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Sun, W. J., Slavin, J. A., Dewey, R. M., Raines, J. M., Fu, S. Y., Wei, Y., . . . Zhao, D. (2018). A Comparative Study of the Proton Properties of Magnetospheric Substorms at Earth and Mercury in the Near Magnetotail. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(16), 7933-7941
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of the Proton Properties of Magnetospheric Substorms at Earth and Mercury in the Near Magnetotail
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 16, p. 7933-7941Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The variations of plasma sheet proton properties during magnetospheric substorms at Earth and Mercury are comparatively studied. This study utilizes kappa distributions to interpret proton properties at both planets. Proton number densities are found to be around an order of magnitude higher, temperatures several times smaller, and kappa values broader at Mercury than at Earth. Protons become denser and cooler during the growth phase, and are depleted and heated after the dipolarizations in both magnetospheres. The changes of kappa at Earth are generally small (<20%), indicating that spectrum-preserving processes, like adiabatic betatron acceleration, play an important role there, while variations of kappa at Mercury are large (>60%), indicating the importance of spectrum-altering processes there, such as acceleration due to nonadiabatic cross-tail particle motions and wave-particle interactions. This comparative study reveals important intrinsic properties on the energization of protons in both magnetospheres. Plain Language Summary Earth and Mercury are the only two planets possessing global intrinsic magnetic fields among the four inner planets, which are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, within the solar system. The interactions between the intrinsic magnetic fields and the continual flow of high-speed solar wind from the Sun form similar magnetospheres at the two planets, although the scale of the magnetosphere is much smaller at Mercury than at Earth. Magnetospheric substorms, a result of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, occur in both magnetospheres. Comparative study of a similar process between different planets is meaningful as it can help us in understanding the specific process further as well as help us in understanding the intrinsic properties of the magnetospheres. This research paper characterizes the proton properties of magnetospheric substorms of both planets, revealing that different mechanisms control the behavior of protons during the magnetospheric substorms of the two planets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
Keywords
comparative planetary study, magnetospheric substorm, proton heating, adiabatic and nonadiabatic processes, kappa distribution
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236022 (URN)10.1029/2018GL079181 (DOI)000445612500006 ()2-s2.0-85053216058 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181012

Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, J., Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Nilsson, H., Wedlund, C. S., Kallio, E., . . . Karlsson, T. (2018). Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 616, Article ID A81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. We wish to investigate the energy conversion between particles and electromagnetic fields and determine the location where it occurs in the plasma environment of comets. Methods. We used a hybrid plasma model that included photoionization, and we considered two cases of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux. Other parameters corresponded to the conditions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a heliocentric distance of 1.5 AU. Results. We find that a shock-like structure is formed upstream of the comet and acts as an electromagnetic generator, similar to the bow shock at Earth that slows down the solar wind. The Poynting flux transports electromagnetic energy toward the inner coma, where newly born cometary ions are accelerated. Upstream of the shock-like structure, we find local energy transfer from solar wind ions to cometary ions. We show that mass loading can be a local process with a direct transfer of energy, but also part of a dynamo system with electromagnetic generators and loads. Conclusions. The energization of cometary ions is governed by a dynamo system for weak ionization, but changes into a large conversion region with local transfer of energy directly from solar wind protons for high ionization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2018
Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Sun: UV radiation, solar wind, methods: numerical, plasmas, acceleration of particles
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234602 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732353 (DOI)000442541100001 ()
Note

QC 20180914

Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Madsen, B., Wedlund, C. S., Eriksson, A., Goetz, C., Karlsson, T., Gunell, H., . . . Miloch, W. J. (2018). Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(9), 3854-3864
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 3854-3864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Space Agency/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has provided several hundred observations of the cometary diamagnetic cavity induced by the interaction between outgassed cometary particles, cometary ions, and the solar wind magnetic field. Here we present the first electric field measurements of four preperihelion and postperihelion cavity crossings on 28 May 2015 and 17 February 2016, using the dual-probe electric field mode of the Langmuir probe (LAP) instrument of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. We find that on large scales, variations in the electric field fluctuations capture the cavity and boundary regions observed in the already well-studied magnetic field, suggesting the electric field mode of the LAP instrument as a reliable tool to image cavity crossings. In addition, the LAP electric field mode unravels for the first time extremely low-frequency waves within two cavities. These low-frequency electrostatic waves are likely triggered by lower-hybrid waves observed in the surrounding magnetized plasma. Plain Language Summary As sunlight heats a comet nucleus, frozen volatile gases sublimate are ionized and interact with the solar wind and its embedded magnetic field, inducing a dynamical plasma environment around the comet. With the cornerstone European mission Rosetta and its 2years of near-continuous orbiting of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the origin, structure, and evolution of this environment are only starting to be unveiled. Exciting are the numerous crossings of the diamagnetic cavity, the innermost plasma region from which the solar wind magnetic field is excluded. Whilst the magnetic field structure of the cavity crossings is well studied, the related electric field activity remains until now unexplored. Studying the electric field with the Langmuir probes onboard Rosetta, we find that whereas the large-scale electric field structure agrees well with the observed magnetic field behavior during cavity crossings, unexpected short-lived low-frequency electric field signals manifest themselves within the cavity. We interpret these as electrostatic waves triggered by a modulating of the cavity boundary caused by observed electrostatic waves at the same frequency in the surrounding magnetized plasma. This unravels a new aspect of the electromagnetic activity in the inner cometary environment, which is crucial for our understanding of the comet-solar wind-induced plasma environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231219 (URN)10.1029/2017GL076415 (DOI)000434111700012 ()2-s2.0-85046796114 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180628

Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Plaschke, F., Karlsson, T., Goetz, C., Moestl, C., Richter, I., Volwerk, M., . . . Goldstein, R. (2018). First observations of magnetic holes deep within the coma of a comet. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 618, Article ID A114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First observations of magnetic holes deep within the coma of a comet
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 618, article id A114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency made ground-breaking observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and of its cometary environment. We search for magnetic holes in that environment, i.e., significant depressions in the magnetic field strength, measured by the Rosetta fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) in April and May 2015. In that time frame of two months, we identified 23 magnetic holes. The cometary activity was intermediate and increasing because Rosetta was on the inbound leg toward the Sun. While in April solar wind protons were still observed by Rosetta near the comet, in May these protons were already mostly replaced by heavy cometary ions. Magnetic holes have frequently been observed in the solar wind. We find, for the first time, that magnetic holes exist in the cometary environment even when solar wind protons are almost absent. Some of the properties of the magnetic holes are comparable to those of solar wind holes; they are associated with density enhancements, sometimes associated with co-located current sheets and fast solar wind streams, and are of similar scales. However, particularly in May, the magnetic holes near the comet appear to be more processed, featuring shifted density enhancements and, sometimes, bipolar signatures in magnetic field strength rather than simple depressions. The magnetic holes are of global size with respect to the coma. However, at the comet, they are compressed owing to magnetic field pile-up and draping so that they change in shape. There, the magnetic holes become of comparable size to heavy cometary ion gyroradii, potentially enabling kinetic interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018
Keywords
plasmas - magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), instabilities, comets: general, interplanetary medium
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238117 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201833300 (DOI)000447508800001 ()2-s2.0-85056121056 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181205

Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Plaschke, F., Hietala, H., Archer, M., Blanco-Cano, X., Kajdic, P., Karlsson, T., . . . Sibeck, D. (2018). Jets Downstream of Collisionless Shocks. Space Science Reviews, 214(5), Article ID UNSP 81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jets Downstream of Collisionless Shocks
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2018 (English)In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 214, no 5, article id UNSP 81Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetosheath flow may take the form of large amplitude, yet spatially localized, transient increases in dynamic pressure, known as "magnetosheath jets" or "plasmoids" among other denominations. Here, we describe the present state of knowledge with respect to such jets, which are a very common phenomenon downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. We discuss their properties as determined by satellite observations (based on both case and statistical studies), their occurrence, their relation to solar wind and foreshock conditions, and their interaction with and impact on the magnetosphere. As carriers of plasma and corresponding momentum, energy, and magnetic flux, jets bear some similarities to bursty bulk flows, which they are compared to. Based on our knowledge of jets in the near Earth environment, we discuss the expectations for jets occurring in other planetary and astrophysical environments. We conclude with an outlook, in which a number of open questions are posed and future challenges in jet research are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Jets, Magnetosheath, Foreshock, Bow shock, Magnetopause
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240205 (URN)10.1007/s11214-018-0516-3 (DOI)000436095200001 ()2-s2.0-85049122845 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181218

Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Palmroth, M., Hietala, H., Plaschke, F., Archer, M., Karlsson, T., Blanco-Cano, X., . . . Turc, L. (2018). Magnetosheath jet properties and evolution as determined by a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation. Annales Geophysicae, 36(5), 1171-1182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetosheath jet properties and evolution as determined by a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation
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2018 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1171-1182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation for the magnetosphere, Vlasiator, to investigate magnetosheath high-speed jets. Unlike many other hybrid-kinetic simulations, Vlasiator includes an unscaled geomagnetic dipole, indicating that the simulation spatial and temporal dimensions can be given in SI units without scaling. Thus, for the first time, this allows investigating the magnetosheath jet properties and comparing them directly with the observed jets within the Earth's magnetosheath. In the run shown in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle is 30°, and a foreshock develops upstream of the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. We visually detect a structure with high dynamic pressure propagating from the bow shock through the magnetosheath. The structure is confirmed as a jet using three different criteria, which have been adopted in previous observational studies. We compare these criteria against the simulation results. We find that the magnetosheath jet is an elongated structure extending earthward from the bow shock by ∼ 2.6 RE, while its size perpendicular to the direction of propagation is ∼ 0.5R/E. We also investigate the jet evolution and find that the jet originates due to the interaction of the bow shock with a high-dynamic-pressure structure that reproduces observational features associated with a short, large-amplitude magnetic structure (SLAMS). The simulation shows that magnetosheath jets can develop also under steady IMF, as inferred by observational studies. To our knowledge, this paper therefore shows the first global kinetic simulation of a magnetosheath jet, which is in accordance with three observational jet criteria and is caused by a SLAMS advecting towards the bow shock. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH, 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236698 (URN)10.5194/angeo-36-1171-2018 (DOI)000444098700001 ()2-s2.0-85053271559 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 22 October 2018; Article; Correspondence Address: Palmroth, M.; Department of Physics, University of HelsinkiFinland; email: minna.palmroth@helsinki.fi; Funding details: IA104416; Funding details: 704681; Funding details: CSC, China Scholarship Council; Funding details: NNX17AI45G; Funding details: 309937; Funding details: 267144; Funding details: 312351; Funding details: 682068-PRESTISSIMO, ERC, European Research Council; Funding details: 200141-QuESpace, ERC, European Research Council; Funding text: Acknowledgements. We acknowledge the European Research Council for Starting grant 200141-QuESpace, with which Vlasiator (http://helsinki.fi/vlasiator; last access: 4 September 2018) was developed, and Consolidator grant 682068-PRESTISSIMO awarded to further develop Vlasiator and use it for scientific investigations. We gratefully also acknowledge the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (Academy of Finland grant numbers 312351, 267144, and 309937). Primož Kajdicˇ’s work was supported by DGAPA/PAPIIT grant IA104416. The CSC – IT Center for Science in Finland is acknowledged for the Grand Challenge award leading to the results shown in here. We acknowledge valuable discussions within the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team 350, called “Jets downstream of collisionless shocks”, led by Ferdinand Plaschke and Heli Hietala. Lucile Turc acknowledges Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant 704681. Heli Hietala was supported by the Turku Collegium for Science and Medicine and NASA NNX17AI45G. We thank Jonas Suni for producing data for the figures in the revised version. QC 20181112

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Gunell, H., Karlsson, T., Brenning, N., Henri, P., Goetz, C., . . . Vallieres, X. (2018). Size of a plasma cloud matters The polarisation electric field of a small-scale comet ionosphere. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 616, Article ID A50.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size of a plasma cloud matters The polarisation electric field of a small-scale comet ionosphere
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The cometary ionosphere is immersed in fast flowing solar wind. A polarisation electric field may arise for comets much smaller than the gyroradius of pickup ions because ions and electrons respond differently to the solar wind electric field. Aims. A situation similar to that found at a low activity comet has been modelled for barium releases in the Earth's ionosphere. We aim to use such a model and apply it to the case of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We aim to explain the significant tailward acceleration of cometary ions through the modelled electric field. Methods. We obtained analytical solutions for the polarisation electric field of the comet ionosphere using a simplified geometry. This geometry is applicable to the comet in the inner part of the coma as the plasma density integrated along the magnetic field line remains rather constant. We studied the range of parameters for which a significant tailward electric field is obtained and compare this with the parameter range observed. Results. Observations of the local plasma density and magnetic field strength show that the parameter range of the observations agree very well with a significant polarisation electric field shielding the inner part of the coma from the solar wind electric field. Conclusions. The same process gives rise to a tailward directed electric field with a strength of the order of 10% of the solar wind electric field. Using a simple cloud model we have shown that the polarisation electric field, which arises because of the small size of the comet ionosphere as compared to the pick up ion gyroradius, can explain the observed significant tailward acceleration of cometary ions and is consistent with the observed lack of influence of the solar wind electric field in the inner coma.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018
Keywords
plasmas, acceleration of particles, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234177 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201833199 (DOI)000441817100003 ()2-s2.0-85052005414 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181009

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-30Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, A. I., Engelhardt, I. A., Andre, M., Bostrom, R., Edberg, N. J., Johansson, F. L., . . . Norberg, C. (2017). Cold and warm electrons at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 605, Article ID A15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cold and warm electrons at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, article id A15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Strong electron cooling on the neutral gas in cometary comae has been predicted for a long time, but actual measurements of low electron temperature are scarce. Aims. Our aim is to demonstrate the existence of cold electrons in the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and show filamentation of this plasma. Methods. In situ measurements of plasma density, electron temperature and spacecraft potential were carried out by the Rosetta Langmuir probe instrument, LAP. We also performed analytical modelling of the expanding two-temperature electron gas. Results. LAP data acquired within a few hundred km from the nucleus are dominated by a warm component with electron temperature typically 5-10 eV at all heliocentric distances covered (1.25 to 3.83 AU). A cold component, with temperature no higher than about 0.1 eV, appears in the data as short (few to few tens of seconds) pulses of high probe current, indicating local enhancement of plasma density as well as a decrease in electron temperature. These pulses first appeared around 3 AU and were seen for longer periods close to perihelion. The general pattern of pulse appearance follows that of neutral gas and plasma density. We have not identified any periods with only cold electrons present. The electron flux to Rosetta was always dominated by higher energies, driving the spacecraft potential to order -10 V. Conclusions. The warm (5-10 eV) electron population observed throughout the mission is interpreted as electrons retaining the energy they obtained when released in the ionisation process. The sometimes observed cold populations with electron temperatures below 0.1 eV verify collisional cooling in the coma. The cold electrons were only observed together with the warm population. The general appearance of the cold population appears to be consistent with a Haser-like model, implicitly supporting also the coupling of ions to the neutral gas. The expanding cold plasma is unstable, forming filaments that we observe as pulses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: general, plasmas, space vehicles: instruments
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217060 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201630159 (DOI)000412231200111 ()2-s2.0-85028699525 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171123

Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, T., Kullen, A. & Marklund, G. (2017). Dawn-dusk asymmetries in auroral morphology and processes. In: Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Planetary Plasma Environments: (pp. 295-305). Wiley Blackwell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dawn-dusk asymmetries in auroral morphology and processes
2017 (English)In: Dawn-Dusk Asymmetries in Planetary Plasma Environments, Wiley Blackwell , 2017, p. 295-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We address the dawn-dusk asymmetries in auroral emissions in the main auroral oval, and discuss their origins in terms of the underlying asymmetries of the precipitating particles. These, in turn, are associated with asymmetries in the mechanisms responsible for the transport and acceleration of the precipitating particles. We briefly discuss the reasons for the asymmetries of these processes, which include dawn-dusk asymmetries in particle drifts and in the ionospheric conductivity, the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field, and substorm-related asymmetries in field-aligned currents and flows. Finally, we briefly discuss dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with auroral emissions in the polar cap. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley Blackwell, 2017
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236784 (URN)10.1002/9781119216346.ch23 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050325613 (Scopus ID)9781119216346 (ISBN)9781119216322 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20190109

Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Liljeblad, E. & Karlsson, T. (2017). Investigation of similar to 20-40mHz ULF waves and their driving mechanisms in Mercury's dayside magnetosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 35(4), 879-884
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of similar to 20-40mHz ULF waves and their driving mechanisms in Mercury's dayside magnetosphere
2017 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 879-884Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the similar to 20-40 mHz range are frequently observed in the Mercury magnetosphere using Mercury Surface Space Environment Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field data. The majority of these waves have very similar characteristics to the waves likely driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) ULF waves (which are retained as a subset of the wave events studied in this paper) identified in a previous study. Significant ULF wave activity is observed in the dawn sector of the magnetosphere. This indicates that Mercury KH waves may be more common between 6 and 12 magnetic local time than previously predicted and that magnetospheric ULF waves in the frequency band similar to 20-40 mHz can be used as a detection tool for Hermean KH waves.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2017
Keywords
Magnetospheric physics, magnetopause cusp and boundary layers, magnetospheric configuration and dynamics solar wind, magnetosphere interactions
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212339 (URN)10.5194/angeo-35-879-2017 (DOI)000406712700001 ()2-s2.0-85026666845 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170823

Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1270-1616

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