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Omanakuttan, G., Martinez Sacristan, O., Marcinkevičius, S., Uzdavinys, T. K., Jimenez, J., Ali, H., . . . Sun, Y.-T. (2019). Optical and interface properties of direct InP/Si heterojunction formed by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Optical Materials Express, 9(3), 1488-1500
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical and interface properties of direct InP/Si heterojunction formed by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
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2019 (English)In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1488-1500Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We fabricate and study direct InP/Si heterojunction by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG). The crystalline quality and depth-dependent charge carrier dynamics of InP/Si heterojunction are assessed by characterizing the cross-section of grown layer by low-temperature cathodoluminescence, time-resolved photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. Compared to the defective seed InP layer on Si, higher intensity band edge emission in cathodoluminescence spectra and enhanced carrier lifetime of InP are observed above the CELOG InP/Si interface despite large lattice mismatch, which are attributed to the reduced threading dislocation density realized by the CELOG method. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247834 (URN)10.1364/OME.9.001488 (DOI)000460134500051 ()
Note

QC 20190326

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Omanakuttan, G., Stergiakis, S., Sahgal, A., Sychugov, I., Lourdudoss, S. & Sun, Y.-T. (2017). Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP toward direct GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction. Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, 214(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP toward direct GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction
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2017 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth of GaInP by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) was studied on planar GaAs, patterned GaAs for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG), and InP/Si seed templates for corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG). First results on the growth of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction by CELOG is presented. The properties of GaxIn(1-x)P layer and their dependence on the process parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction, including reciprocal lattice mapping (XRD-RLM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. The fluctuation of Ga composition in the GaxIn(1-x)P layer was observed on planar substrate, and the strain caused by the composition variation is retained until relaxation occurs. Fully relaxed GaInP layers were obtained by ELOG and CELOG. Raman spectroscopy reveals that there is a certain amount of ordering in all of the layers except those grown at high temperatures. Orientation dependent Ga incorporation in the CELOG, but not in the ELOG GaxIn(1-x)P layer, and Si incorporation in the vicinity of direct GaxIn(1-x)P/Si heterojunction from CELOG are observed in the SEM-EDS analyses. The high optical quality of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction was observed by cross-sectional micro-PL mapping and the defect reduction effect of CELOG was revealed by high PL intensity in GaInP above Si.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017
Keywords
III-V semiconductors, epitaxial lateral overgrowth, GaInP, heterojunctions, silicon
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205518 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201600631 (DOI)000397577000029 ()2-s2.0-85013663617 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170509

Available from: 2017-05-09 Created: 2017-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Lourdudoss, S., Junesand, C., Kataria, H., Metaferia, W., Omanakuttan, G., Sun, Y.-T., . . . Olsson, F. (2017). Trends in heteroepitaxy of III-Vs on silicon for photonic and photovoltaic applications. In: Eldada, LA Lee, EH He, S (Ed.), SMART PHOTONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XIX: . Paper presented at Conference on Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XIX, JAN 31-FEB 02, 2017, San Francisco, CA. , Article ID UNSP 1010705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends in heteroepitaxy of III-Vs on silicon for photonic and photovoltaic applications
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2017 (English)In: SMART PHOTONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XIX / [ed] Eldada, LA Lee, EH He, S, 2017, article id UNSP 1010705Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present and compare the existing methods of heteroepitaxy of III-Vs on silicon and their trends. We focus on the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) method as a means of achieving good quality III-Vs on silicon. Initially conducted primarily by near-equilibrium epitaxial methods such as liquid phase epitaxy and hydride vapour phase epitaxy, nowadays ELOG is being carried out even by non-equilibrium methods such as metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. In the ELOG method, the intermediate defective seed and the mask layers still exist between the laterally grown purer III-V layer and silicon. In a modified ELOG method called corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method, it is possible to obtain direct interface between the III-V layer and silicon. In this presentation we exemplify some recent results obtained by these techniques. We assess the potentials of these methods along with the other existing methods for realizing truly monolithic photonic integration on silicon and III-V/Si heterojunction solar cells.

Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 10107
Keywords
Monolithic integration of III-Vs on Si, Photonic integration, Mulitjunction solar cells on silicon, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, ELOG, Corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth, CELOG, III-V on Si, Heterogeneous integration, Silicon photonics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211635 (URN)10.1117/12.2255607 (DOI)000405600400002 ()2-s2.0-85019589393 (Scopus ID)978-1-5106-0655-5 (ISBN)978-1-5106-0656-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XIX, JAN 31-FEB 02, 2017, San Francisco, CA
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyVINNOVA
Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
Omanakuttan, G., Stergiakis, S., Sahgal, A., Sychugov, I., Lourdudoss, S. & Sun, Y.-T. (2016). Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP towards coherent GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. In: 2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016 - Includes 28th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM and 43rd International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, ISCS 2016: . Paper presented at 2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016, 26 June 2016 through 30 June 2016. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP towards coherent GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction by hydride vapor phase epitaxy
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2016 (English)In: 2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016 - Includes 28th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM and 43rd International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, ISCS 2016, IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of GaInP on GaAs by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is carried out as a pre-study to obtain GaInP/Si heterointerface. We present first results on the growth of GaInP/Si by a modified ELOG technique, corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keywords
corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth, epitaxial lateral overgrowth, III-V/Si heterojunction solar cells, Heterojunctions, Hydrides, Semiconducting indium, Vapor phase epitaxy, Hetero interfaces, Heterojunction solar cells, Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, Epitaxial growth
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-202175 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2016.7528828 (DOI)2-s2.0-84992035477 (Scopus ID)9781509019649 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016, 26 June 2016 through 30 June 2016
Note

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
Sun, Y., Omanakuttan, G. & Lourdudoss, S. (2015). An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Applied Physics Letters, 106(21), Article ID 213504.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
2015 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 21, article id 213504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP: Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reduction effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm(2) at a reverse voltage of -1V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm(2), an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon.

Keywords
Defect density, Defects, Efficiency, Epitaxial growth, Heterojunctions, Interfaces (materials), Lattice mismatch, Open circuit voltage, Photodiodes, Photovoltaic effects, Quantum efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy, Semiconductor quantum wells, Silicon, Solar cells, Current-voltage measurements, Diode characteristics, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, External quantum efficiency, Heterojunction photodiodes, High-efficiency solar cells, Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, Internal quantum efficiency
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169968 (URN)10.1063/1.4921992 (DOI)000355631400048 ()2-s2.0-84930941383 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyVINNOVA
Note

QC 20150625

Available from: 2015-06-25 Created: 2015-06-25 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Zheng, Q., Kim, H., Zhang, R., Sardela, M., Zuo, J., Manavaimaran, B., . . . Braun, P. V. (2015). Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Journal of Applied Physics, 118(22), Article ID 224303.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 22, article id 224303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
Keywords
X-RAY-DIFFRACTION, LIGHT-EMITTING-DIODES, OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES, BANDGAP CRYSTALS, SOLAR-CELLS, WAVE-GUIDES, GAINP, HETEROSTRUCTURES, RANGE, GAAS
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180605 (URN)10.1063/1.4937273 (DOI)000367193100015 ()2-s2.0-84950115310 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160121

Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Sun, Y., Junesand, C., Metaferia, W., Kataria, H., Julian, N., Bowers, J., . . . Lourdudoss, S. (2015). Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped ELOG InP on Si. Journal of Applied Physics, 117(21), Article ID 215303.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped ELOG InP on Si
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, no 21, article id 215303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) InP grown from nano-sized openings on Si are studied by room-temperature cathodoluminescence and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The dependence of luminescence intensity on opening orientation and dimension is reported. Impurity enhanced luminescence can be affected by the facet planes bounding the ELOG layer. Dark line defects formed along the [011] direction are identified as the facet planes intersected by the stacking faults in the ELOG layer. XTEM imaging in different diffraction conditions reveals that stacking faults in the seed InP layer can circumvent the SiO<inf>2</inf> mask during ELOG and extend to the laterally grown layer over the mask. A model for Suzuki effect enhanced stacking fault propagation over the mask in sulfur-doped ELOG InP is constructed and in-situ thermal annealing process is proposed to eliminate the seeding stacking faults.

Keywords
Luminescence, Structural properties, Sulfur, Transmission electron microscopy, Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, Diffraction conditions, Enhanced luminescence, Epitaxial lateral overgrowth, Fault propagation, Luminescence intensity, Room temperature, Situ thermal annealing
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170308 (URN)10.1063/1.4921868 (DOI)000355925600063 ()2-s2.0-84930394456 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

QC 20150629

Available from: 2015-06-29 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Metaferia, W., Kataria, H., Sun, Y.-T. & Lourdudoss, S. (2015). Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 48(4), 045102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 045102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an attempt to achieve an InP-Si heterointerface, a new and generic method, the corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) technique in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor, was studied. An InP seed layer on Si (0 0 1) was patterned into closely spaced etched mesa stripes, revealing the Si surface in between them. The surface with the mesa stripes resembles a corrugated surface. The top and sidewalls of the mesa stripes were then covered by a SiO2 mask after which the line openings on top of the mesa stripes were patterned. Growth of InP was performed on this corrugated surface. It is shown that growth of InP emerges selectively from the openings and not on the exposed silicon surface, but gradually spreads laterally to create a direct interface with the silicon, hence the name CELOG. We study the growth behavior using growth parameters. The lateral growth is bounded by high index boundary planes of {3 3 1} and {2 1 1}. The atomic arrangement of these planes, crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation and gas phase supersaturation are shown to affect the extent of lateral growth. A lateral to vertical growth rate ratio as large as 3.6 is achieved. X-ray diffraction studies confirm substantial crystalline quality improvement of the CELOG InP compared to the InP seed layer. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a direct InP-Si heterointerface by CELOG without threading dislocations. While CELOG is shown to avoid dislocations that could arise due to the large lattice mismatch (8%) between InP and Si, staking faults could be seen in the layer. These are probably created by the surface roughness of the Si surface or SiO2 mask which in turn would have been a consequence of the initial process treatments. The direct InP-Si heterointerface can find applications in high efficiency and cost-effective Si based III-V semiconductor multijunction solar cells and optoelectronics integration.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-145363 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/48/4/045102 (DOI)000348300900003 ()2-s2.0-84921046568 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyVINNOVA
Note

Updated from "Pre-print" to "Article in journal". QC 20150227

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Metaferia, W., Sun, Y.-T., Dagur, P., Junesand, C. & Lourdudoss, S. (2014). Alternative Approaches in Growth of Polycrystalline InP on Si. In: 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM): . Paper presented at 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2014, Montpellier, France, 11 May 2014 through 15 May 2014 (pp. 6880571). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Approaches in Growth of Polycrystalline InP on Si
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2014 (English)In: 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2014, p. 6880571-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

III-V semiconductors are suitable for high efficiency and radiation resistant solar cells. However, the high cost of these materials limited the application of these solar cells only for specialty application. High quality polycrystalline III-V thin films on low cost substrate are the viable solutions for the problem. In this work we demonstrate two new approaches to grow polycrystalline InP on Si(001) substrate. (i) A simple chemical solution route which makes use of deposition of In2O3 on Si and its subsequent phosphidisation and (ii) In assisted growth that involves deposition of In metal on Si and subsequent growth of InP from its precursors in hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Both techniques are generic and can be applied to other semiconductors on low cost and flexible substrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Series
Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, ISSN 1092-8669
Keywords
Deposition, Indium, Indium phosphide, Solar cells, Substrates, Chemical solution route, Flexible substrate, Hydride vapor phase epitaxy, II-IV semiconductors, Polycrystalline, Radiation resistant, Si (001) substrate, Viable solutions
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-158463 (URN)10.1109/ICIPRM.2014.6880571 (DOI)000346124000058 ()2-s2.0-84906766054 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-5729-3 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2014, Montpellier, France, 11 May 2014 through 15 May 2014
Note

QC 20150108

Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved
Junesand, C., Gau, M.-H., Sun, Y., Lourdudoss, S., Lo, I., Jimenez, J., . . . Pirouz, P. (2014). Defect reduction in heteroepitaxial InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Materials Express, 4(1), 41-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defect reduction in heteroepitaxial InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth
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2014 (English)In: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP has been grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on Si substrates with a thin seed layer of InP masked with SiO2. Openings in the form of multiple parallel lines as well as mesh patterns from which growth occurred were etched in the SiO2 mask and the effect of different growth conditions in terms of V/III ratio and growth temperature on defects such as threading dislocations and stacking faults in the grown layers was investigated. The samples were characterized by cathodoluminescence and by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the cause for threading dislocations present in the overgrown layers is the formation of new dislocations, attributed to coalescence of merging growth fronts, possibly accompanied by the propagation of pre-existing dislocations through the mask openings. Stacking faults were also pre-existing in the seed layer and propagated to some extent, but the most important reason for stacking faults in the overgrown layers was concluded to be formation of new faults early during growth. The formation mechanism could not be unambiguously determined, but of several mechanisms considered, incorrect deposition due to distorted bonds along overgrowth island edges was found to be in best agreement with observations.

Keywords
Heteroepitaxy, InP on Si, Defect Characterization, Optical Properties, Lateral Overgrowth
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-127847 (URN)10.1166/mex.2014.1140 (DOI)000329798000005 ()2-s2.0-84892704735 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research CouncilVinnova
Note

QC 20140212. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2014-03-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8545-6546

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