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Xiong, A., Li, H. & Westlund, H. (2019). Determinants of Social Networks in Rural China: Does Transportation Have a Role to Play?. Social Science Quarterly, 100(5), 1709-1725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of Social Networks in Rural China: Does Transportation Have a Role to Play?
2019 (English)In: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1709-1725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: In recent years, the origins and sources of social networks and social capital have been extensively studied. Previous studies have primarily focused on social demographic factors. To enrich our understanding of the determinants of social networks, this article explores the role of mobility in rural China. Methods: Drawing upon a data set from the Chinese General Social Survey, this article first uses clustered effect logit models and then adopts a propensity score matching (PSM) model for a robustness check. Results: The results demonstrate that citizens who have access to more advanced transportation modes and spend less time on traveling are more likely to establish weak ties, especially with nonagricultural citizens in prestigious job positions. The results also indicate that strong family ties are not the consequence of mobility. By disaggregating the full sample, this article further reveals that the young, rich, and female citizens reap more benefit from mobility. Conclusions: Given the great importance of automobiles for strengthening social networks, this article suggests that car sharing/pooling/lifting programs might be a viable solution to social network deficits in rural areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2019
National Category
Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255733 (URN)10.1111/ssqu.12647 (DOI)000476569200015 ()2-s2.0-85064605329 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190813

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Li, Y., Westlund, H. & Liu, Y. (2019). Why some rural areas decline while some others not: An overview of rural evolution in the world. Journal of Rural Studies, 68, 135-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why some rural areas decline while some others not: An overview of rural evolution in the world
2019 (English)In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 68, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rural decline is an inevitable process as human society transforms from the agrarian to the urban-industrial economy, and further on to the knowledge economy. Through an extensive literature review, this paper aims to interpret why some rural areas decline while some others do not. The findings show that it is by the interactions between rural areas and the external environment that rural communities either grow, decline or even vanish. The paper emphasizes the necessity to improve rural communities' resilient capacity through adjusting their internal components' function and structure to survive the external changes. In this process, rural livelihood diversification, the creation of market oriented institutions and strong social capital are considered to enhance rural resilience and build up sustaining rural communities. Finally, three conditions for sustainable rural development in the knowledge economy are discussed: 1) development of new economic activities that can respond to potential urban demand; 2) local entrepreneurship that can establish and expand these new activities; and 3) social capital that can support the entrepreneurship in new activities with access to credits, labor, human capital, external markets and external knowledge for learning and innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Rural decline, Rural evolution, Rural resilience, Rural revitalization, Sustainability
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251819 (URN)10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.03.003 (DOI)000470043600013 ()2-s2.0-85062832437 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190529

Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Farrell, K. & Westlund, H. (2018). China’s Rapid Urban Ascent: An Examination into the Components of Urban Growth. Asian Geographer, 35(1), 85-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>China’s Rapid Urban Ascent: An Examination into the Components of Urban Growth
2018 (English)In: Asian Geographer, ISSN 1022-5706, E-ISSN 2158-1762, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Having gone from 11.8% of its population inhabiting urban areas in 1950 to 49.2% by 2010, China represents the most dramatic urban transformation the world has seen. With the contemporary urban narrative presenting new challenges, particularly in terms of its unprecedented pace and scale, this paper conducts an inquiry into the nature and causes of China’s rapid urban ascent. Making use of a new analytical framework, this paper maps out the changing stages of China’s urban transition and examines the components of urban growth underpinning it. It arrives at several notable findings. Rural to urban migration has been the dominant component of urban growth, followed by urban natural population increase and reclassification. Although China’s urban growth rates were high, it is the reduction in rural growth rates that underpinned China’s particularly rapid urbanization rates. China is currently in the latter part of the accelerated stage of its urban transition, and is expected to enter the terminal stage by 2030. In light of China’s ongoing urban transition, this paper concludes with reflections on China’s New-Type Urbanization Plan 2014–2020.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
China, urban transition, late-urbanizer, urbanization curve, rapid urbanization, components of urban growth
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236524 (URN)10.1080/10225706.2018.1476256 (DOI)000446189700005 ()2-s2.0-85047557569 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181023

Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M., Nilsson, P. & Westlund, H. (2018). Migration and Ageing in Expanding and Shrinking European Regions. In: Advances in Spatial Science: (pp. 107-131). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migration and Ageing in Expanding and Shrinking European Regions
2018 (English)In: Advances in Spatial Science, Springer International Publishing , 2018, p. 107-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Europe is in a phase of vast transition regarded both from a demographic and economic-structural point of view. Studies have shown that demographic development differs a lot when comparing urban regions with more sparsely populated peripheral regions. These diverging patterns are shown to be especially strong in the northern and eastern parts of Europe where a redistribution of people contributes to a concentration process to the metropolitan or big city areas as well as to shrinkage and depopulating of rural and peripheral areas. This paper empirically addresses these differing demographic development paths by analyzing the influence of key underlying demographic factors on population change across European regions. For the stated purpose the paper applies typologies based on both economic and demographic structure and a cross-regional regression model. The economic-structural typology developed within the ESPON/EDORA-project is used to describe and analyze economic-structural factors and a typology based on demographic characteristics that classify regions as either shrinking or expanding in terms of population is used in the empirical assessment. Findings indicate that age structure is of importance with regard to population changes and there exists an east-west divide between the growing west and declining east where the declining sectors are more frequent. It is also shown that large and densely populated regions have better preconditions for growth and fewer risks for shrinking than small and sparsely populated ones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Ageing, Density and size-effects, East-west divide, Economic-structural factors, Human capital, Migration, Shrinkage, Typologies
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247442 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-68563-2_7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059031922 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC20190502

Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Falck, S., Snickars, F. & Westlund, H. (2017). Högskolan i Borås: Om högskolans betydelse för kompetensförsörjning, forskning och samverkan i Västra Götaland. Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Högskolan i Borås: Om högskolans betydelse för kompetensförsörjning, forskning och samverkan i Västra Götaland
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna studie handlar om framtiden för Borås. Den gör det för att dess tema gäller högskolans roll som en central komponent i en kunskapsproducerande ekonomi med global räckvidd. I studien analyseras hur kunskap sprids från utbildnings- och forskningsverksamheten vid Högskolan i Borås till det omgivande samhället samt betydelsen av olika kunskapsspridningsmekaismer. Syftet är att öka förståelsen av högskolans roll för kompetensförsörjning, forskning och samverkan i en regional kontext. Studiens bakgrund är ett tilltagande behov att förstå och förklara hur kunskap sprids och spiller över från universitet och högskolor samt den långsiktiga betydelsen av högre lärosäten för kompetensförsörjning och regional utveckling. För planerare och beslutsfattare kan studien ligga till grund för diskussioner och planeringsarbete om hur främja högskolans roll som motor i en kunskapsdriven ekonomi.En slutsats av den förhållandevis omfattande genomgång som studien görs av utbildning, forskning och samverkan vid Högskolan i Borås är att högskolan uppvisar förhållanden som liknar de som gäller vid andra regionala högskolor i landet. Studenterna sätter sin prägel på stads- och kulturliv. Högskolan framstår som väl etablerad på sin ort. Detta lägger en grund för ekonomisk tillväxt och utveckling. Man behöver dock förbättra det strategiska arbetet med att få fler att stanna kvar, inte minst bland dem med utbildning och kunskap utanför välfärdsrelaterade yrken. Bland dem med utbildning och kunskap typisk inom innovationsrelaterat arbete samt teknisk forskning och utveckling är det relativt få som stannar kvar. För att få studenterna att stanna kvar efter avslutad måste förutsättningarna stärkas för karriärer inom yrken med krav på (fördjupad) högskolekompetens.För att detta ska vara möjligt krävs ett långsiktigt och gränsöverskridande arbete som involverar högskolan, företag, entreprenörer och offentliga arbetsgivare samt planerare och beslutsfattare på lokal, regional och nationell nivå. Ett lyckosamt ett exempel på ett sådant arbete är satsningen Smart Textiles. Man behöver dock ett bredare och mer omfattande engagemang. En central fråga i ett sådant arbete är hur långt man kommit i att främja ett närings- och arbetsliv som skapar en kompetensmultiplikator till nytta för den ekonomiska utvecklingen på längre sikt. En annan fråga är hur kunskapsnyttor från forskningsverksamheten vid Högskolan i Borås kan få ännu större spridning och förankring i regionen.För att komma vidare på det spåret behövs en kritisk granskning från universitetsledningen av hur man ska förhålla sig till frågan om konkurrens eller samverkan mellan universiteten i Västra Götaland. Vid strategivalet kring Högskolan i Jönköping eller som lärosätet nu heter Jönköping University har frågan om lokal förankring eller internationell positionering varit av central betydelse. Det ambitiösa valet att satsa på det internationella spåret och göra hela Jönköping University internationellt har inte skett utan motsättningar och svårigheter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 74
Keywords
Högskolan i Borås, högre utbildning, regional utveckling
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209410 (URN)10.13140/RG.2.2.25069.79846 (DOI)
Note

QC 20170627

Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
Westlund, H. (2017). Urban-rural relations in the post-urban world. In: In The Post-Urban World: Emergent Transformation of Cities and Regions in the Innovative Global Economy: (pp. 70-81). Taylor and Francis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban-rural relations in the post-urban world
2017 (English)In: In The Post-Urban World: Emergent Transformation of Cities and Regions in the Innovative Global Economy, Taylor and Francis , 2017, p. 70-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

I’ll begin with the following hypothesis: Society has been completely urbanized. This hypothesis implies a definition: An urban society is a society that results from a process of complete urbanization. This urbanization is virtual today, but will become real in the future. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis, 2017
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236795 (URN)10.4324/9781315672168 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050209997 (Scopus ID)9781317372349 (ISBN)9781138943926 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20190109

Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Ekane, N., Mertz, C. K., Slovic, C., Kjellén, M. & Westlund, H. (2016). Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda. Paper presented at Water and Health: Where Science Meets Policy, Chapel HillGlobal Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 22(3), 639-666
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda
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2016 (English)In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 639-666Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research explores the use of psychometric techniques to improve understanding of psychological mechanisms underlying judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture including other excreta related activities. Participants consisted of environmental health students, smallholder farmers and traders in rural and urban Rwanda and Uganda. The finding reveals an inverse relationship between risk and benefit judgments. This relationship holds for the three groups of participants with significant risk-benefit correlations of p<.0001. This finding is consistent with other studies showing that affect plays a key role in risk perception, judgment and decision making.Building on this finding, we conclude that individuals with high risk and low benefit judgment for excreta related practices would eschew them or emphasize strict standards. Individuals with a high benefit and low risk judgment would engage in excreta management practices regardless of the actual risks involved. This finding is relevant for risk communication and risk management as it indicates that individuals do not rely only on risk management information they receive concerning excreta and related risks but also depend to an extent on their feelings about these substances when making judgments and decisions regarding the purpose for using excreta as fertilizer and the level of exposure they can tolerate and manage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Excreta, Fertilizer, Affect, Risk, Benefit, Judgment
National Category
Agricultural Science
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-179467 (URN)10.1080/10807039.2015.1100515 (DOI)000371914500005 ()2-s2.0-84960369901 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Water and Health: Where Science Meets Policy, Chapel HillGlobal Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013–6364Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation, FO2010-0322 and FO2011-0501
Note

Funding also from: Kungl. Skogs och Lantbruksakademien (H10-0233-ADA-01).

Travel grants were also provided by Stiftelsen Futura.

QC 20160411

Available from: 2015-12-17 Created: 2015-12-17 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Westlund, H., von Friedrichs, Y. & Kiyoshi, K. (Eds.). (2016). Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 10. Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas Vol. 10
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School, 2016. p. 280
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184892 (URN)978-91-86345-64-8 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2016-11-29Bibliographically approved
Westlund, H., Kobayashi, K., Matsushima, K. & Ohno, S. (Eds.). (2016). Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas, Volume 11. Kyoto: MARG
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas, Volume 11
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kyoto: MARG, 2016
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184893 (URN)978-4-907830-11-3 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20160408

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-08Bibliographically approved
Westlund, H. & Li, Y. (2015). Analysis of local social capital. In: Karlsson C, Andersson M, Norman T (Ed.), Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Economic Geography: (pp. 321-341). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of local social capital
2015 (English)In: Handbook of Research methods and Applications in Economic Geography / [ed] Karlsson C, Andersson M, Norman T, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 321-341Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184895 (URN)978-0-85793-266-2 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20160407

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2080-6859

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