kth.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 99) Show all publications
Djordjevic, B., Krmac, E., Lin, C. Y., Fröidh, O. & Kordnejad, B. (2024). An optimisation-based digital twin for automated operation of rail level crossings. Expert systems with applications, 239, Article ID 122422.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An optimisation-based digital twin for automated operation of rail level crossings
Show others...
2024 (English)In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 239, article id 122422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Railway level crossings (LCs), as the intersection of road and rail transport, are the weak points in terms of safety, as they are used by different modes of transport. The safety level at LCs can therefore be affected by the behaviour of the users. However, the level of safety can also be affected by failures and errors in the operation of LC equipment. Apart from safety, errors and failures of the LC devices can lead to longer waiting times for road users. As the volume of traffic on rail and road increases, so does the risk that the level of safety will decrease. The increase in traffic volume via LC leads to higher traffic volume on the road and more frequent trains on the rail, which leads to longer waiting times for road users on the LCs. The longer waiting times can disrupt the traffic flow, especially during peak hours when the growing volume of traffic on road and rail increases road user dissatisfaction. Moreover, in the era of Industry 4.0 and Digital Rail, new digital and automated technologies are being introduced to improve rail performance and competitiveness. These technologies are aligned with the LCs and are intended to ensure the efficient operation of LC and the efficient use of LCs by conventional trains as well. To achieve this, a concept is needed that simultaneously monitors and visualises the operation of LC in real time, identifies potential faults and failures of the LC equipment, and updates and monitors the proper operation of LC based on the historical data and information of the operation of LC according to the road traffic volume and the characteristics of the rail traffic and trains. Therefore, in this study, a digital twin system (DT) for rail LC was initiated and built as a concept that can meet the above requirements for proper LC operation in real time. DT of LC includes all components of LC and communication between them to synchronise the operation of LC according to the real-time requirements. The DT system is able to optimise the operation time of LC by monitoring the operation of LC and collecting data to ensure efficient use of LC and reduce unnecessary waiting time for road users. In this paper, the operation time of LCs on Swedish and Taiwanese railways was compared using the developed level crossing optimisation model (OLC). Since the introduction of new signalling concepts requires an improvement of LC operating characteristics and their design, the operating strategies were modelled using the OLC model. The results of the work show that the optimal values of LC operation time are different for the case studies investigated. The replacement of track circuits as detection devices and the introduction of balises can also positively influence the operation time, as well as increasing the speed of trains via LCs. However, due to the formulation of the OLC model, the impact of a longer train length on the operation of LC is not recognised. The OLC model can be used to estimate the real-time operation time of LC under different traffic conditions as well as the impact of different changes and extensions of LC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Keywords
Digital twin, DT, Level crossing, Operation time, Optimisation, Railway
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-340838 (URN)10.1016/j.eswa.2023.122422 (DOI)001112027900001 ()2-s2.0-85177775453 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231218

Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2023-12-18Bibliographically approved
Jansson, E., Olsson, N. O. .. & Fröidh, O. (2024). Trackside sensors in unattended train mainline systems: A case study of alarm logs from Sweden. In: 25th Euro Working Group on Transportation Meeting: . Paper presented at Euro Working Group on Transportation (EWGT), 6-8 September 2023, Santander, Spain (pp. 151-157). Elsevier BV, 78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trackside sensors in unattended train mainline systems: A case study of alarm logs from Sweden
2024 (English)In: 25th Euro Working Group on Transportation Meeting, Elsevier BV , 2024, Vol. 78, p. 151-157Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Implementing unattended train operation on the mainline could make the railway more competitive by reducing operating costs since there will be no staff onboard the train. This will, however, lead to new challenges. One of those challenges is how to deal with manually controlling trackside sensor alarms. In this paper, we study all trackside sensor alarms (hotbox/hotwheel and wheel damage) in Sweden for one year (2019) to study their frequency and context. The results show that freight trains have 10 times higher frequency for alarms per train kilometer than passenger trains. There are statistically significant seasonal and climate zone differences. The highest frequency of trackside alarms occurs in wintertime in the colder climate zone. The results can be used in the development of unattended train operation support systems on the mainline.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, E-ISSN 2352-1465
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334584 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2024.02.020 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187567497 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Euro Working Group on Transportation (EWGT), 6-8 September 2023, Santander, Spain
Note

QC 20240322

Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-03-22Bibliographically approved
Jansson, E., Olsson, N. O. .. & Fröidh, O. (2023). Challenges of replacing train drivers in driverless and unattended railway mainline systems—A Swedish case study on delay logs descriptions. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 21, 100875-100875, Article ID 100875.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges of replacing train drivers in driverless and unattended railway mainline systems—A Swedish case study on delay logs descriptions
2023 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 21, p. 100875-100875, article id 100875Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Currently, the challenges of driverless or unattended train operation have not been described in detail and are often grouped into one category. This paper contributes to filling a knowledge gap regarding the roles of the train driver about the potential use of automatic train operation (ATO) on high grade of automation (GoA) levels. The results contribute to a better understanding of the challenges with driverless or unattended train operation to support strategies on how to utilize ATO on a wider range of trains than is presently the case. We use the Swedish railway network as a case study and delay logs written by train dispatchers for 2019. Our research quantifies how often unplanned events occur in which the train driver is needed, and the role of the train driver in solving these problems. In addition to this we elaborate on existing GoA levels definitions and propose a revised model that highlights more aspects of the train drivers’ roles. We have identified six categories in which an action by the driver is required: Detect, Report, Inspect, Adjust, Manage passengers, and Respond to train orders. The study illustrates some of the challenges with driverless or unattended train operation, and points to the need to develop strategies not only for the driving aspects of ATO but also for the more general technical operational management of rolling stock in high GoA levels.

Keywords
Railway, Automatic train operation, Driverless trains, Train driver, Roles, Automation challenges
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333356 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2023.100875 (DOI)001141847200001 ()2-s2.0-85166931478 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2019/123866
Note

QC 20230823

Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Djordjevic, B., Fröidh, O. & Krmac, E. (2023). Determinants of autonomous train operation adoption in rail freight: knowledge-based assessment with Delphi-ANP approach. Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, 27(11), 7051-7069
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of autonomous train operation adoption in rail freight: knowledge-based assessment with Delphi-ANP approach
2023 (English)In: Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, ISSN 1432-7643, E-ISSN 1433-7479, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 7051-7069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Railways are the backbone of complex and multimodal transport systems in Europe. To secure a larger share of the transport market and attract existing and future freight customers, further improvement in services is required. To achieve this goal, the use of new technologies in the era of railway automation and digitalization is required. Automatic train operation (ATO) in rail transport is considered a promising solution for providing cost-effective rail products. In this study, we define ATO as autonomous train operation and the feasibility of ATO deployment in rail freight is investigated. For this purpose, a knowledge-based approach is introduced to identify opportunities, problems, and the most appropriate grade of automation in rail freight. In a multi-stage process, Delphi questionnaires were combined with the analytic network process (ANP) method to investigate, define, and weight the determinants for ATO deployment. The final phase of the survey estimated the potential costs and drivers for different grades of automation. The results show that, in addition to the positive impacts of ATO, there are numerous challenges and risks that need to be analysed before ATO is implemented. In addition, the Delphi-ANP approach was used to identify the key determinants for decision-making prior to ATO implementation and the most viable alternative based on them. Investment cost, level of safety, energy saving, and reliability of management system are the most important determinants for the decision to implement ATO. The results of this study can effectively support rail infrastructure managers and operators in strategic planning and decision-making for ATO implementation in rail freight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Assessment, Digitalisation, Knowledge-driven, Prioritisation, Railway, Technology
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331106 (URN)10.1007/s00500-023-07966-8 (DOI)000949721000003 ()2-s2.0-85149956842 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230705

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Tardivo, A., Pfeifer, A., Hoang, A., Zanuy, A. C., Schick, B., Schindler, C., . . . Stichel, S. (2023). Effectiveness of EU-funded R&I programmes from the perspective of the European railway sector stakeholders. In: 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022: . Paper presented at 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022 (pp. 1256-1263). Elsevier B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of EU-funded R&I programmes from the perspective of the European railway sector stakeholders
Show others...
2023 (English)In: 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, p. 1256-1263Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper provides a methodology for measuring the adherence of Research & Innovation (R&I) actions in railways to the stakeholders' requirements and expected benefits. After collecting the stakeholders' requirements, the R&I objectives are extracted from high-level documents such as Europe's Rail Joint Undertaking Master Plan and Multi Annual Work Programme. Lastly, after standardization of the requirements and the technology concepts, a top-down analysis is performed. The results show that network management and vehicle technologies have the highest benefit for the stakeholders, and ERRAC and Regulatory Bodies' requirements are well addrebed. However, the end-users requirements are only partially fulfilled. The necessity of increasing multimodal transport and cooperation with other transport modes is shown, while stronger focus can be placed on the employees and education/training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2023
Keywords
benefits, EU-funded R&I programmes, R&I impacts, Stakeholder analysis, Stakeholders requirements, Top-down analysis
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Reliability and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342811 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.585 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182934063 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, TRA Lisbon 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Nov 14 2022 - Nov 17 2022
Note

QC 20240201

Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Fröidh, O. (Ed.). (2023). Framtidsblick på järnvägens kapacitet. Paper presented at Vetenskapsrådet, offentligt samtal. Stadsmuséet, Stockholm 2023-04-20. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidsblick på järnvägens kapacitet
2023 (Swedish)Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Attraktiv tågtrafik för framtiden

Regionala tågtrafiksystem 1990-2020

Resande och tågtrafik

Vilken resandeutveckling kan vi förvänta oss?

Spårtrafik ger tillgänglighet: 1 timmes tågrestid från Stockholm C

Potentiell tillgänglighet till arbetsplatser: Från Eskilstuna med kollektivtrafik

Hur får man bilister att ta tåget istället?

Kapacitet vid blandad resp. separerad trafik: Antal tåg i en riktning (vid dubbelspår)

Var behövs kapacitet?

Järnvägsprojekt = tillgänglighet

Digitalisering – för ökad kapacitet

Snabba godståg – minskade hastighetsskillnader

Mer gods på järnväg

Mer kapacitet betyder:

•Punktligheten ökar, färre förseningar

•Bättre marknadsanpassning av tidtabellen, fler tåg 

•Korta res- och transporttider, inga onödiga tillägg

•Lägre trafikeringskostnader, högre intäkter

•Mer attraktiv tågtrafik – ger ökat resande och ökade godstransporter

•Nöjda resenärer och godskunder 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. 15
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Kapacitet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-329195 (URN)
Conference
Vetenskapsrådet, offentligt samtal. Stadsmuséet, Stockholm 2023-04-20
Note

QC 20231122

Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Fröidh, O. & Jonsson, R. D. (2023). Intervjuer med intressenter i långväga resandeprognoser: Delrapport i Förstudie kring etablering av forskningsprojekt för prognosmetodik. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intervjuer med intressenter i långväga resandeprognoser: Delrapport i Förstudie kring etablering av forskningsprojekt för prognosmetodik
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa resultat och slutsatser från en enkätstudie med intressenter inom prognosmodeller för långväga resande (resande över 100 km) som genomfördes i september 2023.

Många enkätsvar är i linje med att en framtida modell behövs för att göra ungefär samma saker som idag, att den nuvarande modellen har brister, och att bra data att skatta modellen är svåra att få tag på. Mer intressant är förslag på förändringar i modellen eller dess användning. En sådan är hur vi ska definiera en långväga resa. Det finns andra, alternativa definitioner än ”längre än tio mil” som har mer med resans ärende, start- och målpunkt eller andra egenskaper att göra.

Det finns två kommentarer, i synnerhet, med potential att påverka modellansatsen. Den första är att en prognos för ett vardags- eller årsmedeldygn inte nödvändigtvis är det mest intressanta. På vissa ställen är årsvariationen stor och dimensionerande, till exempel för turismresor, medan på andra kan dygns- och veckovariation vara viktig att förstå.

Målbaserade scenarier och backcasting nämns också. En annan typ av modell än dagens Sampers skulle kunna bidra på ett bättre sätt till att hitta lämpliga åtgärder och hjälpa till med att hitta lösningar på problem snarare än att fokusera på att räkna på effekterna av åtgärderna. Det stora arbetet är att underhålla indata och framtidsscenarier av nätverk och markanvändning. Vi skulle kunna verka för att ha en gemensam bas av indata, lämpligen också öppen för extern forskning och utveckling, som sedan kan användas till olika modeller beroende på vilken fråga som ställs.

När det gäller kompetens tolkar vi intervjusvaren som att den behöver stärkas både bland användare så att resultaten kan genereras och tolkas med förståelse av orsakssamband, och bland modellutvecklare. Samtidigt upplever en del respondenter att systemet är tungarbetat och det används i praktiken mest för ett relativt fåtal scenarioanalyser. Ibland skulle det nog vara mer användbart med ett prognosverktyg att testa idéer eller alternativa åtgärder i ett tidigt skede. Det finns också svar som antyder en efterfrågan på en modell som kan bidra tydligare till problemlösning och målstyrning. Dagens mer prognosinriktade modellansats kan användas till sådant, men inte på ett naturligt sätt.

Vår slutsats av intervjustudien är att den har gett oss insikter om användarnas uppfattningar och behov. För att utveckla framtidens prognosmetodik behöver vi komplettera med kunskap om nya metoder och dess egenskaper i en litteraturstudie.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this report is to report results and conclusions from a survey study with stakeholders within forecast models for long-distance travel (travel over 100 km) that was carried out in September 2023.

Many survey responses are in line with the fact that a future model is needed to do roughly the same things as today, that the current model has flaws, and that good data to estimate the model is hard to come by. More interesting are suggestions for changes to the model or its use. One such is how we should define a long-distance trip. There are other, alternative definitions than "further than one hundred kilometres" that have more to do with the purpose of the journey, the origin and destination point or other characteristics.

There are two comments, in particular, with the potential to influence the model approach. The first is that a forecast for a weekday or annual average day is not necessarily the most interesting. In some places, the annual variation is large and dimensioning, for example for tourism trips, while in others understanding the daily and weekly variation can be important.

Target-based scenarios and back casting are also mentioned. A different type of model than today's Sampers could contribute in a better way to finding appropriate measures and helping to find solutions to problems rather than focusing on calculating the effects of the measures. The major work is to maintain input data and future scenarios of network and land use. We could work to have a common base of input data, preferably also open to external research and development, which can then be used for different models depending on the question being asked.

In terms of competence, we interpret the interview responses as needing to be strengthened both among users so that the results can be generated and interpreted with an understanding of causal relationships, and among model developers. At the same time, some respondents feel that the system is heavy-duty and that it is used in practice mostly for a relatively few scenario analyses. Sometimes it would probably be more useful to use a forecasting tool to test ideas or alternative actions at an early stage. There are also answers that suggest a demand for a model that can contribute more clearly to problem solving and goal management. Today's more forecast-oriented model approach can be used for such, but not in a natural way.

Our conclusion from the interview study is that it has given us insights into users' perceptions and needs. To develop future forecasting methodology, we need to supplement with knowledge of new methods and their characteristics in a literature study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. 22
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2326
Keywords
Frågeformulär, Kompetensbehov, Sampers, Prognosmodell, Användare
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-339628 (URN)
Projects
Förstudie kring etablering av forskningsprojekt för prognosmetodik
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20231115

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Jenelius, E., Andersson, J., Fröidh, O., Jonsson, R. D., Ma, Z., Zefreh, M. M. & Wang, Q. (2023). Prestudy on Establishing a Research Project on Forecasting Methodology. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prestudy on Establishing a Research Project on Forecasting Methodology
Show others...
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2023. p. 15
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2328
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-341776 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2022/32545
Note

QC 20240102

Available from: 2024-01-02 Created: 2024-01-02 Last updated: 2024-01-02Bibliographically approved
Jansson, E., Olsson, N. O. .. & Fröidh, O. (2023). The use of human senses by train drivers to detect abnormalities. In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena: . Paper presented at TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal (pp. 3650-3655). Elsevier BV, 72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The use of human senses by train drivers to detect abnormalities
2023 (English)In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, Elsevier BV , 2023, Vol. 72, p. 3650-3655Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Driverless and unattended train operation is a foreseeable future. While many functions of the driver can be automatized and replaced but detecting abnormalities is more difficult to automate. This study investigates how train drivers detect abnormalities. The objective is to prepare the way for unattended train operation also for remote areas. Using disruption descriptions, written by train dispatchers, we have identified which senses are used by the train drivers and in which situations. Four of the human senses are used by train drivers to detect abnormalities: the visual, the auditory, the somatosensory, and the olfactory systems. The most used sense by the train drivers to detect abnormalities is the visual system. Before introducing driverless and unattended train operation, alternative tools for detecting abnormalities should be included based on the human senses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, E-ISSN 2352-1465
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334582 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2023.11.556 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182918130 (Scopus ID)
Conference
TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal
Note

QC 20231218

Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Fröidh, O., Andersson, J. & Thulin, M. (2022). Utbud och priser i persontrafik på järnväg 2022: Utveckling i Sverige 1990-2022. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utbud och priser i persontrafik på järnväg 2022: Utveckling i Sverige 1990-2022
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att följa upp utvecklingen av utbud och priser inom persontrafik på järnväg med ett urval sträckor i Sverige och till grannländerna som en del av Transportstyrelsens marknadsövervakning.

För de flesta järnvägslinjerna med persontrafik har utbud och biljettpriser studerats för en relation mellan två orter. På några viktigare relationer har insamlingen utökats med även kommersiella flyg- och busslinjer som konkurrerar med tåg för att få en helhetsbild av resemarknaden. Data om utbudet har samlats in en helgfri onsdag i mars eller oktober, beroende på förutsättningarna respektive år. 2022 var den planerade resdagen, eller huvudmätdagen, onsdagen den 5 oktober och priserna motsvarar bokning en vecka innan avresa. Målet har varit att representera en typisk vardag utan störning av helger eller semesterperioder som kan påverka resandet.

Persontrafiken på järnväg har trendmässigt ökat sedan 1990 och har mer än dubblerats på 30 år. Efterfrågan har växt i takt med utbudsförbättringar genom snabbare tåg, tätare turer och attraktiva priser. Coronapandemin 2020 innebar dock ett kraftigt avbräck i utvecklingen. Under 2022 har en återhämtning skett och fritidsresandet med tåg blev i ungefär samma storleksordning som det tidigare toppåret 2019, medan tjänsteresorna ligger lägre.

Den uppåtgående trenden i biljettpriser 2022 kan förklaras av den ökade efterfrågan på framför allt fritidsresor som gör det möjligt för järnvägsföretagen att ta igen förlorade intäkter från coronapandemiåren 2020-2021. Den begränsade tillgången till billiga biljetter kan dock ha medfört att flera resenärer får betala mer för sina tågresor. Det ger en större effekt för resenärerna, särskilt vid senare bokningar, än prishöjningar inom respektive biljettpriskategori som ingår i undersökningen.

Flygutbudet har inte återhämtat sig lika väl som tåget sedan coronapandemin, och ligger 2022 generellt på ungefär halva antalet avgångar jämfört med 2019. Däremot sker en priskonkurrens med tåg på de största reserelationerna Göteborg−Stockholm, Malmö−Stockholm och Umeå−Stockholm, med billiga flygbiljetter som beroende på avgång kan vara lägre än tillgängliga biljetter för tågresa. Inte heller bussutbudet har återhämtat sig och det är svårt för buss att konkurrera såväl i restid som i pris med lågprisbiljetter för tåg och flyg på de större relationerna.

Sammanfattningsvis har 2022 präglats av sviter av coronapandemin, särskilt personalbrist, men även andra problem inom järnvägen som försenad tidtabellsplanering. Efterfrågan är relativt svag på tjänsteresor men stark på privatresor, i nivå med det tidigare toppåret 2019. Ett flertal biljettpriser har stigit men annars ligger utbudet nästan i nivå med det tidigare toppåret 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2022. p. 57
Series
TRITA-ABE-RPT ; 2230
Keywords
utbud, tidsserie, efterfrågan, årsrapport
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för persontrafik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-323371 (URN)
Note

QC 20230130

Available from: 2023-01-27 Created: 2023-01-27 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3687-7758

Search in DiVA

Show all publications