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Ye, L., Gao, Y., Cao, S., Chen, H., Yao, Y., Hou, J. & Sun, L. (2018). Assembly of highly efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion systems with ultrathin two-dimensional metal-organic framework nanosheets. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 227, 54-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assembly of highly efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion systems with ultrathin two-dimensional metal-organic framework nanosheets
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2018 (English)In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 227, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ultrathin two-dimensional Zn porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (Zn-MOF nanosheets) is developed and used for the first time in photoreduction of CO2 to CO. Consequently, two novelty noble-metal-free hybrid photocatalytic systems are established and displayed outstanding photocatalytic activity and selectivity for CO evolution under mild photocatalytic reaction conditions. The insight revealed Zn-MOF nanosheets as photo sensitizer displays a better charge transport ability and longer lifetime of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs than the Zn-MOF bulk, which are confirmed by photoelectrochemical impedance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. These studies show that the development of noble-metal-free photocatalytic systems and various MOF-based materials for photocatalytic applications are promising.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
CO2 reduction, Photocatalysis, Metal-organic frameworks, Nanosheets, Zn porphyrin
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226178 (URN)10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.028 (DOI)000428491000006 ()2-s2.0-85042913816 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Hou, J., Cao, S., Sun, Y., Wu, Y., Liang, F., Lin, Z. & Sun, L. (2018). Atomically Thin Mesoporous In2O3-x/In2S3 Lateral Heterostructures Enabling Robust Broadband-Light Photo-Electrochemical Water Splitting. Advanced Energy Materials, 8(9), Article ID 1701114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomically Thin Mesoporous In2O3-x/In2S3 Lateral Heterostructures Enabling Robust Broadband-Light Photo-Electrochemical Water Splitting
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 8, no 9, article id 1701114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atomically thin 2D heterostructures have opened new realms in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, 2D lateral heterostructures of mesoporous In2O3-x/In2S3 atomic layers are synthesized through the in situ oxidation of In2S3 atomic layers by an oxygen plasma-induced strategy. Based on experimental observations and theoretical calculations, the prolonged charge carrier lifetime and increased electron density reveal the efficient photoexcited carrier transport and separation in the In2O3-x/In2S3 layers by interfacial bonding at the atomic level. As expected, the synergistic structural and electronic modulations of the In2O3-x/In2S3 layers generate a photocurrent of 1.28 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, nearly 21 and 79 times higher than those of the In2S3 atomic layers and bulk counterpart, respectively. Due to the large surface area, abundant active sites, broadband-light harvesting ability, and effective charge transport pathways, the In2O3-x/In2S3 layers build efficient pathways for photoexcited charge in the 2D semiconductive channels, expediting charge transport and kinetic processes and enhancing the robust broadband-light photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. This work paves new avenues for the exploration and design of atomically thin 2D lateral heterostructures toward robust photo-electrochemical applications and solar energy utilization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
atomically thin layers, charge separation, In2O3-x/In2S3, lateral heterostructures, photo-electrochemical water splitting
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226792 (URN)10.1002/aenm.201701114 (DOI)000429318400001 ()
Note

QC 20180521

Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Hua, Y., Liu, P., Li, Y., Sun, L. & Kloo, L. (2018). Composite Hole-Transport Materials Based on a Metal-Organic Copper Complex and Spiro-OMeTAD for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells. SOLAR RRL, 2(5), Article ID UNSP 1700073.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Hole-Transport Materials Based on a Metal-Organic Copper Complex and Spiro-OMeTAD for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
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2018 (English)In: SOLAR RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 2, no 5, article id UNSP 1700073Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spiro-OMeTAD has been the most commonly used hole-transport material in perovskite solar cells. However, this material shows intrinisic drawbacks, such as low hole mobility and conductivity in its pristine form, as well as self-aggregation when deposited as thin film. These are not beneficial properties for efficient hole transport and extraction. In order to address these issues, we have designed a new type of composite hole-transport materials based on a new metal-organic copper complex (CuH) and Spiro-OMeTAD. The incorporation of the molecularly bulky HTM CuH into the Spiro-OMeTAD material efficiently improves the hole mobility and suppresses the aggregation in the Spiro-OMeTAD film. As a result, the conversion efficiencies obtained for perovskite solar cells based on the composite HTM system reached as high as 18.83%, which is superior to solar cells based on the individual hole-transport materials CuH (15.75%) or Spiro-OMeTAD (14.47%) under the same working conditions. These results show that composite HTM systems may constitute an effective strategy to further improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2018
Keywords
Hole transport materials, mobility, perovskite solar cells, small molecules
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228439 (URN)10.1002/solr.201700073 (DOI)000432036200001 ()
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Du, J., Li, F., Wang, Y., Zhu, Y. & Sun, L. (2018). Cu3P/CuO Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation. Chemelectrochem, 5(15), 2064-2068
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cu3P/CuO Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation
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2018 (English)In: Chemelectrochem, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 5, no 15, p. 2064-2068Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Earth-abundant transition-metal-based oxides are potential candidates to replace the state-of-the-art noble-metal-based oxygen evolution catalysts (OECs) such as IrO2 and RuO2. Despite the low cost and large abundance, copper-based OER catalysts have been less frequently studied, mainly owing to the low electrical conductivity of copper oxides that results in large overpotential and sluggish kinetics for oxygen evolution. We report here the insitu fabrication of semi-metallic Cu3P nanorod arrays on commercial copper foam via a template approach; the resulting self-supported core-shell Cu-Cu3P/CuO electrode has the merits of high electrical conductivity, large active area, and short diffusion paths for electrolyte and evolved oxygen, exhibiting a low overpotential of 315mV and high durability over 50h at a current density of 10mAcm(-2) for OER in 1.0 M KOH. The remarkable OER performance reported here is not only superior to that of analogous Cu-CuO foam electrode, but also outperforms those of copper-based OER electrocatalysts in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
Electrocatalysts, oxygen evolution reaction, copper phosphide, core-shell nanorods
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235139 (URN)10.1002/celc.201800323 (DOI)000440546600003 ()
Note

QC 20180919

Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2018-09-19Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Y., Yang, X., Wang, W., Wang, X. & Sun, L. (2018). DDQ as an effective p-type dopant for the hole-transport material X1 and its application in stable solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics, 27(2), 413-418
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DDQ as an effective p-type dopant for the hole-transport material X1 and its application in stable solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Energy Challenges and Mechanics, ISSN 2095-4956, E-ISSN 2056-9386, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 413-418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

X1 (MeO-TPD) is an inexpensive and easily synthesized pi-conjugated molecule that has been used as a hole-transport material (HTM) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs), achieving relatively high efficiency. In this paper, we characterize the physicochemical properties of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and show that it is a promising p-dopant in a spin-coating solution with X1 as the HTM. The doped ssDSSCs showed an increase in short-circuit current density from 5.38 mA cm(-2) to 7.39 mA cm(-2), and their overall power conversion efficiency increased from 2.9% to 4.3%. Also, ssDSSCs with DDQ-doped X1 were more stable than the undoped samples, demonstrating that DDQ can act as a p-type dopant in X1 as an HTM for highly efficient, stable ssDSSCs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
p-Type dopant, X1, DDQ, ssDSSCs
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224007 (URN)10.1016/j.jechem.2017.12.003 (DOI)000425896100012 ()2-s2.0-85038409600 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180323

Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Wang, L., Zhang, J., Liu, P., Xu, B., Zhang, B., Chen, H., . . . Sun, L. (2018). Design and synthesis of dopant-free organic hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells. Chemical Communications, 54(69)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and synthesis of dopant-free organic hole-transport materials for perovskite solar cells
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2018 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two novel dopant-free hole-transport materials (HTMs) with spiro[dibenzo[c,h]xanthene-7,9-fluorene] (SDBXF) skeletons were prepared via facile synthesis routes. A power conversion efficiency of 15.9% in perovskite solar cells is attained by using one HTM without dopants, which is much higher than undoped Spiro-OMeTAD-based devices (10.8%). The crystal structures of both new HTMs were systematically investigated to reveal the reasons behind such differences in performance and to indicate the design principles of more advanced HTMs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2018
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-234569 (URN)10.1039/c8cc04026e (DOI)000442605100002 ()30043013 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052539543 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180917

Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Li, F., Yang, H., Li, W. & Sun, L. (2018). Device Fabrication for Water Oxidation, Hydrogen Generation, and CO2 Reduction via Molecular Engineering. JOULE, 2(1), 36-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device Fabrication for Water Oxidation, Hydrogen Generation, and CO2 Reduction via Molecular Engineering
2018 (English)In: JOULE, ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 36-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on the storage of solar energy in terms of hydrogen or carbon-based fuels by using sunlight to split water or to reduce CO2, respectively, has gained significant attention in recent years. Among reported water-splitting systems, one approach has focused on hybrid systems with molecular catalysts or molecular light-harvesting systems that are combined with nanostructured materials. In this perspective we summarize recent developments in operation and fabrication strategies for various water-splitting devices constructed from electrodes (electrochemical cells) or photoelectrodes (photoelectrochemical cells) using molecular engineering. We also provide insights into the factors that influence device efficiency and stability, and provide guidelines for future fabrication strategies for more advanced devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CELL PRESS, 2018
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224048 (URN)10.1016/j.joule.2017.10.012 (DOI)000425303800009 ()2-s2.0-85041694672 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180320

Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Hou, J., Sun, Y., Li, Z., Zhang, B., Cao, S., Wu, Y., . . . Sun, L. (2018). Electrical Behavior and Electron Transfer Modulation of Nickel-Copper Nanoalloys Confined in Nickel-Copper Nitrides Nanowires Array Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Framework as Robust Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting. Advanced Functional Materials, 28(37), Article ID 1803278.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical Behavior and Electron Transfer Modulation of Nickel-Copper Nanoalloys Confined in Nickel-Copper Nitrides Nanowires Array Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Framework as Robust Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 37, article id 1803278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Probing robust electrocatalysts for overall water splitting is vital in energy conversion. However, the catalytic efficiency of reported catalysts is still limited by few active sites, low conductivity, and/or discrete electron transport. Herein, bimetallic nickel-copper (NiCu) nanoalloys confined in mesoporous nickel-copper nitride (NiCuN) nanowires array encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) framework (NC-NiCu-NiCuN) is constructed by carbonization-/nitridation-induced in situ growth strategies. The in situ coupling of NiCu nanoalloys, NiCuN, and carbon layers through dual modulation of electrical behavior and electron transfer is not only beneficial to continuous electron transfer throughout the whole system, but also promotes the enhancement of electrical conductivity and the accessibility of active sites. Owing to strong synergetic coupling effect, such NC-NiCu-NiCuN electrocatalyst exhibits the best hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance with a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at low overpotentials of 93 mV for HER and 232 mV for OER, respectively. As expected, a two-electrode cell using NC-NiCu-NiCuN is constructed to deliver 10 mA cm(-2) water-splitting current at low cell voltage of 1.56 V with remarkable durability over 50 h. This work serves as a promising platform to explore the design and synthesis of robust bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
bifunctional electrocatalysts, electrical behavior, electron transfer, nickel-copper nanoalloys, nickel-copper nitrides, nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235439 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201803278 (DOI)000444072800021 ()2-s2.0-85050891654 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20180927

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
Leandri, V., Daniel, Q., Chen, H., Sun, L., Gardner, J. M. & Kloo, L. (2018). Electronic and Structural Effects of Inner Sphere Coordination of Chloride to a Homoleptic Copper(II) Diimine Complex. Inorganic Chemistry, 57(8), 4556-4562
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic and Structural Effects of Inner Sphere Coordination of Chloride to a Homoleptic Copper(II) Diimine Complex
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2018 (English)In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 4556-4562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reaction of CuCl2 with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) does not lead to the formation of [Cu(dmp)(2)](Cl)(2) but instead to [Cu(dmp)(2)Cl]Cl, a 5-coordinated complex, in which one chloride is directly coordinated to the metal center. Attempts at removing the coordinated chloride by changing the counterion by metathesis were unsuccessful and resulted only in the exchange of the noncoordinated chloride, as confirmed from a crystal structure analysis. Complex [Cu-(dmp)(2)Cl]PF6 exhibits a reversible cyclic voltammogram characterized by a significant peak splitting between the reductive and oxidative waves (0.85 and 0.60 V vs NHE, respectively), with a half-wave potential E-1/2 = 0.73 V vs NHE. When reduced electrochemically, the complex does not convert into [Cu(dmp)(2)](+), as one may expect. Instead, [Cu(dmp)(2)](+) is isolated as a product when the reduction of [Cu(dmp)(2)Cl]PF6 is performed with L-ascorbic acid, as confirmed by electrochemistry, NMR spectroscopy, and diffractometry. [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+) complexes can be synthesized starting from Cu(II) salts with weakly and noncoordinating counterions, such as perchlorate. Growth of [Cu(dmp)(2)](ClO4)(2) crystals in acetonitrile results in a 5-coordinated complex, [Cu(dmp)(2)(CH3CN)](ClO4)(2), in which a solvent molecule is coordinated to the metal center. However, solvent coordination is associated with a dynamic decoordination-coordination behavior upon reduction and oxidation. Hence, the cyclic voltammogram of [Cu(dmp)(2)(CH3CN)](2+) is identical to the one of [Cu(dmp)(2)](+), if the measurements are performed in acetonitrile. The current results show that halide ions in precursors to Cu(II) metal-organic coordination compound synthesis, and most likely also other multivalent coordination centers, are not readily exchanged when exposed to presumed strongly binding and chelating ligand, and thus special care needs to be taken with respect to product characterization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227776 (URN)10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00225 (DOI)000430437400040 ()29608296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045547975 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180514

Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
Wang, W., Yang, X., Li, J., Wang, H., An, J., Zhang, L., . . . Sun, L. (2018). Enhancing the Energy-Conversion Efficiency of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a Charge-Transfer Complex based on 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, 6(4), 752-758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing the Energy-Conversion Efficiency of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a Charge-Transfer Complex based on 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone
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2018 (English)In: ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 752-758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a champion hole-transporting material (HTM), 2,27,7-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) has been widely used in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). Owing to the low conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD, a chemical doping strategy is commonly used to enhance its hole-transporting properties. In this study, we report a strong electron acceptor, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as an additive for Spiro-OMeTAD along with its application in ssDSCs. We show that the conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD increases from 5.31 x 10(-5) to 2.22 x 10(-4) Scm upon the addition of 0.04% DDQ, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the ssDSCs also increases. By utilizing a donor-pi-acceptor sensitizer with a high coefficient and an HTM with an optimized doping ratio, we were able to achieve a high PCE of 6.37% for the ssDSCs under 10 0mWcm(-2) AM1.5G simulated illumination, in comparison to the PCE of the pristine device, which was only 3.50%. An increase in the application of benzoquinone-based materials for organic electronics is expected, especially for solar-cell applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
charge transfer, dye-sensitized solar cells, donor-acceptor systems, photovoltaics, sensitizers
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227234 (URN)10.1002/ente.201700633 (DOI)000430104000017 ()2-s2.0-85041754073 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180514

Available from: 2018-05-14 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4521-2870

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