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Publications (10 of 41) Show all publications
Pradhan, S., Hedberg, J., Rosenqvist, J., Jonsson, C. M., Wold, S., Blomberg, E. & Odnevall Wallinder, I. (2018). Influence of humic acid and dihydroxy benzoic acid on the agglomeration, adsorption, sedimentation and dissolution of copper, manganese, aluminum and silica nanoparticles - A tentative exposure scenario. PLoS ONE, 13(2), Article ID e0192553.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of humic acid and dihydroxy benzoic acid on the agglomeration, adsorption, sedimentation and dissolution of copper, manganese, aluminum and silica nanoparticles - A tentative exposure scenario
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192553Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work focuses on kinetic aspects of stability, mobility, and dissolution of bare Cu, Al and Mn, and SiO2 NPs in synthetic freshwater (FW) with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). This includes elucidation of particle and surface interactions, metal dissolution kinetics, and speciation predictions of released metals in solution. Dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) and humic acid adsorbed rapidly on all metal NPs (< 1 min) via multiple surface coordinations, followed in general by rapid agglomeration and concomitant sedimentation for a large fraction of the particles. In contrast, NOM did not induce agglomeration of the SiO2 NPs during the test duration (21 days). DHBA in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM was unable to stabilize the metal NPs for time periods longer than 6 h, whereas humic acid, at certain concentrations (20 mg/L) was more efficient (> 24 h). The presence of NOM increased the amount of released metals into solution, in particular for Al and Cu, whereas the effect for Mn was minor. At least 10% of the particle mass was dissolved within 24 h and remained in solution for the metal NPs in the presence of NOM. Speciation modeling revealed that released Al and Cu predominantly formed complexes with NOM, whereas less complexation was seen for Mn. The results imply that potentially dispersed NPs of Cu, Al and Mn readily dissolve or sediment close to the source in freshwater of low salinity, whereas SiO2 NPs are more stable and therefore more mobile in solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224031 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0192553 (DOI)000424517900091 ()2-s2.0-85041731628 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180323

Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Karlsson, M.-E. -., Wei, Z., Znidarsic, M., Odnevall Wallinder, I. & Hedberg, J. (2017). Interaction of Albumin and Fibrinogen with Stainless Steel: Influence of Sequential Exposure and Protein Aggregation on Metal Release and Corrosion Resistance. Corrosion, 73(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction of Albumin and Fibrinogen with Stainless Steel: Influence of Sequential Exposure and Protein Aggregation on Metal Release and Corrosion Resistance
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2017 (English)In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 73, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Corrosion and metal release mechanisms of the biomedical stainless steel grade Type 316L are at human-relevant biological conditions not fully understood. This study focuses on its corrosion properties and release of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) into simulated physiological solutions at pH 7.4 in the presence of proteins. Parallel studies were performed on stainless steel Type 303 containing a substantial amount of MnS inclusions. Metal release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 4 h and 24 h at 37 degrees C with or without different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen from bovine plasma (Fbn), or mixtures of the same. Studies were in addition performed after 1, 4, 6, and 24 h in solutions that were partially replenished after 5 h in order to investigate whether any Vroman effect (exchange of adsorbed proteins by proteins of higher binding affinity) could influence the extent of released metals in solution. This was performed at physiological concentrations of BSA (40 g/L) and Fbn (2.67 g/L) in PBS, and for reference solutions of PBS, PBS with 40 g/L BSA, and PBS with 2.67 g/L Fbn. Changes in open-circuit potential and linear polarization resistance were investigated for the same conditions. After exposure, the exposed surfaces were rinsed and investigated ex situ by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Metal-protein complexation-induced metal release mechanisms were found to be most pronounced for Type 316L and the release of Fe, Cr, and Ni. Fibrinogen adsorbed differently onto Type 303 (thicker conformation of adsorbed proteins) as compared with Type 316L and occasionally induced corrosion events for Type 303. Mn was mostly released from inclusions present in the Type 303 alloy, most probably via non-electrochemical mechanisms. A Vroman effect was observed for both grades. A significant extent of precipitation of metal-rich protein aggregates influenced the metal release measurements in solution and resulted in an underestimation of the total amount of released metals from the stainless steel grades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATL ASSOC CORROSION ENG, 2017
Keywords
albumin, corrosion resistance, fibrinogen, metal release, Vroman
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217929 (URN)10.5006/2504 (DOI)000414329600005 ()
Note

QC 20171121

Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Hedberg, J., Isaksson, S., Mei, N., Blomberg, E., Wold, S. & Odnevall Wallinder, I. (2017). Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles – Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter. Environmental Pollution, 224, 275-288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles – Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days. The WC-Co NPs possessed a higher electrochemical and chemical reactivity in SW with and without DHBA molecules as compared with NPs of WC, Co, and Cu. Co was completely released from the WC-Co NPs within a few hours of exposure, although it remained adsorbed/bonded to the particle surface and enabled the adsorption of negatively charged DHBA molecules, in contrast with the WC NPs (no adsorption of DHBA). The DHBA molecules were found to rapidly adsorb on the Co and Cu NPs. The sedimentation of the WC and WC-Co NPs was not influenced by the presence of the 2,3- or 3,4-DHBA molecules. A slight influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Co NPs, and a strong influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Cu NPs in SW with 2,3-DHBA compared with SW alone. The extent of metal release increased in the order: WC < Cu < Co < WC-Co NPs. All NPs released more than 1 wt-% of their metal total mass. The release from the Cu NPs was most influenced by the presence of DHBA molecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Cobalt, Copper, Metal release, Nanoparticles, Tungsten, Metal nanoparticles, Metals, Molecules, Sedimentation, Tungsten alloys, Tungsten carbide, 3, 4-Dihydroxybenzoic acids, Micron-sized particles, Nanoparticle (NPs), Negatively charged, Physicochemical characteristics, Synthetic surfaces, Tungsten carbide cobalt, Surface waters
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207343 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.006 (DOI)000399261400026 ()2-s2.0-85011949542 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170607

Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-13Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, J., Ekvall, M. T., Hansson, L.-A. -., Cedervall, T. & Odnevall Wallinder, I. (2017). Tungsten carbide nanoparticles in simulated surface water with natural organic matter: dissolution, agglomeration, sedimentation and interaction with Daphnia magna. Environmental Science: Nano, 4(4), 886-894
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tungsten carbide nanoparticles in simulated surface water with natural organic matter: dissolution, agglomeration, sedimentation and interaction with Daphnia magna
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science: Nano, ISSN 2051-8153, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though anthropogenic nano-sized tungsten carbide nanoparticles (WC NPs) have been found in the environment, there are currently no investigations on their environmental fate. This work studies the interaction between natural organic matter (NOM) and WC NPs, as well as the potential uptake by the aquatic model organism Daphnia magna. We here show that the affinity between WC NPs and humic acid or dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), which are model molecules of NOM, is very low with no observed surface adsorption. The lack of a stabilizing effect of these organic molecules, in combination with a relatively high effective density of WC NP agglomerates in humic acid, resulted in the substantial agglomeration and sedimentation of the WC NPs. A higher stability of the smaller sized WC NP agglomerates (&lt;150 nm) means that this fraction is mobile and can be transported to other settings, suggesting that this particle fraction should be considered in further studies. The dissolution of tungsten from WC NPs was continuous and the relatively slow dissolution rate (on the order of 0.03 mg m-2 h-1) implies that particle transport will not be severely limited from a dissolution perspective. Uptake of tungsten (dissolved tungsten and WC particles) by D. magna was observed although this did not induce any acute toxic effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207383 (URN)10.1039/c6en00645k (DOI)000399430500014 ()2-s2.0-85017559802 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding details: ICP, Instituto Científico Pfizer; Funding details: KTH, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan; Funding text: This work is a part of the Mistra Environmental Nanosafety program, and the financial support from Mistra is greatly acknowledged. Sara Isaksson, from KTH, is acknowledged for metal release and size distribution measurements. Alexandre Barreiro Fidalgo, from KTH, is acknowledged for help with ICP measurements. Nanxuan Mei, from KTH, is acknowledged for help with ATR-IR. Dr. Justin Teeguarden, from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, USA, is acknowledged for providing the Matlab routine for the ISDD computations.

QC 20170609

Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2017-06-09Bibliographically approved
Latvala, S., Hedberg, J., Möller, L., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Karlsson, H. L. & Elihn, K. (2016). Optimization of an air-liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Toxicology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of an air-liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm-2) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min-1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm-2) showed significantly (P &lt; 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.

Keywords
A549, ALI, Electrostatic, In vitro, Nanoparticles, Nanotoxicology, Silver
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186742 (URN)10.1002/jat.3304 (DOI)000382699000006 ()2-s2.0-84960154725 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160530

Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, J., Karlsson, H. L., Hedberg, Y., Blomberg, E. & Wallinder, I. O. (2016). The importance of extracellular speciation and corrosion of copper nanoparticles on lung cell membrane integrity. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141, 291-300
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of extracellular speciation and corrosion of copper nanoparticles on lung cell membrane integrity
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2016 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 141, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) are increasingly used in various biologically relevant applications and products, e.g., due to their antimicrobial and catalytic properties. This inevitably demands for an improved understanding on their interactions and potential toxic effects on humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion of copper nanoparticles in various biological media and to elucidate the speciation of released copper in solution. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lung cell (A549 type II) membrane damage induced by Cu NPs in the various media were studied. The used biological media of different complexity are of relevance for nanotoxicological studies: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM), DMEM+ (includes fetal bovine serum), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and PBS + histidine. The results show that both copper release and corrosion are enhanced in DMEM+, DMEM, and PBS + histidine compared with PBS alone. Speciation results show that essentially no free copper ions are present in the released fraction of Cu NPs in neither DMEM+, DMEM nor histidine, while labile Cu complexes form in PBS. The Cu NPs were substantially more membrane reactive in PBS compared to the other media and the NPs caused larger effects compared to the same mass of Cu ions. Similarly, the Cu NPs caused much more ROS generation compared to the released fraction only. Taken together, the results suggest that membrane damage and ROS formation are stronger induced by Cu NPs and by free or labile Cu ions/complexes compared with Cu bound to biomolecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Copper nanoparticles, Nanotoxicity, Lung cells, Speciation, Corrosion, Membrane damage, DMEM, Equilibrium modeling, UV-vis spectroscopy, Polarography
National Category
Biophysics Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186555 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.052 (DOI)000374197700034 ()26859121 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84957022551 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, J., Oromieh, A. G., Kleja, D. B. & Odenevall Wallinder, I. (2015). Sorption and dissolution of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in soil suspensions-Influence of soil and particle characteristics. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 50(9), 891-900
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sorption and dissolution of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in soil suspensions-Influence of soil and particle characteristics
2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 891-900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products triggers the need for investigations that improve the understanding of their chemical transformations upon environmental entry. Such knowledge provides crucial information for toxicological studies and risk assessments. Interactions with the soil compartment need to be explored as there are evident risks of the dispersion of both AgNPs and of released Ag ions/complexes present in wastewater-treated sludge that is distributed onto agricultural land. The dissolution and fractionation in solution of bare (AgNP-bare, noncoated) and coated AgNPs (AgNP-coat, stabilized with two nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene glycerol trioleate and Tween 20) were investigated after 4 and 48h in suspensions of one sandy and one clayey soil of different pHs (3.3, 5.2). Parallel experiments were performed with soil suspensions spiked with easily soluble AgNO3. Silver in the water phase was separated in a dissolved fraction (mainly Ag ions/complexes) and a particle fraction (mainly AgNP/agglomerates/Ag adsorbed on organic matter) by means of ultracentrifugation. Bare AgNPs were nonstable and dissolved to a significantly larger extent in the sandy soil mixture compared to coated AgNPs. The concentration of dissolved Ag (ions/complexes) in the water phase was similar in the case of bare AgNPs and AgNO3 (at pH 3 and 5.2) after 24h in sandy soil, which implies a high degree of dissolution of bare AgNPs (50-100%). In contrast, approximately 50% of the coated AgNPs remained in the water phase after 48h of equilibration in the sandy soil at pH 5.2. The clayey soil had a significantly higher sorption capacity of Ag compared with the sandy soil, as Ag in the case of coated AgNPs was only detected in the water phase of pH 5.2 (<1 % of added Ag). Ultracentrifugation was proven more efficient compared with microfiltration to separate the dissolved Ag fraction (ions/complexes) and the particle fraction (AgNPs/agglomerates) of the water phase. This fractionation is not a measure of any potential toxicity.

Keywords
microfiltration, dissolution, soil, silver nanoparticles, Absorption spectroscopy, ultracentrifugation, sorption
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170669 (URN)000356296200001 ()26061202 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84931034672 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2015-07-07 Created: 2015-07-03 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, E., Hedberg, J., Larsson, P. A., Wågberg, L. & Johnson, C. M. (2015). Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy on polyelectrolyte multilayers: Effect of molecular surface structure on macroscopic wetting properties. Langmuir, 31(15), 4435-4442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy on polyelectrolyte multilayers: Effect of molecular surface structure on macroscopic wetting properties
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2015 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 4435-4442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adsorption of a single layer of molecules on a surface, or even a reorientation of already present molecules, can significantly affect the surface properties of a material. In this study, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) has been used to study the change in molecular structure at the solid-air interface following thermal curing of polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(acrylic acid). Significant changes in the VSF spectra were observed after curing. These changes were accompanied by a distinct increase in the static water contact angle, showing how the properties of the layer-by-layer molecular structure are controlled not just by the polyelectrolyte in the outermost layer but ultimately by the orientation of the chemical constituents in the outermost layers.

Keywords
Curing, Interferometry, Molecular structure, Molecules, Multilayers, Phase interfaces, Polyelectrolytes, Chemical constituents, Molecular surfaces, Poly(acrylic acid ), Polyallylamine hydrochloride, Polyelectrolyte multilayer, Solid-air interface, Vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopies, Wetting property
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-166972 (URN)10.1021/la5046207 (DOI)000353429300009 ()25859709 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84928472909 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Note

QC 20150528

Available from: 2015-05-28 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Karlsson, M.-E., Blomberg, E., Odnevall Wallinder, I. & Hedberg, J. (2014). Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 122, 216-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media
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2014 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 122, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stainless steel is widely used in biological environments, for example as implant material or in food applications, where adsorption-controlled ligand-induced metal release is of importance from a corrosion, health, and food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential correlations between surface energy and wettability of stainless steel surfaces and the release of iron in complexing biological media. This was accomplished by studying changes in surface energies calculated from contact angle measurements, surface oxide composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and released iron (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy) for stainless steel grade AISI 304 immersed in fluids containing bovine serum albumin or citric acid, and non-complexing fluids such as NaCl, NaOH, and HNO3. It was shown that the surface wettability and polar surface energy components were all influenced by adventitious atmospheric carbon (surface contamination of low molecular weight), rather than differences in surface oxide composition in non-complexing solutions. Adsorption of both BSA and citrate, which resulted in ligand-induced metal release, strongly influenced the wettability and the surface energy, and correlated well with the measured released amount of iron.

Keywords
Stainless steel, Surface chemistry, Corrosion, Metal release, Adsorption, Protein
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-156118 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.06.066 (DOI)000343612900028 ()2-s2.0-84904540200 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-5621
Note

QC 20150108

Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y. S., Hedberg, J. F., Herting, G., Goidanich, S. & Odnevall Wallinder, I. (2014). Critical Review: Copper Runoff from Outdoor Copper Surfaces at Atmospheric Conditions. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(3), 1372-1381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Review: Copper Runoff from Outdoor Copper Surfaces at Atmospheric Conditions
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2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1372-1381Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from. outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chloride, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

Keywords
Naturally Patinated Copper, Corrosion-Induced Release, Roof Runoff, Chemical Speciation, Aquatic Toxicity, Water Runoff, Heavy-Metals, Storm Water, Rain Events, External Structures
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-143438 (URN)10.1021/es404410s (DOI)000331015100005 ()2-s2.0-84893546138 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140324

Available from: 2014-03-24 Created: 2014-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2100-8864

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