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Reymert, S., Rönnquist, A., Oiseth, O. & Drugge, L. (2024). A characterisation of vehicle-driver response to lateral disturbances when passing through bridge tower wakes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 246, Article ID 105663.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A characterisation of vehicle-driver response to lateral disturbances when passing through bridge tower wakes
2024 (English)In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 246, article id 105663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some of the strongest wind -induced lateral perturbations of the vehicle -driver system on bridges are observed when passing the towers. Occupants may feel uncomfortable or unsafe as a result. The aims of this work are to characterise the wind velocity profile observed in the wakes of bridge towers and understand the mechanisms through which the vehicle -driver system responds. A test vehicle was repeatedly driven across 5 cable -supported bridges with towers, of which 4 have been studied. Observed changes in wind speed were between 7 and 20 m/s with reference wind speeds of 14 to 25 m/s. The spatial periods of the wind profiles varied between 1.0 and 3.5 vehicle lengths giving disturbances at frequencies of 0.7 to 3.2 Hz at 60 to 80 km/h. The results show that the driver overcompensates for the changes in aerodynamic loading at the towers and the handling response of the vehicle is dominated by steering input - rather than aerodynamic input - once the driver initiates steering compensation. It is also shown, in agreement with an existing conceptual model, that the amplitude of the driver's steering response is linearly related to the change in the vehicle's yaw rate immediately preceding the compensation attempt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Safety, Comfort, Field experiment, Steering, Handling
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-345150 (URN)10.1016/j.jweia.2024.105663 (DOI)001185262000001 ()2-s2.0-85184993878 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240408

Available from: 2024-04-08 Created: 2024-04-08 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Papaioannou, G., Haoran, Z., Jerrelind, J. & Drugge, L. (2024). Active and Semiactive Suspension Systems for Minimizing Tire Wear in Articulated Vehicles. Tire Science and Technology, 52(1), 15-33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active and Semiactive Suspension Systems for Minimizing Tire Wear in Articulated Vehicles
2024 (English)In: Tire Science and Technology, ISSN 0090-8657, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 15-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric and hybrid propulsion systems for articulated vehicles have been gaining increased attention, with the aim to decrease exhaust particle emissions. However, the more environmentally-friendly electric or hybrid articulated vehicles are expected to have increased nonexhaust pollution-related sources because of their significantly increased mass compared with conventional vehicles. One of the main sources of nonexhaust pollution is tire wear, which could potentially cancel the benefits of removing the exhaust through electrification. Tire wear is mainly affected by internal (tire structure and shape) and external (suspension configuration, speed, road surface, etc.) factors. This work focuses on suspension systems and, more specifically, on the ability of active and semiactive suspensions to decrease tire wear in an articulated vehicle. In this direction, an articulated vehicle model that incorporates the tread in its modeling is built to study tire wear during cornering over a class C road. A novel active suspension design based on the H approach is suggested in this work and is compared with passive, semiactive, and other active suspension systems. The suspension systems are also compared mainly with regard to tire wear levels but also with other vehicle performance aspects (i.e., comfort and road holding). The Hop active suspension design is the most effective in decreasing tire wear, with decreases of about 8% to 11%, but without neglecting the rest of the objectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Tire Society INC, 2024
Keywords
articulated vehicles, suspensions, active, semiactive, tires, wear
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346104 (URN)001197112000003 ()
Note

QC 20240503

Available from: 2024-05-03 Created: 2024-05-03 Last updated: 2024-05-03Bibliographically approved
Zhao, L., Nybacka, M., Rothhämel, M., Habibovic, A., Papaioannou, G. & Drugge, L. (2024). Driving Experience and Behavior Change in Remote Driving: An Explorative Experimental Study. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 9(2), 3754-3767
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving Experience and Behavior Change in Remote Driving: An Explorative Experimental Study
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2024 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, E-ISSN 2379-8904, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 3754-3767Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remote driving plays an essential role in coordinating automated vehicles in some challenging situations. Due to the changed driving environment, the experiences and behaviors of remote drivers would undergo some changes compared to conventional drivers. To study this, a continuous real-life and remote driving experiment is conducted under different driving conditions. In addition, the effect of steering force feedback (SFF) on the driving experience is also investigated. In order to achieve this, three types of SFF modes are compared. According to the results, no SFF significantly worsens the driving experience in both remote and real-life driving. Additionally, less force and returnability on steering wheel are needed in remote driving, and the steering force amplitude appears to influence the steering velocity of remote drivers. Furthermore, there is an increase in lane following deviation during remote driving. Remote drivers are also prone to driving at lower speeds and have a higher steering reversal rate. They also give larger steering angle inputs when crossing the cones in a slalom manoeuvre and cause the car to experience larger lateral acceleration. These findings provide indications on how to design SFF and how driving behavior and experience change in remote driving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024
Keywords
driving behavior, driving experience, driving performance, Remote driving, steering force feedback
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-348450 (URN)10.1109/TIV.2023.3344890 (DOI)001215322100017 ()2-s2.0-85181805259 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240702

Available from: 2024-06-25 Created: 2024-06-25 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Hyttinen, J., Ussner, M., Österlöf, R., Jerrelind, J. & Drugge, L. (2024). Estimating Tire Pressure Based on Different Tire Temperature Measurement Points. In: Automotive Technical Papers, WONLYAUTO 2024: . Paper presented at SAE Automotive Technical Papers, WONLYAUTO 2024, Warrendale, United States of America, Jan 1 2024. SAE International
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating Tire Pressure Based on Different Tire Temperature Measurement Points
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2024 (English)In: Automotive Technical Papers, WONLYAUTO 2024, SAE International , 2024Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowing the tire pressure during driving is essential since it affects multiple tire properties such as rolling resistance, uneven wear, and how prone the tire is to tire bursts. Tire temperature and cavity pressure are closely tied to each other; a change in tire temperature will cause an alteration in tire cavity pressure. This article gives insights into which tire temperature measurement position is representative enough to estimate pressure changes inside the tire, and whether the pressure changes can be assumed to be nearly isochoric. Climate wind tunnel and road measurements were conducted where tire pressure and temperature at the tire inner liner, the tire shoulder, and the tread surface were monitored. The measurements show that tires do not have a uniform temperature distribution. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the tire pressure from the measured temperatures. The results indicate that of the compared temperature points, the inner liner temperature is the most accurate for estimating tire pressure changes (average error 0.63%), and the pressure changes during driving are nearly isochoric. This conclusion can be drawn because the ratio between inner liner temperature and tire pressure is nearly constant, and the pressure can be simulated well using the isochoric gas law.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International, 2024
Series
SAE Technical Papers, ISSN 0148-7191
Keywords
Measurement, Tire pressure, Tire temperature, Truck tire
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344553 (URN)10.4271/2024-01-5002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187554329 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE Automotive Technical Papers, WONLYAUTO 2024, Warrendale, United States of America, Jan 1 2024
Note

QC 20240321

Available from: 2024-03-20 Created: 2024-03-20 Last updated: 2024-03-21Bibliographically approved
Papaioannou, G., Maroof, V., Jerrelind, J. & Drugge, L. (2024). Reducing Tyre Wear Emissions of Automated Articulated Vehicles through Trajectory Planning †. Sensors, 24(10), Article ID 3179.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing Tyre Wear Emissions of Automated Articulated Vehicles through Trajectory Planning †
2024 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 24, no 10, article id 3179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective emission control technologies and eco-friendly propulsion systems have been developed to decrease exhaust particle emissions. However, more work must be conducted on non-exhaust traffic-related sources such as tyre wear. The advent of automated vehicles (AVs) enables researchers and automotive manufacturers to consider ways to further decrease tyre wear, as vehicles will be controlled by the system rather than by the driver. In this direction, this work presents the formulation of an optimal control problem for the trajectory optimisation of automated articulated vehicles for tyre wear minimisation. The optimum velocity profile is sought for a predefined road path from a specific starting point to a final one to minimise tyre wear in fixed time cases. Specific boundaries and constraints are applied to the problem to ensure the vehicle’s stability and the feasibility of the solution. According to the results, a small increase in the journey time leads to a significant decrease in the mass loss due to tyre wear. The employment of articulated vehicles with low powertrain capabilities leads to greater tyre wear, while excessive increases in powertrain capabilities are not required. The conclusions pave the way for AV researchers and manufacturers to consider tyre wear in their control modules and come closer to the zero-emission goal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2024
Keywords
articulated vehicles, energy-efficiency, optimal control, trajectory planning, tyre wear
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-347295 (URN)10.3390/s24103179 (DOI)001231445500001 ()38794033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85194219026 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240612

Available from: 2024-06-10 Created: 2024-06-10 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Hyttinen, J., Rothhämel, M., Jerrelind, J. & Drugge, L. (2024). Simulation of transient rolling resistance of bicycle tyres at various ambient temperatures. PLOS ONE, 19(6), Article ID e0302821.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of transient rolling resistance of bicycle tyres at various ambient temperatures
2024 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 6, article id e0302821Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The range of an electrically assisted bicycle, which is constrained by the rider's cycling ability and the battery capacity, is heavily influenced by rolling resistance. Furthermore, the magnitude of rolling resistance affects commuters' motivation to decide whether to cycle or to choose another way to commute. This paper presents a way to simulate the transient rolling resistance of bicycle tyres as a function of ambient temperature. The significance of the change in driving resistance at different ambient temperatures is demonstrated through the range simulation of an electrically assisted bicycle at varying ambient temperatures. A representative driving cycle for bicycle commuters was created, enabling comparison of dynamic behaviour in a standardised set, to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on the battery capacity and the increase in driving resistances. To the authors' knowledge, this kind of model has not previously been created for bicycles. The model calculates tyre temperature based on the heat transfer, considering the heating-i. e., rolling resistance-and cooling effects-i. e., convective and radiative cooling. The decrease in tyre temperature results in an increase in rolling resistance and a decrease in the battery capacity, which was considered in the simulations. The results show significantly increased energy demand at a very low ambient temperature (down to -30 degrees C) compared to + 20 degrees C. The novelty of this article is simulating energy expenditure of bicycle dynamically as a function of ambient temperature. This model includes a temperature-dependent transient bicycle rolling resistance model as well as a battery capacity model. The findings provide researchers with a better comprehension of parameters affecting energy expenditure of bicycles at different ambient or tyre temperatures. The models can be used as a tool during the design process of bicycles to quantify the required battery capacities at different climates. In addition, traffic planners can use the model to assess the effect of changes in infrastructure on motivation to utilise bicycles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2024
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-350470 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0302821 (DOI)001259164900095 ()38935675 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85197170305 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240715

Available from: 2024-07-15 Created: 2024-07-15 Last updated: 2024-07-19Bibliographically approved
Tunay, T., Drugge, L. & O'Reilly, C. J. (2024). The Effects of Different Drivers’ Steering Inputs on the Response of Heavy Ground Vehicles to Crosswind Disturbances. Applied Sciences, 14(1), Article ID 270.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Different Drivers’ Steering Inputs on the Response of Heavy Ground Vehicles to Crosswind Disturbances
2024 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The general approach in the previous studies was to ignore the driver’s steering contribution to a vehicle while investigating the interactions between crosswind and vehicle. Therefore, the goal of this study is to find out how steering inputs by drivers affect a heavy-ground vehicle’s dynamic reaction to crosswinds. In the investigation, a two-way interaction between vehicle dynamics and aerodynamic simulations was employed. The steering inputs of drivers were modelled using a driver model taken from the previous literature that is able to reproduce the steering responses of a human driver. The study’s findings demonstrated that the steering inputs made by drivers significantly impacted how the vehicle responded to crosswinds. For instance, the greatest lateral displacement of the least skilled driver (Driver 1) was around 1.53 times the greatest lateral displacement of the most skilled driver (Driver 3) at the delay time of t_δ,delay = 0.5 s in the steering input. Additionally, the maximum lateral displacement results of Driver 1 and Driver 3 at t_δ,delay = 1.0 s became 1.39 and 1.56 times greater than their maximum lateral displacement results at tδ,delay = 0.5 s. Similarly, the total steering inputs of Driver 1 and Driver 3 at t_δ,delay = 1.0 s were 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than their total steering inputs at t_δ,delay = 0.5 s, respectively. In general, the results of a driver who is more skilled than Driver 1 (Driver 2) fall in between the respective results of Driver 1 and Driver 3. On the other hand, each driver’s total steering inputs at t_δ,delay = 0.5 s were roughly the same as their total steering inputs at t_δ,delay = 0 s. In all delay scenarios for the start of the driver’s steering inputs, the drivers’ steering inputs amplified the yaw moment applied to the vehicle. Meanwhile, they diminished the lateral force and roll moment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2024
Keywords
coupled simulation, crosswind, driver model, driver behaviour, heavy-ground vehicle
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-341970 (URN)10.3390/app14010270 (DOI)001138897200001 ()2-s2.0-85192496486 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240109

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-05-16Bibliographically approved
Hyttinen, J., Österlöf, R., Jerrelind, J. & Drugge, L. (2023). A semi-physical thermodynamic transient rolling resistance model with nonlinear viscoelasticity. Mechanics of time-dependant materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A semi-physical thermodynamic transient rolling resistance model with nonlinear viscoelasticity
2023 (English)In: Mechanics of time-dependant materials, ISSN 1385-2000, E-ISSN 1573-2738Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Rolling resistance dictates a large part of the energy consumption of trucks. Therefore, it is necessary to have a sound understanding of the parameters affecting rolling resistance. This article proposes a semi-physical thermodynamic tyre rolling resistance model, which captures the essential properties of rolling resistance, such as transient changes due to temperature effects and the strain-amplitude dependency of the viscous properties. In addition, the model includes cooling effects from the surroundings. Both tyre temperature and rolling resistance are obtained simultaneously in the simulation model for each time step. The nonlinear viscoelasticity in rubber is modelled using the Bergström–Boyce model, where the viscous creep function is scaled with temperature changes. The cooling of the tyre is considered with both convective and radiative cooling. Moreover, the article explains different material parameters and their physical meaning. Additionally, examples of how the model could be used in parameter studies are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Thermal model, Transient rolling resistance, Tyre cooling, Tyre temperature, Viscoelasticity
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-350289 (URN)10.1007/s11043-023-09650-8 (DOI)001114661300001 ()2-s2.0-85178903433 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240711

Available from: 2024-07-11 Created: 2024-07-11 Last updated: 2024-07-11Bibliographically approved
Hvitfeldt, H., Drugge, L. & Jerrelind, J. (2023). Driver gaze model for motion cueing yaw feedback optimisation. In: 28th Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks: . Paper presented at IAVSD2023, 28th Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, Aug 21-25, Ottawa, Canada (2023). .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver gaze model for motion cueing yaw feedback optimisation
2023 (English)In: 28th Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Driving simulators are increasingly important in vehicle development, benefiting from hardware and motion cueing algorithm (MCA) advancements. However, current state-of-the-art MCAs are optimising with regards to a vehicle fixed vestibular system, ignoring active and passive head movements during manoeuvres. Research shows that drivers actively move their heads to focus their gaze and passively stabilising it during involuntary trunk movements, resulting in significant differences between vehicle and head yaw angles. Humans isolate trunk and head movement in the range of 0.1-1.0 Hz, suggesting neck-driven gaze stabilisation. This behaviour is not accounted for in current MCAs, warranting an investigation. This study develops a driver gaze model to enhance motion cueing strategies and compares it to existing methods. Findings indicate significant discrepancies between vehicle and estimated head yaw rate in winter testing with high slip angles, and that omitting vestibular models and separating the slip angle in the yaw feedback improves the motion cueing with regards to induced head movements. Further, the results shows that there is a clear relationship between motion cueing, visual feedback, and induced driver head movement. In conclusion, driver gaze models can improve motion cueing strategies in driving simulators, and thus the study highlights the need for considering driver gaze behaviour and provides insights for tuning and optimising MCAs.

Keywords
Motion cueing, Driving simulator, Head gaze.
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346042 (URN)
Conference
IAVSD2023, 28th Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, Aug 21-25, Ottawa, Canada (2023). 
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-05195TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Note

QC 20240521

Available from: 2024-04-30 Created: 2024-04-30 Last updated: 2024-05-21Bibliographically approved
Zhao, L., Nybacka, M., Rothhämel, M. & Drugge, L. (2023). Influence of sound, vibration, and motion-cueing feedback on driving experience and behaviour in real-life teleoperation. In: : . Paper presented at The 28th IAVSD International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, August 21-25, 2023 Ottawa, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of sound, vibration, and motion-cueing feedback on driving experience and behaviour in real-life teleoperation
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Driving feedback is an important way of providing remotedrivers with physical world information during teleoperation. In thisstudy, a teleoperation experiment is conducted to explore how sound,vibration and motion-cueing feedback influence the drivers’ driving experience and behaviour. To this end, four types of driving feedback modesare used as variables to investigate this, including no feedback, motioncueing feedback, sound and vibration feedback, and a combination ofsound, vibration, and motion-cueing feedback. A prototype of teleoperation platform is first built, which includes a teleoperated vehicle anda driving station capable of generating sound, vibration, and motioncueing feedback. Then, the scenario with disturbances is built to investigate how the driving behaviour changes under various driving feedbackmodes. Both subjective and objective assessments are used in this study.For driving experience, the driving feeling, such as presence feeling, roadsurface feeling, etc, are explored. For driving behaviour, the throttle reversal rate is investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between throttle reversal rate and driving experience is studied. The results show thatthe combined feedback mode could provide drivers with the highest rateddriving experience; the motion-cueing feedback could provide better roadsurface feeling while the sound and vibration feedback could provide better speed feeling. The throttle reversal rate with motion-cueing feedbackis higher than without it, which may be caused by the increased roadsurface feeling provided by motion cues.

Keywords
Teleoperation, driving feedback, driving experience, driving behaviour, motion-cueing feedback, sound and vibration feedback, subjective assessment, objective assessment
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-335396 (URN)
Conference
The 28th IAVSD International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, August 21-25, 2023 Ottawa, Canada
Funder
Vinnova, 202201647
Note

QC 20230908

Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8928-0368

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