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Chutichai, B., Im-Orb, K., Alvfors, P. & Arpornwichanop, A. (2017). Design of an integrated biomass gasification and proton exchange membrane fuel cell system under self-sustainable conditions: Process modification and heat-exchanger network synthesis. International journal of hydrogen energy, 42(1), 448-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of an integrated biomass gasification and proton exchange membrane fuel cell system under self-sustainable conditions: Process modification and heat-exchanger network synthesis
2017 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 448-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design and analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system to generate heat and power demand for residential applications are presented in this study. Two biomass gasification configurations using sawdust as a feedstock are considered: air steam biomass gasification (AS-BG-PEMFC) and steam-only biomass gasification (SO-BG-PEMFC). The biomass processing consists of a biomass gasification which is used to produce H-2-rich gas (syngas), followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors and a preferential oxidation reactor. Pinch analysis is performed to evaluate and design a heat-exchanger network in the two biomass gasification systems. The remaining useful heat is recovered and employed for a reactant preparation step and for a heating utility system in a household. The simulation results indicate that the SO-BG-PEMFC generates syngas with a greater H2 content than the AS-BG-PEMFC, resulting in higher fuel processor and electric efficiencies. However, the AS-BG-PEMFC provides a higher thermal efficiency because a high temperature gaseous product is obtained, and more energy is thereby recovered to the system. The total heat and power efficiencies of the AS-BG-PEMFC and the SO-BG-PEMFC are 83% and 70%, respectively. The Sankey diagram of energy flows reveals that the performance improvement depends entirely on the utilization of useful energy in the exhaust gas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Biomass gasification, PEMFC, Heat exchanger network design, Energy efficiency
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203838 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.027 (DOI)000394634900041 ()2-s2.0-85009412369 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170320

Available from: 2017-03-20 Created: 2017-03-20 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Sevencan, S., Lindbergh, G., Lagergren, C. & Alvfors, P. (2016). Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre. Energy and Buildings, 111, 218-223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic feasibility study of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system for a data centre
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 111, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy use of data centres is increasing as the data storage needs increase. One of the largest items in the energy use of these facilities is cooling. A fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system can efficiently meet such a centre's need for cooling and in the meantime generate enough electricity for the centre and more. In this paper the economic feasibility of a fuel cell-based combined cooling, heating and power system that meets the energy demands of such a facility is investigated using operational data from an existing data centre in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that although the system is not feasible with current energy prices and technology it may be feasible in the future with the projected changes in energy prices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Fuel cell, Combined cooling heating and power, Data centre, Feasibility
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179131 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.11.012 (DOI)000369191100020 ()2-s2.0-84949493559 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160111. QC 20160304

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2016). Upgraded biogas for transport in Sweden: effects of policy instruments on production, infrastructure deployment and vehicle sales. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 3774-3784
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upgraded biogas for transport in Sweden: effects of policy instruments on production, infrastructure deployment and vehicle sales
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, p. 3774-3784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden is a leading country in the development of upgraded biogas for use in the transport sector. The introduction of a new vehicle fuel is complex when the production, infrastructure, and vehicle fleet must be developed simultaneously. The aim of this article is to present and analyse the development of upgraded biogas in the Swedish transport sector in relation to policy instruments and the availability of a natural gas grid. Plausible implications for the future development of the biogas system are also analysed.

The development of upgraded biogas in Sweden's transport sector is heavily influenced in several ways by domestic policy instruments. Investment support schemes and exemptions from energy and carbon dioxide taxes have been key instruments in initiating the construction of new biogas production facilities and infrastructure. The study of the biogas development in relation to the natural gas grid presented in this article indicates that it may not be necessary to construct a comprehensive network of pipelines for methane (natural gas) to develop the market – at least not initially. In Sweden and elsewhere the biogas volumes will still be quite small in the near future and it is possible to achieve biogas development without an available methane gas grid.

Public procurement, investment schemes and reduced fringe benefit tax have likely been important policy instruments in the introduction of biogas vehicles, whereas the support for private biogas cars has been short-sighted in some ways, and not sufficient to achieve a competitive cost of ownership for biogas cars in relation to diesel cars.

The future strategy for biogas should be based on a realistic potential for using biogas in the transport sector; this would determine whether further market expansion is necessary or if incentives should be focused on development of the production side to cover the current demand for vehicle gas.

The development of biogas production likely depends on continued tax exemptions, which are currently available only until the end of 2015; it is uncertain whether they will remain in place. If biogas should be promoted further among private car owners, more visible incentives for private cars are needed together with incentives for expanding the fuelling infrastructure network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Biomethane, Biogas, Transport, Alternatively fuelled vehicle, Policy instrument, Natural gas grid
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173837 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.056 (DOI)000368207500017 ()2-s2.0-84959508922 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Energy Systems Programme
Note

QC 201509

Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Wikström, M., Hansson, L. & Alvfors, P. (2015). An end has a start – investigating the usage of electric vehicles in commercial fleets. Paper presented at The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015). Energy Procedia, 75, 1932-1937
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An end has a start – investigating the usage of electric vehicles in commercial fleets
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1932-1937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The road transport system is moving, slowly but surely, away from using fossil fuels. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vehicles. Commercial vehicle fleets are an attractive entry for PEVa into the transport system. This paper presents findings from a three-year study of 550 PEVs and their users. A combination of technical and social science methods provides a basis for greater understanding of PEV operations in commercial vehicle fleets. This paper shows that battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have proven their functionality in several applications, but that winter conditions still imply an unjustified decrease in use. Usage varies according to application but results show that in general a substantial share of the battery capacity is redundant. Findings indicate that usage is not necessarily inhibited by the technical specifications of the battery but by the operational conditions in which commercial duties are performed. The only reliable alternative is to return with a large battery surplus. The vehicles studied have demonstrated their functionality and the users are positive. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) imply no restrictions in mobility, which results in high user satisfaction. Commercial vehicle fleets are suitable for PEV operations and with growing acceptance users have requested more PEVs hence a significant possibility exists to substitute a large share of the fossil-fuelled vehicles operating in commercial vehicle fleets. 

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173646 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.223 (DOI)000361030003029 ()2-s2.0-84947125512 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2015)
Note

QC 20150916

Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Guan, T. & Alvfors, P. (2015). An overview of biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: . Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES (pp. 2003-2008). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An overview of biomass-fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems
2015 (English)In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, p. 2003-2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

PEMFC fuelled by biomass-derived hydrogen is an efficient and sustainable energy system for small-scale residential applications. Gasification and anaerobic digestion combined with steam reforming are seen as the most suitable conversion processes for hydrogen production. Since the biomass-derived hydrogen contains many kinds of contaminants including CO, CO2, H2S, NH3 and N-2, extensive work has been done on the mechanism and mitigation methods for their poisoning the PEMFC. Although the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems have been tested in several experiments and checked through simulation work for different perspectives, further research and demonstration work are required to improve the system efficiency and reliability. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 75
Keywords
Biomass, PEMFC, Anearobic digestion, Steam reforming, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174952 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.257 (DOI)000361030003040 ()2-s2.0-84947093360 (Scopus ID)
Conference
7th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE), MAR 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, U ARAB EMIRATES
Note

QC 20151027

Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-09 Last updated: 2015-11-09Bibliographically approved
Guan, T., Chutichai, B., Alvfors, P. & Arpornwichanop, A. (2015). Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion pathsrelevant for different raw materials. Energy Conversion and Management, 106, 1183-1191
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems: Evaluation of two conversion pathsrelevant for different raw materials
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 106, p. 1183-1191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biomass-fuelled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer a solution for replacing fossilfuel with hydrogen production. This paper uses simulation methods for investigating biomass-fuelledPEMFCs for different raw materials and conversion paths. For liquid and solid biomass, anaerobic diges-tion (AD) and gasification (GF), respectively, are relatively viable and developed conversion technologies.Therefore, the AD-PEMFC system and the GF-PEMFC system are simulated for residential applications inorder to evaluate the performance of the biomass-fuelled PEMFC systems. The results of the evaluationshow that renewable hydrogen-rich gas from manure or forest residues is usable for the PEMFCs andmakes the fuel cell stack work in a stable manner. For 100 kWe generation, the GF-PEMFC system yieldsan excellent technical performance with a 20% electric efficiency and 57% thermal efficiency, whereas theAD-PEMFC system only has an 9% electric efficiency and 13% thermal efficiency due to the low efficiencyof the anaerobic digester (AD) and the high internal heat consumption of the AD and the steam reformer(SR). Additionally, in this study, the environmental performances of the AD-PEMFC and the GF-PEMFC interms of CO2emission offset and land-use efficiency are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon-Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Chemical Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-176631 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.055 (DOI)000366063500107 ()2-s2.0-84945940810 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151112

Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Mosheni, F., Wallmark, C., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system. Paper presented at The 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014; Gwangju Metropolitan City, Korea, 15 – 20 June 2014. International journal of hydrogen energy, 40(35), 11722-11729
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system
Show others...
2015 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 40, no 35, p. 11722-11729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus on pathways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector is intense in many countries worldwide. Considering that biofuels have a limited technical production potential and that battery electric vehicles suffer from technical limitations that put constraints on their general use in the transport sector, hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell vehicles may become a feasible alternative. Introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector will also transform the energy sector and create new interactions. The aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences and feasibility of such an integration in Sweden. Different pathways for hydrogen, electricity and methane to the transport sector are compared with regard to system energy efficiency. The well-to-wheel energy efficiencies for hydrogen and electricity are used for estimating the energy resources needed for hydrogen production and electric vehicles for a future Swedish transport sector based on renewable fuels. The analysis reveal that the well-to-wheel system efficiencies for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are comparable to those of methane gas vehicles, even when biomethane is the energy source. The results further indicate that an increased hydrogen demand may have a less than expected impact on the primary energy supply in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Engineering and Technology Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158131 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.04.160 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940446636 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2014; Gwangju Metropolitan City, Korea, 15 – 20 June 2014
Funder
Energy Systems Programme
Note

QC 20150128

Available from: 2014-12-28 Created: 2014-12-28 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015, March 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.. Energy Procedia, 75, 1875-1880
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthetic fuels from electricity for the Swedish transport sector: comparison of well to wheel energy efficiencies and costs
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1875-1880Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synthetic fuels based on electricity, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) may be necessary to cover the fuel demand in a sustainable transport sector based on renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to compare hydrogen, methane, methanol and diesel produced in this way. The main parameters for the analysis are well to wheel energy efficiency and costs, and the fuels are analysed in a Swedish context. The results indicate that methane and diesel could have the potential to be cost competitive in the near term, at least if common incentivesfor renewable transportation fuels are applied. Moreover, that hydrogen is the best option in terms of well to wheel energy efficiency, and that it in the longer term also may be cost competitive to the other fuels.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158138 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.169 (DOI)2-s2.0-84947076435 (Scopus ID)
Conference
the 7th International Conference on Applied Energy - ICAE2015, March 28-31, 2015, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Note

QC 20150127

Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Jansson, M., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2015). Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 104, 460-467
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion in a typical Kraft pulp mill to produce biomethane for the road transport sector
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 460-467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable waste-based fuels may decrease the resource use and environmental impact of the road transport sector; one of the options is biogas produced via anaerobic digestion of waste streams from pulp and paper mills. This paper describes process simulation and economic assessments for two options for integrating anaerobic digestion and production of liquid biogas in a typical Nordic Kraft pulp mill: (1) a high-rate anaerobic reactor in the wastewater treatment, and (2) an external anaerobic stirred tank reactor for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge as well as Kraft evaporator methanol condensate. The results revealed an annual production potential of 26-27 GWh biogas in an average Nordic Kraft pulp mill, which is equivalent to a daily production of 7600 L of diesel in terms of energy, and the production cost was estimated to (sic)0.47-0.82 per litre diesel equivalent, comparable with the Swedish price of (sic)0.68 per litre diesel.

However, for the cases with liquid biogas (LBG), a discounted payback period of about 8 years may not be considered profitable by the industry. Other pre-requisites may, however, improve the profitability: a larger mill; production of compressed biogas instead of liquid biogas; or, for case 1, a comparison with the alternative cost for expanding the wastewater treatment capacity with more process equipment for activated sludge treatment. The results reveal that anaerobic digestion at pulp mills may both expand the production of renewable vehicle fuel but also enable increased efficiency and revenue at Kraft pulp mills.

Keywords
Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Biomethane, Kraft pulp, Pulp and paper
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158133 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.054 (DOI)000357552900045 ()2-s2.0-84931563943 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20150817

Available from: 2014-12-29 Created: 2014-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Mohseni, F., Wallmark, C., Grönkvist, S. & Alvfors, P. (2014). Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system. In: 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014: . Paper presented at 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014, 15 June 2014 through 20 June 2014 (pp. 2084-2091).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy system analysis of the implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the Swedish road transport system
Show others...
2014 (English)In: 20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014, 2014, p. 2084-2091Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The focus on pathways to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector is intense in many countries worldwide. Considering that biofuels have a limited technical production potential and that battery electric vehicles suffer from technical limitations that put constraints on their general use in the transport sector, hydrogen-fuelled fuel cell vehicles may become a feasible alternative. Introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector will also transform the energy sector and create new interactions. The aim of this paper is to analyse the consequences and feasibility of such an integration in Sweden. Different pathways for hydrogen, electricity and methane to the transport sector are compared with regard to system energy efficiency. The efficiencies for hydrogen and electricity are used for estimating the energy resources needed for hydrogen production and electric vehicles for a future Swedish transport sector based on renewable fuels. The analysis reveal that the well to wheel system efficiencies for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are comparable to those of methane gas vehicles, even when methane gas is the primary energy source. The results further indicate that an increased hydrogen demand may have a less than expected impact on the primary energy supply in Sweden.

Keywords
Energy system, Fuel cell electric vehicles, Hydrogen, Transport, Well to wheel efficiency, Airships, Electric vehicles, Energy resources, Fuel cells, Gas fuel analysis, Hydrogen fuels, Hydrogen production, Methane, Vehicle wheels, Vehicles, Wheels, Battery electric vehicles, Energy system analysis, Energy systems, Fuel cell electric vehicle, Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Road transport systems, Well-to-wheel, Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-167958 (URN)2-s2.0-84924854764 (Scopus ID)9780000000002 (ISBN)
Conference
20th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, WHEC 2014, 15 June 2014 through 20 June 2014
Note

QC 20150604

Available from: 2015-06-04 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2015-06-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0635-7372

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