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Iob, N. A., He, L., Ternström, S., Cai, H. & Brockmann-Bauser, M. (2024). Effects of Speech Characteristics on Electroglottographic and Instrumental Acoustic Voice Analysis Metrics in Women With Structural Dysphonia Before and After Treatment. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Speech Characteristics on Electroglottographic and Instrumental Acoustic Voice Analysis Metrics in Women With Structural Dysphonia Before and After Treatment
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Literature suggests a dependency of the acoustic metrics, smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS) and harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), on human voice loudness and fundamental frequency (fo). Even though this has been explained with different oscillatory patterns of the vocal folds, so far, it has not been specifically investigated. In the present work, the influence of three elicitation levels, calibrated sound pressure level (SPL), fo and vowel on the electroglottographic (EGG) and time-differentiated EGG (dEGG) metrics hybrid open quotient (OQ), dEGG OQ and peak dEGG, as well as on the acous-tic metrics CPPS and HNR, was examined, and their suitability for voice assess-ment was evaluated. Method: In a retrospective study, 29 women with a mean age of 25 years (± 8.9, range: 18–53) diagnosed with structural vocal fold pathologies were examined before and after voice therapy or phonosurgery. Both acoustic and EGG signals were recorded simultaneously during the phonation of the sustained vowels /ɑ/, /i/, and /u/ at three elicited levels of loudness (soft/comfortable/loud) and unconstrained fo conditions. Results: A linear mixed-model analysis showed a significant effect of elicitation effort levels on peak dEGG, HNR, and CPPS (all p < .01). Calibrated SPL significantly influenced HNR and CPPS (both p < .01). Furthermore, F0had asignificant effect on peak dEGG and CPPS (p < .0001). All metrics showed significant changes with regard to vowel (all p < .05). However, the treatment had no effect on the examined metrics, regardless of the treatment type (surgery vs. voice therapy). Conclusions: The value of the investigated metrics for voice assessment purposes when sampled without sufficient control of SPL and fo is limited, in that they are significantly influenced by the phonatory context, be it speech or elicited sustained vowels. Future studies should explore the diagnostic value of new data collation approaches such as voice mapping, which take SPL and fo effects into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Speech Language Hearing Association, 2024
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346605 (URN)10.1044/2024_JSLHR-23-00253 (DOI)
Note

QC 20240521

Available from: 2024-05-20 Created: 2024-05-20 Last updated: 2024-05-21Bibliographically approved
Cai, H., Ternström, S., Chaffanjon, P. & Henrich Bernardoni, N. (2024). Effects on Voice Quality of Thyroidectomy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Using Voice Maps. Journal of Voice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on Voice Quality of Thyroidectomy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Using Voice Maps
2024 (English)In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This study aims to explore the effects of thyroidectomy—a surgical intervention involving the removal of the thyroid gland—on voice quality, as represented by acoustic and electroglottographic measures. Given the thyroid gland's proximity to the inferior and superior laryngeal nerves, thyroidectomy carries a potential risk of affecting vocal function. While earlier studies have documented effects on the voice range, few studies have looked at voice quality after thyroidectomy. Since voice quality effects could manifest in many ways, that a priori are unknown, we wish to apply an exploratory approach that collects many data points from several metrics.

Methods: A voice-mapping analysis paradigm was applied retrospectively on a corpus of spoken and sung sentences produced by patients who had thyroid surgery. Voice quality changes were assessed objectively for 57 patients prior to surgery and 2 months after surgery, by making comparative voice maps, pre- and post-intervention, of six acoustic and electroglottographic (EGG) metrics.

Results: After thyroidectomy, statistically significant changes consistent with a worsening of voice quality were observed in most metrics. For all individual metrics, however, the effect sizes were too small to be clinically relevant. Statistical clustering of the metrics helped to clarify the nature of these changes. While partial thyroidectomy demonstrated greater uniformity than did total thyroidectomy, the type of perioperative damage had no discernible impact on voice quality.ConclusionsChanges in voice quality after thyroidectomy were related mostly to increased phonatory instability in both the acoustic and EGG metrics. Clustered voice metrics exhibited a higher correlation to voice complaints than did individual voice metrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
thyroidectomy, voice quality, electroglottography, voice classification, voice mapping
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346224 (URN)10.1016/j.jvoice.2024.03.012 (DOI)
Funder
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 6308
Note

QC 20240508

Available from: 2024-05-07 Created: 2024-05-07 Last updated: 2024-05-08Bibliographically approved
Ternström, S. (2024). Update 3.1 to FonaDyn: A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range. SoftwareX, 26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Update 3.1 to FonaDyn: A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range
2024 (English)In: SoftwareX, E-ISSN 2352-7110, Vol. 26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human voice is notoriously variable, and conventional measurement paradigms are weak in terms of providing evidence for effects of treatment and/or training of voices. New methods are needed that can take into account the variability of metrics and types of phonation across the voice range. The “voice map” is a generalization of the Voice Range Profile (a.k.a. the phonetogram), with the potential to be used in many ways, for teaching, training, therapy and research. FonaDyn is intended as a proof-of concept workbench for education and research on phonation, and for exploring and validating the analysis paradigm of voice-mapping. Version 3.1 of the FonaDyn system adds many new functions, including listening from maps; displaying multiple maps and difference maps to track effects of voice interventions; smoothing/interpolation of voice maps; clustering not only of EGG shapes but also of acoustic and EGG metrics into phonation types; extended multichannel acquisition;24-bit recording with optional max 140 dB SPL; a built-in SPL calibration and signal diagnostics tool; EGG noise suppression; more Matlab integration; script control; the acoustic metrics Spectrum Balance, Cepstral Peak Prominence and Harmonic Richness Factor (of the EGG); and better window layout control. Stability and usability are further improved. Apple M-series processors are now supported natively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Voice mapping Electroglottography, Real-time analysis, Voice range profile, Phonation types, Supercollider
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343437 (URN)10.1016/j.softx.2024.101653 (DOI)001187872400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2010-4565
Note

QC 20240214

Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
D'Amario, S., Ternström, S., Goebl, W. & Bishop, L. (2023). Body motion of choral singers. Frontiers in Psychology, 14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body motion of choral singers
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent investigations on music performances have shown the relevance of singers’ body motion for pedagogical as well as performance purposes. However, little is known about how the perception of voice-matching or task complexity affects choristers’ body motion during ensemble singing. This study focussed on the body motion of choral singers who perform in duo along with a pre-recorded tune presented over a loudspeaker. Specifically, we examined the effects of the perception of voice-matching, operationalized in terms of sound spectral envelope, and task complexity on choristers’ body motion. Fifteen singers with advanced choral experience first manipulated the spectral components of a pre-recorded short tune composed for the study, by choosing the settings they felt most and least together with. Then, they performed the tune in unison (i.e., singing the same melody simultaneously) and in canon (i.e., singing the same melody but at a temporal delay) with the chosen filter settings. Motion data of the choristers’ upper body and audio of the repeated performances were collected and analyzed. Results show that the settings perceived as least together relate to extreme differences between the spectral components of the sound. The singers’ wrists and torso motion was more periodic, their upper body posture was more open, and their bodies were more distant from the music stand when singing in unison than in canon. These findings suggest that unison singing promotes an expressive-periodic motion of the upper body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2023
Keywords
togetherness, ensemble singing, motion capture, joint-actions, music perception, flow, voice matching
National Category
Musicology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-341573 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1220904 (DOI)001136436500001 ()2-s2.0-85181732914 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101108755
Note

QC 20231228

Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
D'Amario, S., Ternström, S., Goebl, W. & Bishop, L. (2023). Impact of singing togetherness and task complexity on choristers' body motion. In: D'Amario, S., Ternström, S., Friberg, A. (Ed.), SMAC 2023: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2023. Paper presented at Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 14-15 June, 2023, Stockholm Sweden. (pp. 146-150). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of singing togetherness and task complexity on choristers' body motion
2023 (English)In: SMAC 2023: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2023 / [ed] D'Amario, S., Ternström, S., Friberg, A., Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023, p. 146-150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We examined the impact of the perception of singing togetherness,as indexed by the spectral envelope of the sound, and task complexity on choristers’ body motion, as they performed in duo with a pre-recorded tune presented over a loudspeaker. Fifteen experienced choral singers first manipulated the spectral filter settings of the tune in order to identify the recordings they felt most and not at all together with. Then, they sang the tune in unison and canon along with the recordings featuring the chosen filter settings. Audio and motion capture data of the musicians' upper bodies during repeated performances of the same tune were collected. Results demonstrate that wrist motion was more periodic, singer posture more open, and the overall quantity of body motion higher when singing in unison than in canon; singing togetherness did not impact body motion. The current findings suggest that some body movements may support choral performance, depending on the complexity of the task condition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023
Series
TRITA-EECS-RP ; 4
National Category
Performing Arts
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343978 (URN)
Conference
Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 14-15 June, 2023, Stockholm Sweden.
Note

Part of ISBN: 978-91-8040-865-3

Available from: 2024-02-28 Created: 2024-02-28 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Kittimathaveenan, K. & Ternström, S. (2023). Localisation in virtual choirs: outcomes of simplified binaural rendering. In: : . Paper presented at Audio Engineering Society Conference: AES 2023 International Conference on Spatial and Immersive Audio, Huddersfield, UK, 23-25 Aug 2023.. , Article ID 41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Localisation in virtual choirs: outcomes of simplified binaural rendering
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A virtual choir would find several uses in choral pedagogy and research, but it would need a relatively small computational footprint for wide uptake. On the premise that very accurate localisation might not be needed for virtual rendering of the character of the sound inside an ensemble of singers, a localisation test was conducted using binaural stimuli created using a simplified approach, with parametrically controlled delays and variable low-pass filters (historically known as a ‘shuffler’ circuit) instead of head-related impulse responses. The direct sound from a monophonic anechoic recording of a soprano was processed (1) by sending it to a reverb algorithm for making a room-acoustic diffuse field with unchanging properties, (2) with a second-order low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency descending to 3 kHz for sources from behind, (3) with second-order low-pass head-shading filters with an angle-dependent cut-off frequency for the left/right lateral shadings of the head, and (4) with the gain of the direct sound being inversely proportional to virtual distance. The recorded singer was modelled as always facing the listener; no frequency-dependent directivity was implemented. Binaural stimuli corresponding to 24 different singer positions (8 angles and 3 distances) were synthesized. 30 participants heard the stimuli in randomized order, and indicated the perceived location of the singer on polar plot response sheets, with categories to indicate the possible responses. The listeners’ discrimination of the distance categories 0.5, 1 and 2 meters (1 correct out of 3 possible) was good, at about 80% correct. Discrimination of the angle of incidence, in 45-degreecategories (1 correct out of 8 possible) was fair, at 47% correct. Angle errors were mostly on the ‘cone of confusion’ (back-front symmetry), suggesting that the back-front cue was not very salient. The correct back-front responses (about 50%) dominated only somewhat over the incorrect ones (about 38%). In an ongoing follow-up study, multi-singer scenarios will be tested, and a more detailed yet still parametric filtering scheme will be explored.

Keywords
singing, choir, localisation, binaural
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-335329 (URN)
Conference
Audio Engineering Society Conference: AES 2023 International Conference on Spatial and Immersive Audio, Huddersfield, UK, 23-25 Aug 2023.
Note

QC 20230919

Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2023-09-19Bibliographically approved
D'Amario, S., Ternström, S. & Friberg, A. (Eds.). (2023). SMAC 2023: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2023. Paper presented at Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference SMAC 2023, June 14-15, 2023, Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMAC 2023: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2023
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This volume presents the proceedings of the fifth Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 2023 (SMAC), which took place on 14–15 June 2023 in Stockholm, Sweden. SMAC was premiered at KTH in 1983, and has been organized every tenth year since then. This conference is intended for academics, music performers and instructors interested in the field of Music Acoustics. It brings together experts from different disciplines, to exchange and share their recent works on many aspects of Music Acoustics, including instrument acoustics, singing voice acoustics, acoustics-based synthesis models, music performance, and music acoustics in teaching and pedagogy.

This time, our multidisciplinary conference was organized on a smaller scale than earlier, as a track within the 2023 Sound and Music Computing Conference, at KMH Royal College of Music and KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Our warm thanks are due to the SMC Network for hosting SMAC in the framework of SMC, as are many thanks to all presenters and co-authors for participating. We hope that you will enjoy learning of the new science presented here.

Sara D’Amario, Sten Ternström and Anders Friberg

Track chairs, Editors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. vi, 194
Series
TRITA-EECS-RP ; 2024:4
Keywords
music acoustics, instrument acoustics, music performance, singing
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Musicology Signal Processing
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343835 (URN)10.30746/978-91-8040-865-3 (DOI)978-91-8040-865-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference SMAC 2023, June 14-15, 2023, Stockholm, Sweden
Note

QC 20240226

Available from: 2024-02-24 Created: 2024-02-24 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved
Ternström, S. (2023). Special Issue on Current Trends and Future Directions in Voice Acoustics Measurement. Applied Sciences, 13(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Issue on Current Trends and Future Directions in Voice Acoustics Measurement
2023 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 6Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The human voice production mechanism implements a superbly rich communication channel that at once tells us what, who, how, and much more [...]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2023
Keywords
voice acoustics, voice measurement, variability, phonation, voice production, measurement sampling, voice maps, clinical relevance, machine learning
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-324841 (URN)10.3390/app13063514 (DOI)000959900100001 ()2-s2.0-85151518683 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230426

Available from: 2023-03-17 Created: 2023-03-17 Last updated: 2023-04-26Bibliographically approved
Cai, H. & Ternström, S. (2022). Mapping Phonation Types by Clustering of Multiple Metrics. Applied Sciences, 12(23), 12092
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping Phonation Types by Clustering of Multiple Metrics
2022 (English)In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 23, p. 12092-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For voice analysis, much work has been undertaken with a multitude of acoustic and electroglottographic metrics. However, few of these have proven to be robustly correlated with physical and physiological phenomena. In particular, all metrics are affected by the fundamental frequency and sound level, making voice assessment sensitive to the recording protocol. It was investigated whether combinations of metrics, acquired over voice maps rather than with individual sustained vowels, can offer a more functional and comprehensive interpretation. For this descriptive, retrospective study, 13 men, 13 women, and 22 children were instructed to phonate on /a/ over their full voice range. Six acoustic and EGG signal features were obtained for every phonatory cycle. An unsupervised voice classification model created feature clusters, which were then displayed on voice maps. It was found that the feature clusters may be readily interpreted in terms of phonation types. For example, the typical intense voice has a high peak EGG derivative, a relatively high contact quotient, low EGG cycle-rate entropy, and a high cepstral peak prominence in the voice signal, all represented by one cluster centroid that is mapped to a given color. In a transition region between the non-contacting and contacting of the vocal folds, the combination of metrics shows a low contact quotient and relatively high entropy, which can be mapped to a different color. Based on this data set, male phonation types could be clustered into up to six categories and female and child types into four. Combining acoustic and EGG metrics resolved more categories than either kind on their own. The inter- and intra-participant distributional features are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2022
Keywords
voice analysis, voice range profile, clustering, phonation, phonation type
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies Otorhinolaryngology
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-322053 (URN)10.3390/app122312092 (DOI)000910824700001 ()2-s2.0-85142534999 (Scopus ID)
Funder
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, CSC-2020-2009
Note

QC 20230214

Available from: 2022-11-29 Created: 2022-11-29 Last updated: 2023-02-14Bibliographically approved
Jers, H. & Ternström, S. (2022). Vocal Ensembles: Chapter 20 (1ed.). In: Gary E. McPherson (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Music Performance, Volume 2: (pp. 398-417). Oxford University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vocal Ensembles: Chapter 20
2022 (English)In: The Oxford Handbook of Music Performance, Volume 2 / [ed] Gary E. McPherson, Oxford University Press , 2022, 1, p. 398-417Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A typical performance situation of a vocal ensemble or choir consists of a group of singers in a room with listeners. The choir singers on stage interact while they sing, since they also hear the sound of the neighboring singer and react accordingly. From a physical point of view, the choir singers can be regarded as sound sources. The properties of the room influence the sound and the listeners perceive the sound event as a sound receiver. Furthermore, the processes in the choir can also be described acoustically, which affects the overall performance. The room influences the timbre of the sound on their way to the audience, the receiver. Reflection, absorption, diffraction, or refraction influence the timbre in the room. The sound in a performance space can be distinguished between a near field very close to the singer and a far field. The distance at which the far field can be assumed is strongly dependent on the acoustics of the room. Especially for singers within a choir, the differentiation between those sound fields is important for hearing oneself and the other singers. The position of the singers, their directivity, and the seating position of the listener in the audience will have an influence on listener perception. Furthermore, this chapter gives background information on intonation and synchronization aspects, which are most relevant for any vocal ensemble situation. Using this knowledge, intuitive behavior and performance practice can be explained and new adaptations can be suggested for singing in vocal ensembles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022 Edition: 1
Series
Oxford Handbooks
Keywords
choir, acoustic, singer, room, singing, ensemble, vocal
National Category
Music
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-310289 (URN)10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190058869.013.20 (DOI)
Note

Part of book: ISBN 978-0-19-005886-9

QC 20220329

Available from: 2022-03-26 Created: 2022-03-26 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3362-7518

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