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Frassinetti, LorenzoORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9546-4494
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Publications (10 of 178) Show all publications
Marco, A., Garrido, A. J., Coda, S., Garrido, I., Ahn, J., Albanese, R., . . . Zuin, M. (2019). A Variable Structure Control Scheme Proposal for the Tokamak a Configuration Variable. Complexity, Article ID 2319560.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Variable Structure Control Scheme Proposal for the Tokamak a Configuration Variable
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2019 (English)In: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, article id 2319560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fusion power is the most significant prospects in the long-term future of energy in the sense that it composes a potentially clean, cheap, and unlimited power source that would substitute the widespread traditional nonrenewable energies, reducing the geographical dependence on their sources as well as avoiding collateral environmental impacts. Although the nuclear fusion research started in the earlier part of 20th century and the fusion reactors have been developed since the 1950s, the fusion reaction processes achieved have not yet obtained net power, since the generated plasma requires more energy to achieve and remain in necessary particular pressure and temperature conditions than the produced profitable energy. For this purpose, the plasma has to be confined inside a vacuum vessel, as it is the case of the Tokamak reactor, which consists of a device that generates magnetic fields within a toroidal chamber, being one of the most promising solutions nowadays. However, the Tokamak reactors still have several issues such as the presence of plasma instabilities that provokes a decay of the fusion reaction and, consequently, a reduction in the pulse duration. In this sense, since long pulse reactions are the key to produce net power, the use of robust and fast controllers arises as a useful tool to deal with the unpredictability and the small time constant of the plasma behavior. In this context, this article focuses on the application of robust control laws to improve the controllability of the plasma current, a crucial parameter during the plasma heating and confinement processes. In particular, a variable structure control scheme based on sliding surfaces, namely, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is presented and applied to the plasma current control problem. In order to test the validity and goodness of the proposed controller, its behavior is compared to that of the traditional PID schemes applied in these systems, using the RZIp model for the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) reactor. The obtained results are very promising, leading to consider this controller as a strong candidate to enhance the performance of the PID-based controllers usually employed in this kind of systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2019
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251725 (URN)10.1155/2019/2319560 (DOI)000466312400001 ()2-s2.0-85065252230 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190520

Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Ström, P., Petersson, P., Rubel, M., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Frassinetti, L., . . . et al., . (2019). Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, 202-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of deposited layers with deuterium and impurity elements on samples from the divertor of JET with ITER-like wall
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 516, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inconel-600 blocks and stainless steel covers for quartz microbalance crystals from remote corners in the JET-ILW divertor were studied with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and nuclear reaction analysis to obtain information about the areal densities and depth profiles of elements present in deposited material layers. Surface morphology and the composition of dust particles were examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The analyzed components were present in JET during three ITER-like wall campaigns between 2010 and 2017. Deposited layers had a stratified structure, primarily made up of beryllium, carbon and oxygen with varying atomic fractions of deuterium, up to more than 20%. The range of carbon transport from the ribs of the divertor carrier was limited to a few centimeters, and carbon/deuterium co-deposition was indicated on the Inconel blocks. High atomic fractions of deuterium were also found in almost carbon-free layers on the quartz microbalance covers. Layer thicknesses up to more than 1 micrometer were indicated, but typical values were on the order of a few hundred nanometers. Chromium, iron and nickel fractions were less than or around 1% at layer surfaces while increasing close to the layer-substrate interface. The tungsten fraction depended on the proximity of the plasma strike point to the divertor corners. Particles of tungsten, molybdenum and copper with sizes less than or around 1 micrometer were found. Nitrogen, argon and neon were present after plasma edge cooling and disruption mitigation. Oxygen-18 was found on component surfaces after injection, indicating in-vessel oxidation. Compensation of elastic recoil detection data for detection efficiency and ion-induced release of deuterium during the measurement gave quantitative agreement with nuclear reaction analysis, which strengthens the validity of the results.

Keywords
Fusion, Tokamak, Plasma-wall interactions, ToF-ERDA, NRA, SEM
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240616 (URN)10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.11.027 (DOI)000458897100020 ()2-s2.0-85060313456 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190125

Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Valovic, M., Baranov, Y., Boboc, A., Buchanan, J., Citrin, J., Delabie, E., . . . Weisen, H. (2019). Control of the hydrogen:deuterium isotope mixture using pellets in JET. Nuclear Fusion, 59(10), Article ID 106047.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of the hydrogen:deuterium isotope mixture using pellets in JET
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 10, article id 106047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deuterium pellets are injected into an initially pure hydrogen H-mode plasma in order to control the hydrogen: deuterium (H:D) isotope mixture. The pellets are deposited in the outer 20% of the minor radius, similar to that expected in ITER, creating transiently hollow electron density profiles. A H: D isotope mixture of approximately 45%:55% is obtained in the core with a pellet fuelling throughput of Phi(pel) = 0.045P(aux)/T-e,T-ped similar to previous pellet fuelling experiments in pure deuterium. Evolution of the H: D mix in the core is reproduced using a simple model, although deuterium transport could be higher at the beginning of the pellet train compared with the flat-top phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
tokamak, isotope mix control, pellet fuelling
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261299 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab3812 (DOI)000485675500001 ()2-s2.0-85072655143 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191008

Available from: 2019-10-08 Created: 2019-10-08 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Labit, B., Frassinetti, L., Jonsson, T., Ratynskaia, S. V., Thorén, E., Tolias, P., . . . Zuin, M. (2019). Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade. Nuclear Fusion, 59(8), Article ID 086020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 8, article id 086020Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the EUROfusion MST1 work package, a series of experiments has been conducted on AUG and TCV devices to disentangle the role of plasma fueling and plasma shape for the onset of small ELM regimes. On both devices, small ELM regimes with high confinement are achieved if and only if two conditions are fulfilled at the same time. Firstly, the plasma density at the separatrix must be large enough (n(e,sep)/n(G) similar to 0.3), leading to a pressure profile flattening at the separatrix, which stabilizes type-I ELMs. Secondly, the magnetic configuration has to be close to a double null (DN), leading to a reduction of the magnetic shear in the extreme vicinity of the separatrix. As a consequence, its stabilizing effect on ballooning modes is weakened.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Keywords
H-mode, type-II ELMs, grassy ELMs, plasma triangularity, separatrix density, ballooning modes
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255302 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab2211 (DOI)000473079500003 ()2-s2.0-85070909412 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190807

Available from: 2019-08-07 Created: 2019-08-07 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Vallejos, P., Jonsson, T., Ragona, R., Hellsten, T. & Frassinetti, L. (2019). Effect of poloidal phasing on ion cyclotron resonance heating power absorption. Nuclear Fusion, 59(7), Article ID 076022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of poloidal phasing on ion cyclotron resonance heating power absorption
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 7, article id 076022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems are planned for ITER, each system containing 24 antennas distributed as a two by four array of poloidal triplets. The ITER antennas are designed to operate at a poloidal phase difference between the upper and lower triplet of Δθpol = -90° in the antenna currents. Since current tokamak experiments normally operate at Δθpol = 0°, experience from ICRH schemes with Δθpol °= 0 is lacking. In this paper, the effects of poloidal phasing on ICRH power absorption and coupling are studied using the novel code FEMIC, which is described here. Simulations of the ITER antenna and the JET ITER-like antenna show that increasing the poloidal phase difference increases the destructive interference of the fast magnetosonic wave near the equatorial plane. This causes a degradation of the on-axis heating performance and reduces the total coupled power to the plasma. Best on-axis heating was obtained for Δθpol = 0°, resulting in peaked profiles. By increasing the poloidal phase difference the absorption profiles tend to become less peaked or hollow on-axis. The effect is localized and occurs for °pol ° 0.1, i.e. near the magnetic axis. The total coupled power was found to be asymmetric around Δθpol = 0° due to the plasma gyrotropy, where the maximum coupled power occurs within ?33° ° Δθpol ° ?22° on ITER and JET. The exact location of the maximum depends on the width of the pedestal. The strength of the asymmetry increases with the pedestal width.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Keywords
FEMIC, ICRH, ITER, Poloidal phasing
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-262632 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab1ab7 (DOI)000470808100004 ()2-s2.0-85069038864 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191016

Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved
Trier, E., Frassinetti, L., Fridström, R., Garcia Carrasco, A., Hellsten, T., Johnson, T., . . . Zuin, M. (2019). ELM-induced cold pulse propagation in ASDEX Upgrade. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 61(4), Article ID 045003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ELM-induced cold pulse propagation in ASDEX Upgrade
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2019 (English)In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 4, article id 045003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In ASDEX Upgrade, the propagation of cold pulses induced by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) is studied using electron cyclotron emission measurements, in a dataset of plasmas with moderate triangularity. It is found that the edge safety factor or the plasma current are the main determining parameters for the inward penetration of the T-e perturbations. With increasing plasma current the ELM penetration is more shallow in spite of the stronger ELMs. Estimates of the heat pulse diffusivity show that the corresponding transport is too large to be representative of the inter-ELM phase. Ergodization of the plasma edge during ELMs is a possible explanation for the observed properties of the cold pulse propagation, which is qualitatively consistent with non-linear magneto-hydro-dynamic simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
ELMs, MHD instabilities, stochastic field, magnetic islands, cold pulse
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245121 (URN)10.1088/1361-6587/aaf9c3 (DOI)000458986000002 ()
Note

QC 20190315

Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
von Thun, C. P., Frassinetti, L., Horvath, L., Saarelma, S., Meneses, L., de la Luna, E., . . . Solano, E. R. (2019). Long-lived coupled peeling ballooning modes preceding ELMs on JET. Nuclear Fusion, 59(5), Article ID 056004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-lived coupled peeling ballooning modes preceding ELMs on JET
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 5, article id 056004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In some JET discharges, type-I edge localised modes (ELMs) are preceded by a class of low-frequency oscillations (Perez et al 2004 Nucl. Fusion 44 609). While in many cases the ELM is triggered during the growth phase of this oscillation, it is also observed that this type of oscillation can saturate and last for several tens of ms until an ELM occurs. In order to identify the nature of these modes, a wide pre-ELM oscillation database, including detailed pedestal profile information, has been assembled and analysed in terms of MHD stability parameters. The existence domain of these pre-ELM oscillations and the statistical distribution of toroidal mode numbers (n) up to n = 16 have been mapped in ballooning alpha (alpha(ball)) and either edge current density (J(edge)) or pedestal collisionality (nu(ee,ped)*) coordinates and compared to linear MHD stability predictions. The pre-ELM oscillations are reliably observed when the J/alpha ratio is high enough for the pedestal to access the coupled peeling-ballooning (PB) domain (aka stability nose). Conversely, when the pedestal is found to be in or near the high-n ballooning domain (which is at low J/alpha ratio), ELMs are usually triggered promptly, i.e. with no detectable pre-ELM oscillations, or with pre-ELM oscillations only observable on ECE whose n appears to be too high to be resolved by the magnetics. Individual discharges can sometimes exhibit a fairly wide range of pre-ELM mode numbers, but for a wider database, the statistical n-number domains are found to be well ordered along the J - alpha stability boundary and behave as expected from PB theory: the higher the J/alpha ratio, the lower the mode's measured n tends to be. Within the measurement uncertainties, the measured n is usually found to be compatible with the most unstable n predicted by the linear stability code MISHKA1. These results confirm the earlier hypothesis that these modes are coupled peeling-ballooning modes, and extend and generalise to higher-mode numbers the work by Huysmans et al (1998 Nucl. Fusion 38 179), who identified the lowest n modes as pure external kink modes. Since the destabilisation of PB modes is widely accepted to give rise to ELMs, the mode saturation and delayed ELM triggering that is sometimes observed is rather unexpected. Possibilities to reconcile the extended lifetime of these modes with current ELM models are briefly discussed, but will require further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Keywords
ELM, peeling-ballooning mode, pedestal, JET
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249854 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab0031 (DOI)000462112700001 ()
Note

QC 20190503

Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
Joffrin, E., Bergsåker, H., Bykov, I., Frassinetti, L., Fridström, R., Garcia Carrasco, A., . . . et al., . (2019). Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall. Nuclear Fusion, 59(11), Article ID 112021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 11, article id 112021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
fusion power, JET, tritium, isotope
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260157 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab2276 (DOI)000484122200001 ()2-s2.0-85070875113 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190926

Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-10-04Bibliographically approved
Sheikh, U. A., Dunne, M., Frassinetti, L., Blanchard, P., Duval, B. P., Labit, B., . . . Tsui, C. (2019). Pedestal structure and energy confinement studies on TCV. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 61(1), Article ID 014002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestal structure and energy confinement studies on TCV
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2019 (English)In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 1, article id 014002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High external gas injection rates are foreseen for future devices to reduce divertor heat loads and this can influence pedestal stability. Fusion yield has been estimated to vary as strongly as T-e,ped(2) so an understanding of the underlying pedestal physics in the presence of additional fuelling and seeding is required. To address this, a database scanning plasma triangularity, fuelling and nitrogen seeding rates in neutral beam (NBH) heated ELM-y H-mode plasmas was constructed on TCV. Low nitrogen seeding was observed to increase pedestal top pressure but all other gas injection rates led to a decrease. Lower triangularity discharges were found to be less sensitive to variations in gas injection rates. No clear trend was measured between plasma top P-e and stored energy which is attributed to the non-stiffness of core plasma pressure profiles. Peeling ballooning stability analysis put these discharges close to the ideal MHD stability boundary. A constant for D in the relation pedestal width w = D root beta(Ped)(theta), was not found. Experimentally inferred values of D were used in EPED1 simulations and gave good agreement for pedestal width. Pedestal height agreed well for high triangularity but was overestimated for low triangularity. IPED simulations showed that relative shifts in pedestal position were contributing significantly to the pedestal height and were able to reproduce the measured profiles more accurately.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Keywords
TCV, pedestal, EPED
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239458 (URN)10.1088/1361-6587/aae7bd (DOI)000449541700002 ()2-s2.0-85057611317 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181128

Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Coda, S., Frassinetti, L., Zuin, M. & et al., . (2019). Physics research on the TCV tokamak facility: from conventional to alternative scenarios and beyond. Nuclear Fusion, 59(11), Article ID 112023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physics research on the TCV tokamak facility: from conventional to alternative scenarios and beyond
2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 11, article id 112023Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research program of the TCV tokamak ranges from conventional to advanced-tokamak scenarios and alternative divertor configurations, to exploratory plasmas driven by theoretical insight, exploiting the device's unique shaping capabilities. Disruption avoidance by real-time locked mode prevention or unlocking with electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was thoroughly documented, using magnetic and radiation triggers. Runaway generation with high-Z noble-gas injection and runaway dissipation by subsequent Ne or Ar injection were studied for model validation. The new 1 MW neutral beam injector has expanded the parameter range, now encompassing ELMy H-modes in an ITER-like shape and nearly noninductive II-mode discharges sustained by electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. In the H-mode, the pedestal pressure increases modestly with nitrogen seeding while fueling moves the density pedestal outwards, but the plasma stored energy is largely uncorrelated to either seeding or fueling. High fueling at high triangularity is key to accessing the attractive small edge-localized mode (type-II) regime. Turbulence is reduced in the core at negative triangularity, consistent with increased confinement and in accord with global gyrokinetic simulations. The geodesic acoustic mode, possibly coupled with avalanche events, has been linked with particle flow to the wall in diverted plasmas. Detachment, scrape-off layer transport, and turbulence were studied in L- and H-modes in both standard and alternative configurations (snowflake, super-X, and beyond). The detachment process is caused by power `starvation' reducing the ionization source, with volume recombination playing only a minor role. Partial detachment in the H-mode is obtained with impurity seeding and has shown little dependence on flux expansion in standard single-null geometry. In the attached 1,-mode phase, increasing the outer connection length reduces the in-out heat-flow asymmetry. A doublet plasma, featuring an internal X-point, was achieved successfully, and a transport barrier was observed in the mantle just outside the internal separatrix. In the near future variableconfiguration baffles and possibly divertor ptunping will be introduced to investigate the effect of divertor closure on exhaust and performance, and 3.5 MW ECR and 1 MW neutral beam injection heating will be added.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
nuclear fusion, tokamak, overview, TCV, MST1, EUROfusion
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-260158 (URN)10.1088/1741-4326/ab25cb (DOI)000484122200003 ()
Note

QC 20190926

Available from: 2019-09-26 Created: 2019-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9546-4494

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