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Yordanova, E., Voros, Z., Raptis, S. & Karlsson, T. (2020). Current Sheet Statistics in the Magnetosheath. FRONTIERS IN ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCES, 7, Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current Sheet Statistics in the Magnetosheath
2020 (English)In: FRONTIERS IN ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCES, ISSN 2296-987X, Vol. 7, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetosheath (MSH) plasma turbulence depends on the structure and properties of the bow shock (BS). Under quasi-parallel (Q(||)) and quasi-perpendicular (Q(perpendicular to)) BS configurations the electromagnetic field and plasma quantities possess quite distinct behavior, e.g., being highly variable and structured in the Q(||) case. Previous studies have reported abundance of thin current sheets (with typical scales of the order of the plasma kinetic scales) in the Q(||) MSH, associated with magnetic reconnection, plasma heating, and acceleration. Here we use multipoint observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission, where for the first time a comparative study of discontinuities and current sheets in both MSH geometries at very small spacecraft separation (of the order of the ion inertial length) is performed. In Q(||) MSH the current density distribution is characterized by a heavy tail, populated by strong currents. There is high correlation between these currents and the discontinuities associated with large magnetic shears. Whilst, this seems not to be the case in Q(perpendicular to) MSH, where current sheets are virtually absent. We also investigate the effect of the discontinuities on the scaling of electromagnetic fluctuations in the MHD range and in the beginning of the kinetic range. There are two (one) orders of magnitude higher power in the magnetic (electric) field fluctuations in the Q(||) MSH, as well as different spectral scaling, in comparison to the Q(perpendicular to) MSH configuration. This is an indication that the incoming solar wind turbulence is completely locally reorganized behind Q(perpendicular to) BS while even though modified by Q(||) BS geometry, the downstream turbulence properties are still reminiscent to the ones upstream, the latter confirming previous observations. We show also that the two geometries are associated with different temperature anisotropies, plasma beta, and compressibility, where the Q(perpendicular to) MSH is unstable to mostly mirror mode plasma instability, while the Q(||) MSH is unstable also to oblique and parallel fire-hose, and ion-cyclotron instabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020
Keywords
magnetosheath, bow shock, PVI, discontinuities, current sheets, plasma turbulence
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-271293 (URN)10.3389/fspas.2020.00002 (DOI)000517163900001 ()
Note

QC 20200331

Available from: 2020-03-31 Created: 2020-03-31 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Volwerk, M., Goetz, C., Plaschke, F., Karlsson, T., Heyner, D. & Anderson, B. (2020). On the magnetic characteristics of magnetic holes in the solar wind between Mercury and Venus. Annales Geophysicae, 38(1), 51-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the magnetic characteristics of magnetic holes in the solar wind between Mercury and Venus
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2020 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The occurrence rate of linear and pseudo magnetic holes has been determined during MESSENGER's cruise phase starting from Venus (2007) and arriving at Mercury (2011). It is shown that the occurrence rate of linear magnetic holes, defined as a maximum of 10 degrees rotation of the magnetic field over the hole, slowly decreases from Mercury to Venus. The pseudo magnetic holes, defined as a rotation between 10 and 45 degrees over the hole, have mostly a constant occurrence rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2020
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267157 (URN)10.5194/angeo-38-51-2020 (DOI)000507331400001 ()2-s2.0-85078300551 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200217

Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
De Spiegeleer, A., Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Volwerk, M., Andersson, L., Karlsson, T., . . . Kistler, L. M. (2019). Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(4), 2736-2754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oscillatory Flows in the Magnetotail Plasma Sheet: Cluster Observations of the Distribution Function
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2736-2754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plasma dynamics in Earth's magnetotail is often studied using moments of the distribution function, which results in losing information on the kinetic properties of the plasma. To better understand oscillatory flows observed in the midtail plasma sheet, we investigate two events, one in each hemisphere, in the transition region between the central plasma sheet and the lobes using the 2-D ion distribution function from the Cluster 4 spacecraft. In this case study, the oscillatory flows are a manifestation of repeated ion flux enhancements with pitch angle changing from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and from 180 degrees to 0 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Similar pitch angle signatures are observed seven times in about 80 min for the Southern Hemisphere event and three times in about 80 min for the Northern Hemisphere event. The ion flux enhancements observed for both events are slightly shifted in time between different energy channels, indicating a possible time-of-flight effect from which we estimate that the source of particle is located similar to 5-25R(E) and similar to 40-107R(E) tailward of the spacecraft for the Southern and Northern Hemisphere event, respectively. Using a test particle simulation, we obtain similar to 21-46 R-E for the Southern Hemisphere event and tailward of X similar to - 65R(E) (outside the validity region of the model) for the Northern Hemisphere event. We discuss possible sources that could cause the enhancements of ion flux.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256286 (URN)10.1029/2018JA026116 (DOI)000477707800027 ()2-s2.0-85064673181 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191105

Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-05Bibliographically approved
Breuillard, H., Henri, P., Bucciantini, L., Volwerk, M., Karlsson, T., Eriksson, A., . . . Hajra, R. (2019). Properties of the singing comet waves in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko plasma environment as observed by the Rosetta mission. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 630, Article ID A39.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties of the singing comet waves in the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko plasma environment as observed by the Rosetta mission
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2019 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, article id A39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using in situ measurements from different instruments on board the Rosetta spacecraft, we investigate the properties of the newly discovered low-frequency oscillations, known as singing comet waves, that sometimes dominate the close plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. These waves are thought to be generated by a modified ion-Weibel instability that grows due to a beam of water ions created by water molecules that outgass from the comet. We take advantage of a cometary outburst event that occurred on 2016 February 19 to probe this generation mechanism. We analyze the 3D magnetic field waveforms to infer the properties of the magnetic oscillations of the cometary ion waves. They are observed in the typical frequency range (similar to 50 mHz) before the cometary outburst, but at similar to 20 mHz during the outburst. They are also observed to be elliptically right-hand polarized and to propagate rather closely (similar to 0-50 degrees) to the background magnetic field. We also construct a density dataset with a high enough time resolution that allows us to study the plasma contribution to the ion cometary waves. The correlation between plasma and magnetic field variations associated with the waves indicates that they are mostly in phase before and during the outburst, which means that they are compressional waves. We therefore show that the measurements from multiple instruments are consistent with the modified ion-Weibel instability as the source of the singing comet wave activity. We also argue that the observed frequency of the singing comet waves could be a way to indirectly probe the strength of neutral plasma coupling in the 67P environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2019
Keywords
comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, plasmas, waves, methods: observational, methods: data analysis
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261953 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201834876 (DOI)000486989400038 ()
Note

QC 20191015

Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2020-01-27Bibliographically approved
Sun, W. J., Slavin, J. A., Dewey, R. M., Raines, J. M., Fu, S. Y., Wei, Y., . . . Zhao, D. (2018). A Comparative Study of the Proton Properties of Magnetospheric Substorms at Earth and Mercury in the Near Magnetotail. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(16), 7933-7941
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of the Proton Properties of Magnetospheric Substorms at Earth and Mercury in the Near Magnetotail
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 16, p. 7933-7941Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The variations of plasma sheet proton properties during magnetospheric substorms at Earth and Mercury are comparatively studied. This study utilizes kappa distributions to interpret proton properties at both planets. Proton number densities are found to be around an order of magnitude higher, temperatures several times smaller, and kappa values broader at Mercury than at Earth. Protons become denser and cooler during the growth phase, and are depleted and heated after the dipolarizations in both magnetospheres. The changes of kappa at Earth are generally small (<20%), indicating that spectrum-preserving processes, like adiabatic betatron acceleration, play an important role there, while variations of kappa at Mercury are large (>60%), indicating the importance of spectrum-altering processes there, such as acceleration due to nonadiabatic cross-tail particle motions and wave-particle interactions. This comparative study reveals important intrinsic properties on the energization of protons in both magnetospheres. Plain Language Summary Earth and Mercury are the only two planets possessing global intrinsic magnetic fields among the four inner planets, which are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, within the solar system. The interactions between the intrinsic magnetic fields and the continual flow of high-speed solar wind from the Sun form similar magnetospheres at the two planets, although the scale of the magnetosphere is much smaller at Mercury than at Earth. Magnetospheric substorms, a result of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, occur in both magnetospheres. Comparative study of a similar process between different planets is meaningful as it can help us in understanding the specific process further as well as help us in understanding the intrinsic properties of the magnetospheres. This research paper characterizes the proton properties of magnetospheric substorms of both planets, revealing that different mechanisms control the behavior of protons during the magnetospheric substorms of the two planets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
Keywords
comparative planetary study, magnetospheric substorm, proton heating, adiabatic and nonadiabatic processes, kappa distribution
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236022 (URN)10.1029/2018GL079181 (DOI)000445612500006 ()2-s2.0-85053216058 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181012

Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, J., Hamrin, M., Gunell, H., Nilsson, H., Wedlund, C. S., Kallio, E., . . . Karlsson, T. (2018). Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 616, Article ID A81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conversion in cometary atmospheres Hybrid modeling of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. We wish to investigate the energy conversion between particles and electromagnetic fields and determine the location where it occurs in the plasma environment of comets. Methods. We used a hybrid plasma model that included photoionization, and we considered two cases of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux. Other parameters corresponded to the conditions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at a heliocentric distance of 1.5 AU. Results. We find that a shock-like structure is formed upstream of the comet and acts as an electromagnetic generator, similar to the bow shock at Earth that slows down the solar wind. The Poynting flux transports electromagnetic energy toward the inner coma, where newly born cometary ions are accelerated. Upstream of the shock-like structure, we find local energy transfer from solar wind ions to cometary ions. We show that mass loading can be a local process with a direct transfer of energy, but also part of a dynamo system with electromagnetic generators and loads. Conclusions. The energization of cometary ions is governed by a dynamo system for weak ionization, but changes into a large conversion region with local transfer of energy directly from solar wind protons for high ionization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2018
Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Sun: UV radiation, solar wind, methods: numerical, plasmas, acceleration of particles
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234602 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732353 (DOI)000442541100001 ()2-s2.0-85056551495 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180914

Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved
Madsen, B., Wedlund, C. S., Eriksson, A., Goetz, C., Karlsson, T., Gunell, H., . . . Miloch, W. J. (2018). Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(9), 3854-3864
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 3854-3864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Space Agency/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has provided several hundred observations of the cometary diamagnetic cavity induced by the interaction between outgassed cometary particles, cometary ions, and the solar wind magnetic field. Here we present the first electric field measurements of four preperihelion and postperihelion cavity crossings on 28 May 2015 and 17 February 2016, using the dual-probe electric field mode of the Langmuir probe (LAP) instrument of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. We find that on large scales, variations in the electric field fluctuations capture the cavity and boundary regions observed in the already well-studied magnetic field, suggesting the electric field mode of the LAP instrument as a reliable tool to image cavity crossings. In addition, the LAP electric field mode unravels for the first time extremely low-frequency waves within two cavities. These low-frequency electrostatic waves are likely triggered by lower-hybrid waves observed in the surrounding magnetized plasma. Plain Language Summary As sunlight heats a comet nucleus, frozen volatile gases sublimate are ionized and interact with the solar wind and its embedded magnetic field, inducing a dynamical plasma environment around the comet. With the cornerstone European mission Rosetta and its 2years of near-continuous orbiting of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the origin, structure, and evolution of this environment are only starting to be unveiled. Exciting are the numerous crossings of the diamagnetic cavity, the innermost plasma region from which the solar wind magnetic field is excluded. Whilst the magnetic field structure of the cavity crossings is well studied, the related electric field activity remains until now unexplored. Studying the electric field with the Langmuir probes onboard Rosetta, we find that whereas the large-scale electric field structure agrees well with the observed magnetic field behavior during cavity crossings, unexpected short-lived low-frequency electric field signals manifest themselves within the cavity. We interpret these as electrostatic waves triggered by a modulating of the cavity boundary caused by observed electrostatic waves at the same frequency in the surrounding magnetized plasma. This unravels a new aspect of the electromagnetic activity in the inner cometary environment, which is crucial for our understanding of the comet-solar wind-induced plasma environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231219 (URN)10.1029/2017GL076415 (DOI)000434111700012 ()2-s2.0-85046796114 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180628

Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-06-28Bibliographically approved
Plaschke, F., Karlsson, T., Goetz, C., Moestl, C., Richter, I., Volwerk, M., . . . Goldstein, R. (2018). First observations of magnetic holes deep within the coma of a comet. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 618, Article ID A114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First observations of magnetic holes deep within the coma of a comet
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 618, article id A114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency made ground-breaking observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and of its cometary environment. We search for magnetic holes in that environment, i.e., significant depressions in the magnetic field strength, measured by the Rosetta fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) in April and May 2015. In that time frame of two months, we identified 23 magnetic holes. The cometary activity was intermediate and increasing because Rosetta was on the inbound leg toward the Sun. While in April solar wind protons were still observed by Rosetta near the comet, in May these protons were already mostly replaced by heavy cometary ions. Magnetic holes have frequently been observed in the solar wind. We find, for the first time, that magnetic holes exist in the cometary environment even when solar wind protons are almost absent. Some of the properties of the magnetic holes are comparable to those of solar wind holes; they are associated with density enhancements, sometimes associated with co-located current sheets and fast solar wind streams, and are of similar scales. However, particularly in May, the magnetic holes near the comet appear to be more processed, featuring shifted density enhancements and, sometimes, bipolar signatures in magnetic field strength rather than simple depressions. The magnetic holes are of global size with respect to the coma. However, at the comet, they are compressed owing to magnetic field pile-up and draping so that they change in shape. There, the magnetic holes become of comparable size to heavy cometary ion gyroradii, potentially enabling kinetic interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018
Keywords
plasmas - magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), instabilities, comets: general, interplanetary medium
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238117 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201833300 (DOI)000447508800001 ()2-s2.0-85056121056 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181205

Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Plaschke, F., Hietala, H., Archer, M., Blanco-Cano, X., Kajdic, P., Karlsson, T., . . . Sibeck, D. (2018). Jets Downstream of Collisionless Shocks. Space Science Reviews, 214(5), Article ID UNSP 81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jets Downstream of Collisionless Shocks
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2018 (English)In: Space Science Reviews, ISSN 0038-6308, E-ISSN 1572-9672, Vol. 214, no 5, article id UNSP 81Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetosheath flow may take the form of large amplitude, yet spatially localized, transient increases in dynamic pressure, known as "magnetosheath jets" or "plasmoids" among other denominations. Here, we describe the present state of knowledge with respect to such jets, which are a very common phenomenon downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. We discuss their properties as determined by satellite observations (based on both case and statistical studies), their occurrence, their relation to solar wind and foreshock conditions, and their interaction with and impact on the magnetosphere. As carriers of plasma and corresponding momentum, energy, and magnetic flux, jets bear some similarities to bursty bulk flows, which they are compared to. Based on our knowledge of jets in the near Earth environment, we discuss the expectations for jets occurring in other planetary and astrophysical environments. We conclude with an outlook, in which a number of open questions are posed and future challenges in jet research are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Jets, Magnetosheath, Foreshock, Bow shock, Magnetopause
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240205 (URN)10.1007/s11214-018-0516-3 (DOI)000436095200001 ()2-s2.0-85049122845 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181218

Available from: 2018-12-18 Created: 2018-12-18 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Palmroth, M., Hietala, H., Plaschke, F., Archer, M., Karlsson, T., Blanco-Cano, X., . . . Turc, L. (2018). Magnetosheath jet properties and evolution as determined by a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation. Annales Geophysicae, 36(5), 1171-1182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetosheath jet properties and evolution as determined by a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation
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2018 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1171-1182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use a global hybrid-Vlasov simulation for the magnetosphere, Vlasiator, to investigate magnetosheath high-speed jets. Unlike many other hybrid-kinetic simulations, Vlasiator includes an unscaled geomagnetic dipole, indicating that the simulation spatial and temporal dimensions can be given in SI units without scaling. Thus, for the first time, this allows investigating the magnetosheath jet properties and comparing them directly with the observed jets within the Earth's magnetosheath. In the run shown in this paper, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle is 30°, and a foreshock develops upstream of the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. We visually detect a structure with high dynamic pressure propagating from the bow shock through the magnetosheath. The structure is confirmed as a jet using three different criteria, which have been adopted in previous observational studies. We compare these criteria against the simulation results. We find that the magnetosheath jet is an elongated structure extending earthward from the bow shock by ∼ 2.6 RE, while its size perpendicular to the direction of propagation is ∼ 0.5R/E. We also investigate the jet evolution and find that the jet originates due to the interaction of the bow shock with a high-dynamic-pressure structure that reproduces observational features associated with a short, large-amplitude magnetic structure (SLAMS). The simulation shows that magnetosheath jets can develop also under steady IMF, as inferred by observational studies. To our knowledge, this paper therefore shows the first global kinetic simulation of a magnetosheath jet, which is in accordance with three observational jet criteria and is caused by a SLAMS advecting towards the bow shock. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH, 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236698 (URN)10.5194/angeo-36-1171-2018 (DOI)000444098700001 ()2-s2.0-85053271559 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 22 October 2018; Article; Correspondence Address: Palmroth, M.; Department of Physics, University of HelsinkiFinland; email: minna.palmroth@helsinki.fi; Funding details: IA104416; Funding details: 704681; Funding details: CSC, China Scholarship Council; Funding details: NNX17AI45G; Funding details: 309937; Funding details: 267144; Funding details: 312351; Funding details: 682068-PRESTISSIMO, ERC, European Research Council; Funding details: 200141-QuESpace, ERC, European Research Council; Funding text: Acknowledgements. We acknowledge the European Research Council for Starting grant 200141-QuESpace, with which Vlasiator (http://helsinki.fi/vlasiator; last access: 4 September 2018) was developed, and Consolidator grant 682068-PRESTISSIMO awarded to further develop Vlasiator and use it for scientific investigations. We gratefully also acknowledge the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (Academy of Finland grant numbers 312351, 267144, and 309937). Primož Kajdicˇ’s work was supported by DGAPA/PAPIIT grant IA104416. The CSC – IT Center for Science in Finland is acknowledged for the Grand Challenge award leading to the results shown in here. We acknowledge valuable discussions within the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team 350, called “Jets downstream of collisionless shocks”, led by Ferdinand Plaschke and Heli Hietala. Lucile Turc acknowledges Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant 704681. Heli Hietala was supported by the Turku Collegium for Science and Medicine and NASA NNX17AI45G. We thank Jonas Suni for producing data for the figures in the revised version. QC 20181112

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
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