A., Nekouei, E., Johansson, K. H. & Mårtensson, J. (2018). Multi-Fleet Platoon Matching: A Game-Theoretic Approach. In: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC): . Paper presented at 21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), NOV 04-07, 2018, Maui, HI (pp. 2980-2985). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-Fleet Platoon Matching: A Game-Theoretic Approach
2018 (English)In: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC), IEEE , 2018, p. 2980-2985Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We consider the platoon matching problem for a set of trucks with the same origin, but different destinations. It is assumed that the vehicles benefit from traveling in a platoon for instance through reduced fuel consumption. The vehicles belong to different fleet owners and their strategic interaction is modeled as a non-cooperative game where the vehicle actions are their departure times. Each truck has a preferred departure time and its utility function is defined as the difference between its benefit from platooning and the cost of deviating from its preferred departure time. We show that the platoon matching game is an exact potential game. An algorithm based on best response dynamics is proposed for finding a Nash equilibrium of the game. At a Nash equilibrium, vehicles with the same departure time are matched to form a platoon. Finally, the total fuel reduction at the Nash equilibrium is studied and compared with that of a cooperative matching solution where a common utility function for all vehicles is optimized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems-ITSC, ISSN 2153-0009
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244584 (URN)000457881302149 ()2-s2.0-85060477254 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0323-5 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), NOV 04-07, 2018, Maui, HI
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Held, M., Flärdh, O. & Mårtensson, J. (2018). Optimal Speed Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in the Presence of Traffic Lights. In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC): . Paper presented at 57th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018; Centre of the Fontainebleau in Miami Beach Miami; United States; 17 December 2018 through 19 December 2018 (pp. 6119-6124). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 8619463.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Speed Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in the Presence of Traffic Lights
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 6119-6124, article id 8619463Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles in urban driving is strongly dependent on the acceleration and braking of the vehicles. In intersections with traffic lights, large amount of fuel can be saved by adapting the velocity to the phases of the lights. In this paper, a heavy-duty vehicle obtains information about the future signals of traffic lights within a specific horizon. In order to minimize the fuel consumption, the driving scenario is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimal control is found by applying a model predictive controller, solving at each iteration a quadratic program. In such problem formulation, the constraints imposed by the traffic lights are formulated using a linear approximation of time. Since the fuel-optimal velocity can deviate strongly from how vehicles normally drive, constraints on the allowed velocity are imposed. Simulations are performed in order to investigate how the horizon length of the information from the traffic lights influences the fuel consumption. Compared to a benchmark vehicle without knowledge of future light signals, the proposed controller using a control horizon of 1000m saves 26% of energy with similar trip time. Increasing the control horizon further does not improve the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Series
IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, ISSN 0743-1546
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245115 (URN)10.1109/CDC.2018.8619463 (DOI)000458114805103 ()2-s2.0-85062176670 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1395-5 (ISBN)
Conference
57th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2018; Centre of the Fontainebleau in Miami Beach Miami; United States; 17 December 2018 through 19 December 2018
Note

QC 20190306

Available from: 2019-03-06 Created: 2019-03-06 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
Nigicser, D., Valerio, T., Mårtensson, J., Arat, M. A. & Lima Simões da Silva, E. (2018). Predictive Vehicle Motion Control for Post-Crash Scenarios. In: : . Paper presented at 14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC'18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictive Vehicle Motion Control for Post-Crash Scenarios
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an active safety system for passenger vehicles designed to mitigate secondary collisions after an initial impact. Thecontrol objective is to minimize lateral deviation from the known original path while achieving a safe heading angle after the initialcollision. A hierarchical controller architecture is proposed: the higher layer is formulated as a linear time-varying model predictivecontroller that defines the virtual control moment input; the lower layer deploys a rule-based controller that realizes the requestedmoment. The designed control system is tested and validated on a high-fidelity vehicle dynamics simulator.

Keywords
Vehicle Motion Control, Multiple Event Accidents, Secondary Collision Mitigation, Linear Time Varying Model Predictive Control, Torque Vectoring, Sliding Mode Control, Vehicle Dynamics and Chassis Control, Advanced Driver Assistant Systems
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235948 (URN)
Conference
14th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, AVEC'18
Note

QC 20181214

Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Lima, P. F., Pereira, G. C., Mårtensson, J. & Wahlberg, B. (2018). Progress Maximization Model Predictive Controller. In: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC): . Paper presented at 21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), NOV 04-07, 2018, Maui, HI (pp. 1075-1082). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Progress Maximization Model Predictive Controller
2018 (English)In: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC), IEEE , 2018, p. 1075-1082Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the problem of progress maximization (i.e., traveling time minimization) along a given path for autonomous vehicles. Progress maximization plays an important role not only in racing, but also in efficient and safe autonomous driving applications. The progress maximization problem is formulated as a model predictive controller, where the vehicle model is successively linearized at each time step, yielding a convex optimization problem. To ensure real-time feasibility, a kinematic vehicle model is used together with several linear approximations of the vehicle dynamics constraints. We propose a novel polytopic approximation of the 'g-g' diagram, which models the vehicle handling limits by constraining the lateral and longitudinal acceleration. Moreover, the tire slip angles are restricted to ensure that the tires of the vehicle always operate in their linear force region by limiting the lateral acceleration. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in simulation, where a nonlinear dynamic vehicle model is controlled to maximize the progress along a track, taking into consideration possible obstacles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2018
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems-ITSC, ISSN 2153-0009
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244588 (URN)000457881301013 ()2-s2.0-85060480601 (Scopus ID)978-1-7281-0323-5 (ISBN)
Conference
21st IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), NOV 04-07, 2018, Maui, HI
Note

QC 20190304

Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3672-5316

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