Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
Andersson, J. & Grönkvist, S. (2019). Large-scale storage of hydrogen. International journal of hydrogen energy, 44(23), 11901-11919
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale storage of hydrogen
2019 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 23, p. 11901-11919Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The large-scale storage of hydrogen plays a fundamental role in a potential future hydrogen economy. Although the storage of gaseous hydrogen in salt caverns already is used on a full industrial scale, the approach is not applicable in all regions due to varying geological conditions. Therefore, other storage methods are necessary. In this article, options for the large-scale storage of hydrogen are reviewed and compared based on fundamental thermodynamic and engineering aspects. The application of certain storage technologies, such as liquid hydrogen, methanol, ammonia, and dibenzyltoluene, is found to be advantageous in terms of storage density, cost of storage, and safety. The variable costs for these high-density storage technologies are largely associated with a high electricity demand for the storage process or with a high heat demand for the hydrogen release process. If hydrogen is produced via electrolysis and stored during times of low electricity prices in an industrial setting, these variable costs may be tolerable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2019
Keywords
Chemical hydrides, Hydrogen storage, Large-scale, Liquefaction, Metal hydrides, Ammonia, Cost accounting, Costs, Hydrides, Liquefied gases, Chemical hydride, Electricity demands, Engineering aspects, Geological conditions, Industrial settings, Storage of hydrogen
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252445 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.03.063 (DOI)000468710100050 ()2-s2.0-85063499997 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190715

Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-07-15Bibliographically approved
Lönnqvist, T., Sandberg, T., Birbue, J. C., Olsson, J., Espinosa, C., Thorin, E., . . . Gómez, M. F. (2018). Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – a stepwise reconfiguration. Journal of Cleaner Production, 180, 494-504
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale biogas generation in Bolivia – a stepwise reconfiguration
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 180, p. 494-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable energy is well recognized not only as resource that helps to protect the environment for future generations but also as a driver for development. Waste-to-energy systems can provide renewable energy and also improve sustainability in waste management. This article contributes a case study of stepwise reconfiguration of the waste management system in a developing country to the literature of transitions. The conditions for a systemic transition that integrates large-scale biogas generation into the waste management system have been analyzed. The method included a multi-criteria evaluation of three development steps for biogas, an economic analysis, and an institutional and organizational analysis. The results revealed economic as well as institutional and organizational barriers. Clearly, public and private sectors need to engage in sustainability. There is also a lack of pressure – mainly because of fossil fuel subsidies – that prevents a transition and creates a lock-in effect. To break the lock-in effect the municipality's institutional capacity should be strengthened. It is possible to strengthen biogas economically by integrated waste management services and sales of biofertilizer. A stepwise reconfiguration would be initiated by adopting technologies that are already established in many developed countries but are novelties in a Bolivian context – as a response to sustainability challenges related to waste management. The article focuses on the main challenges and the potential for biogas technology in Bolivia and a pathway towards a new, more sustainable system is suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
systemic transitions, barriers and incentives, biogas, Bolivia
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222388 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.174 (DOI)000427218700045 ()2-s2.0-85042072518 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180212

Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Lönnqvist, T., Grönkvist, S. & Sandberg, T. (2016). How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?. f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can forest-derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?
2016 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Forest-derived methane may contribute significantly to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. At present, there is sufficient technical knowledge about energy conversion methods and several Swedish actors have investigated and prepared investments in production facilities, but the technology is not commercially mature yet and it needs support during a development period. Investments in the technology have become less favorable because of the drop in the oil price in 2014. In addition, the predictability of the policy instruments supporting production and use of renewable energy are perceived as low by investors. This report emphasize that these factors combined are major reasons why potential investments are postponed.

We have conducted a literature study and an interview study with three industry actors to answer the question “How can forest derived methane complement biogas from anaerobic digestion in the Swedish transport sector?” Interviews were mostly conducted in situ and in co-operation with the f3 project “Examining systemic constraints and drivers for production of forest-derived transport biofuels” (f3 2014-002370). The literature study included the recent development of renewable transport fuels in Sweden, existing and proposed policy instruments, and possible technical pathways from forest biomass to transport fuels.

Sweden has accomplished a high share of renewables in the transport sector – 12 % based on energy content or 17 % when accounting in accordance with the EU Renewable Energy Sources Directive (RES). Thus, Sweden has the highest share of renewables in the transport sector among the member states and has with a good margin accomplished the EU-RES target of 10 % renewables by 2020. The use of electricity in plug-in electric vehicles is not included in these figures and the number of electric vehicles is increasing rapidly.

The most common biofuels in transport are biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas. Biodiesel increases rapidly, mainly through low blend-in, and is now the most common biofuel in the Swedish transport sector. The majority is HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils), but the share of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) is still considerable. The use of ethanol peaked during 2008 and has been decreasing since then. Ethanol is distributed through both low and high blend-in (E5 and E85).

The use of upgraded biogas in the transport sector has increased continuously since its introduction 1996. Upgraded biogas is complemented by natural gas to meet the vehicle gas demand. A voluntary agreement among the distributors maintains a minimum biogas share that corresponds to 50 %. The biogas share is much higher today (74 % by volume, average Jan.-Aug. 2015) and some large end-users use pure upgraded biogas. Upgraded biogas is mainly distributed in compressed form through gas cylinders (79 %), but also through injection to the natural gas grid (21 %). Very little biogas is distributed in liquid form (LBG).

Studies of the practical production potential shows that the current vehicle gas demand could be met entirely with upgraded biogas. However, an increased demand will eventually require other production pathways based on other feedstocks. Gasification of forest biomass is one such pathway. One alternative is that an increased demand is met with natural gas, resulting in fossil lock-in effects. Another alternative is a stagnated vehicle gas market.

Production of upgraded biogas and use in the transport sector have been promoted in different ways, e.g., demand on handling of waste that will promote anaerobic digestion, investment support to production facilities, support to distribution infrastructure, environmental car premiums, and exemptions of energy and CO2 taxes. The tax exemptions are only granted until the end of 2015 but the Swedish government has applied for permission to the European Commission for a tax exemption until the end of 2020. A biofuel may only be compensated to a certain level to comply with rules set by the European Commission. If the renewable alternative is cheaper because of tax exemptions or tax reductions it is considered as overcompensation and illegal state aid and the compensation has to be adjusted. This has in Sweden occurred for FAME, E5 and E85, but since the cost for biogas is almost twice that of natural gas, it is not likely that the tax exemptions for biogas will be considered as illegal state aid. 

Among the suggested policy instruments in the FFF inquiry are the price premium model and the quota obligation. The government prepared for a quota obligation but it was later withdrawn because the European Commission considered it as illegal state aid when combined with Sweden´s current CO2 tax. These changes decrease the predictability for potential investors. The actors that we have interviewed propose different policy instruments to promote production of transport fuels from forest biomass: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system. However, more important than the type of policy instrument is that the support is substantial and predictable during the pay back period of the investment.

There is a large potential in forest biomass for transport fuel production in Sweden. Different pathways, which result in different transport fuels, compete not only for the feedstock and the end-users, but also for financing, research & development funds, and the policy makers’ attention. This study suggests that:

  • In order to attract investments in forest-derived methane, the vehicle gas market must continue to increase.  Increased policy support directed at the demand may be needed. This is because the gasification technology is sensitive to economies of scale and the size of the facilities that have been considered are equivalent to the entire market for upgraded biogas. To invest in such a facility implies too large a risk given the size of the current demand and the uncertainties of the future market.
  • If methane should be able to play an increasingly important role in a future transportation sector, the gasification technology need policy support during a development period.
  • The predictability of policy support is perceived as low. The predictability is more important than the specific type of policy instrument to attract investments. The interviewees in this report suggest the following policy instruments for the support of forest-derived methane: the price premium model, a quota obligation, or a system inspired by the tradable green certificate system.
  • The current low oil price decreases the likelihood for investments. Policy instruments that compensate for the oil price risk are needed, e.g. the price premium model.
  • Swedish industry actors can realize the potential in forest biomass through production of transport fuels if beneficial conditions are given. Such a development does not only contribute to a vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels but also to regional development.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, 2016. p. 49
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182568 (URN)
Note

QC 20160229

Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
Olsson, A., Grönkvist, S., Lind, M. & Yan, J. (2016). The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets. Environmental Science and Policy, 56, 32-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets
2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 56, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, which makes it possible for developed countries to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases through investing in climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. When the mitigation benefit of a CDM project is quantified, measurable uncertainties arise that can be minimised using established statistical methods. In addition, some unmeasurable uncertainties arise, such as the rebound effect of demand-side energy efficiency projects. Many project types related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) have been excluded from the CDM in part because of the high degree of statistical uncertainty in measurements of the carbon sink and risk of non-permanence. However, recent discussions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have opened up for the possibility of including more LULUCF activities in the future. In the light of this discussion, we highlight different aspects of uncertainties in LULUCF projects (e.g. the risk of non-permanence and the size of the carbon sink) in relation to other CDM project categories such as renewables and demand-side energy efficiency. We quantify the uncertainties, compare the magnitudes of the uncertainties in different project categories and conclude that uncertainties could be just as significant in CDM project categories such as renewables as in LULUCF projects. The CDM is a useful way of including and engaging developing countries in climate change mitigation and could be a good source of financial support for LULUCF mitigation activities. Given their enormous mitigation potential, we argue that additional LULUCF activities should be included in the CDM and other future climate policy instruments. Furthermore, we note that Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are currently being submitted to the UNFCCC by developing countries. Unfortunately, the under-representation of LULUCF in comparison to its potential is evident in the NAMAs submitted so far, just as it has been in the CDM. Capacity building under the CDM may influence NAMAs and there is a risk of transferring the view on uncertainties to NAMAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Carbon sequestration, Clean development mechanism, Emission reduction, Land use, Land-use change and forestry, Nationally appropriate mitigation actions, Rebound effect
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180934 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2015.11.004 (DOI)000369195700004 ()2-s2.0-84946887767 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, AKT-2010-040Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Note

QC 20160126. QC 20160304

Available from: 2016-01-26 Created: 2016-01-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2016). Upgraded biogas for transport in Sweden: effects of policy instruments on production, infrastructure deployment and vehicle sales. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 3774-3784
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upgraded biogas for transport in Sweden: effects of policy instruments on production, infrastructure deployment and vehicle sales
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, p. 3774-3784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden is a leading country in the development of upgraded biogas for use in the transport sector. The introduction of a new vehicle fuel is complex when the production, infrastructure, and vehicle fleet must be developed simultaneously. The aim of this article is to present and analyse the development of upgraded biogas in the Swedish transport sector in relation to policy instruments and the availability of a natural gas grid. Plausible implications for the future development of the biogas system are also analysed.

The development of upgraded biogas in Sweden's transport sector is heavily influenced in several ways by domestic policy instruments. Investment support schemes and exemptions from energy and carbon dioxide taxes have been key instruments in initiating the construction of new biogas production facilities and infrastructure. The study of the biogas development in relation to the natural gas grid presented in this article indicates that it may not be necessary to construct a comprehensive network of pipelines for methane (natural gas) to develop the market – at least not initially. In Sweden and elsewhere the biogas volumes will still be quite small in the near future and it is possible to achieve biogas development without an available methane gas grid.

Public procurement, investment schemes and reduced fringe benefit tax have likely been important policy instruments in the introduction of biogas vehicles, whereas the support for private biogas cars has been short-sighted in some ways, and not sufficient to achieve a competitive cost of ownership for biogas cars in relation to diesel cars.

The future strategy for biogas should be based on a realistic potential for using biogas in the transport sector; this would determine whether further market expansion is necessary or if incentives should be focused on development of the production side to cover the current demand for vehicle gas.

The development of biogas production likely depends on continued tax exemptions, which are currently available only until the end of 2015; it is uncertain whether they will remain in place. If biogas should be promoted further among private car owners, more visible incentives for private cars are needed together with incentives for expanding the fuelling infrastructure network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Biomethane, Biogas, Transport, Alternatively fuelled vehicle, Policy instrument, Natural gas grid
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173837 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.056 (DOI)000368207500017 ()2-s2.0-84959508922 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Energy Systems Programme
Note

QC 201509

Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Persson, J. & Grönkvist, S. (2015). Drivers for and barriers to low-energy buildings in Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, 296-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers for and barriers to low-energy buildings in Sweden
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 109, p. 296-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From the perspective of construction companies, this paper investigates the existence and significance of barriers and driving forces for the implementation of energy-efficient houses in Sweden. Here, eleven construction companies that build low-energy buildings comparable in performance with passive houses have been interviewed. One conclusion is that there is not one specific barrier that keeps energy-efficient housing from taking off. Instead, the barriers include a whole range of issues that have to be considered. Internal pressure has been a strong contributor to the onset of passive house constructions within the companies and the results indicate that personal commitment is central and perhaps the strongest driver. A general reflection from the interviews is that there is a need to show both construction companies and potential customers that it is possible to build passive houses and that they exist. Unlike the national building regulations, which are not considered to be relevant when it comes to energy consumption, the future building regulations from the European Union are identified as a regulatory driver. Moreover, life-cycle thinking is reported to increase among actors, but that it would be beneficial if banks as well as real estate agents could develop a comprehensive view and become better at considering energy and LCC in their capital budgeting templates. Even if the interest for passive houses is considered low among the public, the market is identified as promising among the construction companies recently actually large enough to become a driver in itself.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Low-energy buildings, Passive houses, Energy-efficiency gap
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180988 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.094 (DOI)000367410000025 ()
Note

QC 20160127

Available from: 2016-01-27 Created: 2016-01-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Mosheni, F., Wallmark, C., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system. Paper presented at The 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014; Gwangju Metropolitan City, Korea, 15 – 20 June 2014. International journal of hydrogen energy, 40(35), 11722-11729
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system
Show others...
2015 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 35, p. 11722-11729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus on pathways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector is intense in many countries worldwide. Considering that biofuels have a limited technical production potential and that battery electric vehicles suffer from technical limitations that put constraints on their general use in the transport sector, hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell vehicles may become a feasible alternative. Introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector will also transform the energy sector and create new interactions. The aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences and feasibility of such an integration in Sweden. Different pathways for hydrogen, electricity and methane to the transport sector are compared with regard to system energy efficiency. The well-to-wheel energy efficiencies for hydrogen and electricity are used for estimating the energy resources needed for hydrogen production and electric vehicles for a future Swedish transport sector based on renewable fuels. The analysis reveal that the well-to-wheel system efficiencies for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are comparable to those of methane gas vehicles, even when biomethane is the energy source. The results further indicate that an increased hydrogen demand may have a less than expected impact on the primary energy supply in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158131 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.04.160 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940446636 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014; Gwangju Metropolitan City, Korea, 15 – 20 June 2014
Funder
Energy Systems Programme
Note

QC 20150128

Available from: 2014-12-28 Created: 2014-12-28 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Peck, P., Grönkvist, S., Hansson, J., Voytenko, Y. & Lönnqvist, T. (2015). Investigating socio-technical and institutional constraints to development of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden: A Study design. In: EUBSE 2015: . Paper presented at 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 1-4 June Wien Austria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating socio-technical and institutional constraints to development of forest-derived transport biofuels in Sweden: A Study design
Show others...
2015 (English)In: EUBSE 2015, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Forest industry portfolio diversification into transport fuels is important for Swedish climate and energy policy goal achievement, and for Swedish forest industry competitiveness. This paper presents the research background and methodology for a project that examines constraints/drivers to the expansion of Swedish forest-derived transport biofuels. It focuses on the interaction of innovation niches with the incumbent socio-technical regime, and the interplay of innovators as they seek to advance their technology systems. The study is on going and about to enter field interviews using this preparatory work as a base. Literature reviews, interviews and web-survey(s) are to deliver improved understanding of the positions/views and activities of transportation biofuel producers, heavy transport motor platform developers, and incumbent petrochemical industry actors. The investigation addresses a) synergies or competition for resources or political support; b) proponent strategies in forest, biofuel and petrochemical sectors; c) general ‘viability perceptions’ for leading fuel-engine systems/pathways. It is to provide improved knowledge for decision-making to policy makers, industry, and researchers, regarding the structural function of important regime level drivers and constraints – and where policy interventions are a help/hinder to desired progress. This article delivers the theoretical considerations, research approach, and a mapping of research targets.

Keywords
transport biofuels, forestry, engines, production systems, transitions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170886 (URN)
Conference
23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 1-4 June Wien Austria
Note

QC 20150709

Available from: 2015-07-09 Created: 2015-07-09 Last updated: 2015-07-09Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015, March 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.. Energy Procedia, 75, 1875-1880
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1875-1880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synthetic fuels based on electricity, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) may be necessary to cover the fuel demand in a sustainable transport sector based on renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to compare hydrogen, methane, methanol and diesel produced in this way. The main parameters for the analysis are well to wheel energy efficiency and costs, and the fuels are analysed in a Swedish context. The results indicate that methane and diesel could have the potential to be cost competitive in the near term, at least if common incentivesfor renewable transportation fuels are applied. Moreover, that hydrogen is the best option in terms of well to wheel energy efficiency, and that it in the longer term also may be cost competitive to the other fuels.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158138 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.169 (DOI)2-s2.0-84947076435 (Scopus ID)
Conference
the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015, March 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Note

QC 20150127

Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Jansson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 104, 460-467
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 460-467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable waste-based fuels may decrease the resource use and environmental impact of the road transport sector; one of the options is biogas produced via anaerobic digestion of waste streams from pulp and paper mills. This paper describes process simulation and economic assessments for two options for integrating anaerobic digestion and production of liquid biogas in a typical Nordic Kraft pulp mill: (1) a high-rate anaerobic reactor in the wastewater treatment, and (2) an external anaerobic stirred tank reactor for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge as well as Kraft evaporator methanol condensate. The results revealed an annual production potential of 26-27 GWh biogas in an average Nordic Kraft pulp mill, which is equivalent to a daily production of 7600 L of diesel in terms of energy, and the production cost was estimated to (sic)0.47-0.82 per litre diesel equivalent, comparable with the Swedish price of (sic)0.68 per litre diesel.

However, for the cases with liquid biogas (LBG), a discounted payback period of about 8 years may not be considered profitable by the industry. Other pre-requisites may, however, improve the profitability: a larger mill; production of compressed biogas instead of liquid biogas; or, for case 1, a comparison with the alternative cost for expanding the wastewater treatment capacity with more process equipment for activated sludge treatment. The results reveal that anaerobic digestion at pulp mills may both expand the production of renewable vehicle fuel but also enable increased efficiency and revenue at Kraft pulp mills.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Biomethane, Kraft pulp, Pulp and paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158133 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.054 (DOI)000357552900045 ()2-s2.0-84931563943 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20150817

Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3315-4201

Search in DiVA

Show all publications