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Barjot, Z. & Malmqvist, T. (2024). Limit values in LCA-based regulations for buildings – System boundaries and implications on practice. Building and Environment, 259, Article ID 111658.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Limit values in LCA-based regulations for buildings – System boundaries and implications on practice
2024 (English)In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 259, article id 111658Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapidly reducing the climate impacts of the construction and use of buildings is acknowledged as a key lever to meet European and national climate goals. Life cycle-based regulations, in the form of mandatory declaration of the climate impact of new-build, are being introduced, often planned to be or already complemented with performance-based limit values. This development has increasingly raised questions on how different system boundaries for similar limit values applied in various countries might lead to diverging implications in practice. A sample of 50 real-life case buildings of different typologies, representative of contemporary Swedish construction, is used to compare implications of two different system boundaries for embodied GHGe assessment: SB1) life cycle modules A1-A5 i.e. initial, that is upfront GHGe and SB2) life cycle modules A1-A5 + B2–B4, i.e. adding recurring GHGe, according to the European EN 15978 standard. The results show that for the two system boundaries applied, no difference is seen concerning the sample buildings' ability to perform below a limit value as defined in current Swedish regulatory plans, nor would it lead to different design choices to ensure that a building performs below the limit value. The results of sensitivity analyses along with the relative nature of the results, suggest these conclusions are also relevant for other regulatory contexts. As a conclusion, this study shows that implementing LCA-based regulations focusing on initial embodied GHGe is an important step to rapidly and effectively address GHGe associated with new-build.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Building design, Embodied GHGe, Policy development, Practical incentive, Whole-life carbon assessment
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-347058 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2024.111658 (DOI)001244694800001 ()2-s2.0-85193625351 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240702

Available from: 2024-05-30 Created: 2024-05-30 Last updated: 2024-07-19Bibliographically approved
Rasmussen, F. N., Birgisdóttir, H., Malmqvist, T., Kuittinen, M. & Häkkinen, T. (2023). Embodied Carbon In Building Regulation - Development And Implementation In Finland, Sweden And Denmark. In: The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Carbon in the Built Environment: (pp. 85-102). Informa UK Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied Carbon In Building Regulation - Development And Implementation In Finland, Sweden And Denmark
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2023 (English)In: The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Carbon in the Built Environment, Informa UK Limited , 2023, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Initiatives on operational carbon have been an integrated part of legislation in many countries for decades, but the issue of embodied carbon is just starting its breakthrough in a regulatory context. This chapter provides an account of how the introduction of LCA-based limit values for whole-life-carbon has been approached in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The starting point for these whole-life-carbon declarations have been the policies outlined via national climate acts, and there has been extensive knowledge exchange between the three neighbouring countries. Still, the LCA-based assessment methods outlined for the regulation have taken significantly different paths. For instance, the Swedish approach focuses on the upfront carbon from production and construction processes, whereas the other two approaches include the use- and the end-of-life stages. The methodological variations reflect the different national weightings between the ease-of-application for users and the accuracy- to-scope of the building model and its real life-cycle impact. All three approaches have drawn up reference values for typical buildings, and have already, or are planning to, introduce politically defined limit values for new buildings. At the same time, distributions from a global carbon budget approach show large discrepancies between the emsissions ‘allowed’ for new constructions (<2 kg CO2e/m2/year) and the limit- and reference values in place for the countries (around 9-15 kg CO2e/m2/year). This makes it clear that additional giant leaps are needed for policies in the building industry to operate within the planetary boundaries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa UK Limited, 2023
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-350072 (URN)10.4324/9781003277927-10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163172465 (Scopus ID)
Note

Part of ISBN [9781003820031, 9781032234861]

QC 20240706

Available from: 2024-07-06 Created: 2024-07-06 Last updated: 2024-07-06Bibliographically approved
Malmqvist, T. & Brismark, J. (2023). Embodied carbon savings of co-living and implications for metrics. Buildings and Cities, 4(1), 386-404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied carbon savings of co-living and implications for metrics
2023 (English)In: Buildings and Cities, E-ISSN 2632-6655, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 386-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In light of the climate crisis and conflicting political ambitions in many countries to rapidly increase the number of dwellings, what housing strategies could reduce emissions? Co-living is one strategy sometimes highlighted but rarely implemented in mainstream construction practices. Using two Swedish case studies, the potential embodied carbon savings are explored for co-living designs. When comparing building designs, normalisation of impacts or energy use per floor area is unequivocally the norm. The present comparison between co-living and traditional apartment design indicates an embodied carbon savings at the building level of 10–20% depending on whether embodied carbon is normalised per gross or residential floor area. However, normalisation per capita (inhabitant) shows substantially higher savings of 21–36% depending on the case studied. The effect of different metrics is illustrated to quantify potential embodied carbon savings of non-mainstream building design solutions such as co-living. Even more substantial embodied carbon savings can be achieved by avoiding new construction through the ability of enabling a more efficient use of indoor space. The need for rethinking carbon and space metrics will help the building sector meet emission targets. PRACTICE RELEVANCE Evidence is provided to show that design for co-living could be one way to offer a climate-efficient and qualitative housing alternative for single households in many countries. However, to visualise such potentials, developers are recommended to use additional metrics when evaluating how resource or climate-efficient are alternative designs. Traditional metrics such as kWh or kg CO2 e/m2 of gross or heated floor area ought to be complemented by displaying resource use or embodied carbon per designed number of building user and per accessible floor area for each user. Up-to-date generic values are provided for the embodied carbon of different types of space. These can be used in early planning to display the consequences of the number of kitchens and bathrooms and their space occupation in client decisions and early architectural design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ubiquity Press, Ltd., 2023
Keywords
carbon metrics, co-housing, co-living, eco-efficiency, embodied carbon, housing, low-carbon design, metrics, resource efficiency, space utilisation, sufficiency
National Category
Building Technologies Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Construction Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333887 (URN)10.5334/bc.347 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165257248 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230815

Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-15Bibliographically approved
Wiberg, A. H., James, B., Moncaster, A., Rasmussen, F. N., Malmqvist, T. & Birgisdóttir, H. (2023). Embodied Emissions: Knowledge Building For Industry. In: The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Carbon in the Built Environment: (pp. 147-181). Taylor and Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied Emissions: Knowledge Building For Industry
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2023 (English)In: The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Carbon in the Built Environment, Taylor and Francis , 2023, p. 147-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A climate emergency has been declared and government, policymakers, industries, researchers and architects have tremendous potential to shift the entire industry towards a (net) zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions-built environment. In particular, they all play a different but equally important role in the early design phase when there is the greatest opportunity to make design decisions that can directly lead to buildings that reduce their overall GHG emissions towards zero within their life cycle. This chapter is specifically aimed at the role of building designers. Buildings account for 40% of total GHG emissions and are one of the main contributors to the climate crisis. Recent results show that as net zero emission buildings become more highly efficient, the contribution from EEG (embodied energy and greenhouse gases) increases, thus underlying its growing importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to assess embodied carbon and to provide early phase feedback in order to compare the environmental impact of different material, design and construction choices in buildings. However, it is still a relatively new method, and many designers often find it difficult to interpret the results in order to understand how a particular material, component and/or design proposal contributes to the overall GHG emissions in the built environment. This lack of fundamental knowledge and understanding presents a significant barrier to industry uptake and decarbonisation of the built environment. This chapter reports results from the International Energy Agency (IEA) EBC Annex 57 (subtask 4) using data from 80 international case studies, which were collected and systematically analysed alongside supporting data from the literature. The research findings are communicated through simplified diagrams and concise text presented in tabular form where possible, in order to support designers and other non-expert decision makers in the early stage design process. The results presented in this chapter offer a simple and easy to understand visual communication to help develop industry knowledge of net zero and embodied carbon, to help improve participation from key decision makers and more easily integrate science-based knowledge on embodied carbon in industry and in the mainstream.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis, 2023
National Category
Construction Management Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343162 (URN)10.4324/9781003277927-13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85183237499 (Scopus ID)
Note

Part of ISBN 9781003820031, 9781032234861

QC 20240208

Available from: 2024-02-08 Created: 2024-02-08 Last updated: 2024-02-08Bibliographically approved
Zimmermann, R. K., Barjot, Z., Rasmussen, F. N., Malmqvist, T., Kuittinen, M. & Birgisdottir, H. (2023). GHG emissions from building renovation versus new-build: incentives from assessment methods. Buildings and Cities, 4(1), 274-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GHG emissions from building renovation versus new-build: incentives from assessment methods
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2023 (English)In: Buildings and Cities, E-ISSN 2632-6655, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 274-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A variety of life cycle assessment (LCA) calculation methods and rules exist in European countries for building performance evaluation based on new-build. However, the increased focus on the retention and renovation of the existing building stock raises questions about the appropriateness of these the methods and rules when applied to renovation cases. Using a real renovation case, Danish, Finnish and Swedish LCA-based greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) assessments are assessed for how they position building renovation in relation to demolition and new-build reference values. The influence of these three different methods is examined for future development policies. Results show that upfront emissions for renovation are significantly lower for all approaches. The Swedish approach had the lowest GHG emissions compared with a scenario with demolition and new-build due to the method, which only includes upfront emissions of new materials. The Danish and Finnish renovation cases each performed worse in comparison with the new-build future emissions, specifically from operational energy use. Therefore, method development should consider incentives for upfront and future emissions. Furthermore, methods could account for the existing materials in the building, which are included in the Danish and Finnish approaches. This would provide incentive for renovation and reuse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ubiquity Press, Ltd., 2023
Keywords
building assessment method, building regulation, demolition, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, life cycle assessment (LCA), policymaking, refurbishment, renovation
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Energy Systems Construction Management Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334865 (URN)10.5334/bc.325 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163201325 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230829

Available from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Harala, L., Alkki, L., Aarikka-Stenroos, L., Al-Najjar, A. & Malmqvist, T. (2023). Industrial ecosystem renewal towards circularity to achieve the benefits of reuse- Learning from circular construction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 389, 135885, Article ID 135885.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial ecosystem renewal towards circularity to achieve the benefits of reuse- Learning from circular construction
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 389, p. 135885-, article id 135885Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To enable an industry-level transition towards the circular economy, complementary companies and other actors from the focal industry sector, resembling an industrial ecosystem, can jointly increase circulation via reuse or recycling in the system. Although all involved actors must benefit from doing so if their engagement is to be secured, little is known about how industrial ecosystem renewal towards circularity creates benefits. Therefore, this study aims to contribute by applying ecosystem and circular industry development approaches to examine how industrial ecosystems change towards circularity, particularly in regard to the little-studied reuse principle, and identify the diverse benefits of an industry's shift towards circularity via reuse. Thus, this study examines changing industrial ecosystems in the construction industry which have high environmental impacts and focuses on the needed changes to the roles, interactions, and perceptions of ecosystem actors and the diverse benefits gained by increased reuse at company, industry, and societal levels. We conducted an extensive multiple-case study of two industrial ecosystems, namely pilot projects addressing concrete-element reuse, in Finland and Sweden and gathered extensive data covering over 20 interviews, over 18 months of ethnography, and over 300 documents. Our findings show that industrial ecosystems' renewal towards circularity requires changes in the ecosystem actors' roles (role expansions and emergence of new roles), interactions (communication, collabo-ration mindset, utilization of tools), and perceptions (understanding the value of circulated resources, design thinking, and change resistance to conformity). We found that such changes towards circularity generate benefits at the micro level to companies (direct business, competence, and work satisfaction benefits), at the meso level to the industry (environmental, competition, and industry feasibility benefits) and at the macro level to society (environment and employment benefits). Pragmatically, we provide insights and tools for development, business, and sustainability managers, industry associations, and policymakers seeking an increase in circular practices and principles among the industry sectors, involved companies, and surrounding society. Our study contributes to industry-level and sectoral circular economy transformation, reuse, circular construction, and ecosystem research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Reuse, Industrial ecosystem, Construction industry, Circular construction, Circular economy, Industrial renewal
National Category
Environmental Management Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324474 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.135885 (DOI)000925937300001 ()2-s2.0-85146622132 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230321

Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-03-22Bibliographically approved
Malmqvist, T., Borgström, S., Brismark, J. & Erlandsson, M. (2023). Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 2, 2023. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 2, 2023
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2023
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 233
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324853 (URN)978-91-8040-518-8 (ISBN)
Funder
National Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

Observera att det finns en uppdaterad version av denna rapport, se länk

Please note that there is an updated version of this report, see link

QC 20230328

Available from: 2023-03-18 Created: 2023-03-18 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved
Malmqvist, T., Borgström, S., Brismark, J. & Erlandsson, M. (2023). Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 3, 2023.. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 3, 2023.
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport beskriver resultatet av den uppdragsforskning som genomförts åt Boverket inomramen för Boverkets och Upphandlingsmyndighetens regeringsuppdrag ”Uppdrag att främja minskadklimatpåverkan vid offentlig upphandling av bygg-, anläggnings- och fastighetsentreprenader”, för attta fram referensvärden för klimatpåverkan för nya byggnader. Baserat på analyser av närmare 70byggnaders klimatpåverkan för byggskedet (modul A1-A5) har referensvärden för klimatpåverkantagits fram för flerbostadshus, kontor, förskolor, skolor och småhus. Resultaten visar generellt på enstor spridning inom byggnadstyperna, men ger en god grund för att kunna gå vidare med utveckling avolika typer av gränsvärden i till exempel upphandling eller utveckling av regelverket förklimatdeklarationer. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. 205
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2325
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-339759 (URN)978-91-8040-754-0 (ISBN)
Funder
National Board of Housing, Building and Planning
Note

Observera att detta är en uppdaterad version av rapporten "Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 2, 2023."

Please note that this is an updated version of the report "Referensvärden för klimatpåverkan vid uppförande av byggnader. Version 2, 2023."

QC 20231117

Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Brismark, J., Malmqvist, T. & Borgström, S. (2022). Climate Mitigation in the Swedish Single-Family Homes Industry and Potentials for LCA as Decision Support. Buildings, 12(5), 588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate Mitigation in the Swedish Single-Family Homes Industry and Potentials for LCA as Decision Support
2022 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 588-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decision support tools for incentivizing environmentally sound decisions in building design,such as LCA (life cycle assessment), have been highlighted as an essential feature for enhancingthe realization of more sustainable buildings. Nevertheless, the use of LCA to support decisions inbuilding design is still limited in practice. A better understanding of the social dynamics and detailedcontexts of the decisions leading up to a final building design is therefore critical for better integrationof LCA-based information in the decision-making processes. This paper reports a qualitative, semistructuredinterview study of single-family home producers in Sweden and their decision-making inrelation to climate mitigation, with a particular focus on embodied carbon mitigation. By studying aspecific branch of the building and construction sector, a more in-depth record can be obtained of theparticularities of implementation contexts and decision-making situations in which LCA may, or maynot, have a role in driving climate mitigation. Four primary decision contexts in which LCA mayhave an influential role to drive embodied carbon reduction include: (1) the development of buildingsystems, (2) development and offering of house models, (3) the selection of construction products forthe building system as well as for the offer of add-on products to customers, and (4) the dialoguesin the individual house-buyer projects. Decision-making that affects sustainable outcomes in thispart of the sector is very much dependent on a supporting regulatory context. Over the years, usingbuilding LCA in early design stages, for optimization towards low-impact final buildings, has been arepeatedly promoted recommendation both in academia and practice. This study, however, revealsthat such a conclusion is too simplistic. The different overarching decision contexts identified for thisparticular branch display the variety of needs for life cycle-based information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
housing industry, life cycle assessment (LCA), decision-making, embodied carbon, interview study, buildings, climate impact
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-313457 (URN)10.3390/buildings12050588 (DOI)000801657000001 ()2-s2.0-85130169523 (Scopus ID)
Projects
KlivPå Småhus
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 49546-1Swedish Energy Agency, 46881-1
Note

QC 20220607

Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Francart, N., Polycarpou, K., Malmqvist, T. & Moncaster, A. (2022). Demands, default options and definitions: How artefacts mediate sustainability in public housing projects in Sweden and Cyprus. Energy Research & Social Science, 92, Article ID 102765.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demands, default options and definitions: How artefacts mediate sustainability in public housing projects in Sweden and Cyprus
2022 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, article id 102765Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable building design practices are influenced by requirements, guidelines, criteria for green procurement and certification, assessment tools such as life cycle assessment, etc. This study investigates how such artefacts support or define aspirations towards sustainability, through case studies of public housing projects in Sweden and Cyprus. The study first illustrates how constraints mediated by artefacts set boundaries to the range of available sustainable design options. On one hand, fulfilling sustainability requirements conveyed in regulations, certifications and directives is a major driver of designers' involvement with sustainable design. On the other hand, cost calculations, procurement laws and development plans exclude certain design options. Moreover, default solutions and standardised design guidelines within the organisation streamline and simplify the design process, indirectly determining what sustainable design options are considered. However, these demands and default options are also bent and adapted on a case-by-case basis. The ways in which sustainable design arises from the interplay between artefacts and actors' agency differed significantly between the Swedish and Cypriot cases. Swedish actors' operational definition of sustainability is strongly codified and enforced through inter-connected artefacts. The Miljo center dot byggnad certification is often a de facto definition of sustainability used by actors to set sustainability criteria and targets. Environmental databases for construction products act as black boxes, implicitly determining what aspects of sustainability are addressed in design decisions. Conversely, Cypriot designers' work with sustainability depends to a larger extent on their motivation, experience and ability to convince their peers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Building, Housing, Sustainability, Artefact, Object, Mediator
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-320309 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2022.102765 (DOI)000862843700002 ()2-s2.0-85136075022 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221024

Available from: 2022-10-24 Created: 2022-10-24 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2949-422X

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