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Välja, M., Lagerström, R., Franke, U. & Ericsson, G. (2019). A Framework for Automatic IT Architecture Modeling: Applying Truth Discovery. Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly (20)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Automatic IT Architecture Modeling: Applying Truth Discovery
2019 (English)In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly, E-ISSN 2255-9922, no 20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modeling IT architecture is a complex, time consuming, and error prone task. However, many systems produce information that can be used for automating modeling. Early studies show that this is a feasible approach if we can overcome certain obstacles. Often more than one source is needed in order to cover the data requirements of an IT architecture model; and the use of multiple sources means that heterogeneous data needs to be merged. Moreover, the same collection of data might be useful for creating more than one kind of models for decision support. IT architecture is constantly changing and data sources provide information that can deviate from reality to some degree. There can be problems with varying accuracy (e.g. actuality and coverage), representation (e.g. data syntax and file format), or inconsistent semantics. Thus, integration of heterogeneous data from different sources needs to handle data quality problems of the sources. This can be done by using probabilistic models. In the field of truth discovery, these models have been developed to track data source trustworthiness in order to help solving conflicts while making quality issues manageable for automatic modeling. We build upon previous research in modeling automation and propose a framework for merging data from multiple sources with a truth discovery algorithm to create multiple IT architecture models. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated in a study where models using three tools are created, namely; Archi, securiCAD, and EMFTA.

Keywords
IT Architecture Modeling; System Modeling; Automatic Data Collection; Automatic Modeling
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-264230 (URN)10.7250/csimq.2019-20.02 (DOI)
Note

QC 20191125

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Fazlollahi, A. & Franke, U. (2018). Measuring the impact of enterprise integration on firm performance using data envelopment analysis. International Journal of Production Economics, 200, 119-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring the impact of enterprise integration on firm performance using data envelopment analysis
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 200, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, with rapidly developing technology and changing business models, organizations face rapid changes in both internal and external environments. To be able to rapidly respond to such changing environments, integration of software systems has become a top priority for many organizations. However, despite extensive use of software systems integration, quantitative methods for estimating the business value of such integrations are still missing. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the microeconomic concept of marginal rates, this study proposes a method for quantifying the effects of enterprise integration on the firm performance. In the paper, we explain how DEA can be used to evaluate the marginal benefits of enterprise integration. Our proposed method is to measure and compare the productive efficiency of firms using enterprise integration, specifically by relating the benefits produced to the resources consumed in the process. The method is illustrated on data collected from 12 organizations. The defined method has a solid theoretical foundation, eliminating the need for a priori information about the relationship between different measures. Furthermore, the framework could be used not only to quantify the business value of enterprise integration, but also to estimate trade-offs and impacts of other subjective managerial goals on the results. The major limitation of the proposed method is the absence of a comprehensive theory relating IT architecture changes to organizational outcomes. The underlying model is strongly dependent on the relevancy and accuracy of the included variables, as well as number of data units, introducing uncertainties to the outcomes of the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Business value, Data envelopment analysis, Enterprise integration, Firm performance, Information technology, Productivity
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227566 (URN)10.1016/j.ijpe.2018.02.011 (DOI)000434889900009 ()2-s2.0-85045540193 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180516

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
Franke, U. & Buschle, M. (2016). Experimental Evidence on Decision-Making in Availability Service Level Agreements. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, 13(1), 58-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evidence on Decision-Making in Availability Service Level Agreements
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As more enterprises buy information technology services, studying their underpinning contracts becomes more important. With cloud computing and outsourcing, these service level agreements (SLAs) are now often the only link between the business and the supporting IT services. This paper presents an experimental economics investigation of decision-making with regard to availability SLAs, among enterprise IT professionals. The method and the ecologically valid subjects make the study unique to date among IT service SLA studies. The experiment consisted of pairwise choices under uncertainty, and subjects (N = 46) were incentivized by payments based on one of their choices, randomly selected. The research question investigated in this paper is: Do enterprise IT professionals maximize expected value when procuring availability SLAs, as would be optimal from the business point of view? The main result is that enterprise IT professionals fail to maximize expected value. Whereas some subjects do maximize expected value, others are risk-seeking, risk-averse, or exhibit non-monotonic preferences. The nonmonotonic behavior in particular is an interesting observation, which has no obvious explanation in the literature. For a subset of the subjects (N = 29), a few further hypotheses related to associations between general attitude to risk or professional experience on the one hand, and behavior in SLAs on the other hand, were investigated. No support for these associations was found. The results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited number of subjects. However, given the prominence of SLAs in modern IT service management, the results are interesting and call for further research, as they indicate that current professional decision-making regarding SLAs can be improved. In particular, if general attitude to risk and professional experience do not impact decision-making with regard to SLAs, more extensive use of decision-support systems might be called for in order to facilitate proper risk management.

Keywords
Service level agreements, enterprise IT service availability, decision-making
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185375 (URN)10.1109/TNSM.2015.2510080 (DOI)000372652600005 ()2-s2.0-84963946775 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160418

Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Franke, U., Johnson, P. & König, J. (2014). An architecture framework for enterprise IT service availability analysis. Software and Systems Modeling, 13(4), 1417-1445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An architecture framework for enterprise IT service availability analysis
2014 (English)In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1417-1445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an integrated enterprise architecture framework for qualitative and quantitative modeling and assessment of enterprise IT service availability. While most previous work has either focused on formal availability methods such as fault trees or qualitative methods such as maturity models, this framework offers a combination. First, a modeling and assessment framework is described. In addition to metamodel classes, relationships and attributes suitable for availability modeling, the framework also features a formal computational model written in a probabilistic version of the object constraint language. The model is based on 14 systemic factors impacting service availability and also accounts for the structural features of the service architecture. Second, the framework is empirically tested in nine enterprise information system case studies. Based on an initial availability baseline and the annual evolution of the 14 factors of the model, annual availability predictions are made and compared with the actual outcomes as reported in SLA reports and system logs. The practical usefulness of the method is discussed based on the outcomes of a workshop conducted with the participating enterprises, and some directions for future research are offered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Keywords
Systems availability, Service availability, Downtime, Noisy-OR, System quality analysis, Enterprise Architecture, ArchiMate, Metamodel, OCL
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-101941 (URN)10.1007/s10270-012-0307-3 (DOI)000342493300011 ()2-s2.0-84911004529 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141027. Updated from e-pub ahead of print to published.

Available from: 2013-02-04 Created: 2012-09-06 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P., Ullberg, J., Buschle, M., Franke, U. & Shahzad, K. (2014). An architecture modeling framework for probabilistic prediction. Information Systems and E-Business Management, 12(4), 595-622
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An architecture modeling framework for probabilistic prediction
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2014 (English)In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 595-622Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the design phase of business and IT system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. A number of formalisms to assess qualities such as performance, reliability and security have therefore previously been proposed. However, existing prediction systems do not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. Yet, in contemporary business, the high rate of change in the environment leads to uncertainties about present and future characteristics of the system, so significant that ignoring them becomes problematic. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P(2)AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about business and IT architecture models, given in the form of Unified Modeling Language class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P(2)AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P(2)AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

Keywords
Assessment, Business properties, Object Constraint Language, Prediction, Probabilistic inference, System properties, UML
National Category
Computer Systems Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-149177 (URN)10.1007/s10257-014-0241-8 (DOI)000344741500006 ()2-s2.0-84912040897 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20141212

Available from: 2014-08-16 Created: 2014-08-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Närman, P., Franke, U., König, J., Buschle, M. & Ekstedt, M. (2014). Enterprise Architecture Availability Analysis Using Fault Trees and Stakeholder Interviews. Enterprise Information Systems, 8(1), 1-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enterprise Architecture Availability Analysis Using Fault Trees and Stakeholder Interviews
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2014 (English)In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The availability of enterprise information systems is a key concern for many organisations. This article describes a method for availability analysis based on Fault Tree Analysis and constructs from the ArchiMate enterprise architecture (EA) language. To test the quality of the method, several case-studies within the banking and electrical utility industries were performed. Input data were collected through stakeholder interviews. The results from the case studies were compared with availability of log data to determine the accuracy of the method's predictions. In the five cases where accurate log data were available, the yearly downtime estimates were within eight hours from the actual downtimes. The cost of performing the analysis was low; no case study required more than 20 man-hours of work, making the method ideal for practitioners with an interest in obtaining rapid availability estimates of their enterprise information systems.

Keywords
availability, enterprise architecture, probabilistic relational models, architecture analysis, fault tree analysis, stakeholder elicitation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-79641 (URN)10.1080/17517575.2011.647092 (DOI)000328473200001 ()2-s2.0-84890611982 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140122

Available from: 2012-02-09 Created: 2012-02-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Gingnell, L., Franke, U., Lagerström, R., Ericsson, E. & Lilliesköld, J. (2014). Quantifying Success Factors for IT Projects-An Expert-Based Bayesian Model. Information systems management, 31(1), 21-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying Success Factors for IT Projects-An Expert-Based Bayesian Model
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2014 (English)In: Information systems management, ISSN 1058-0530, E-ISSN 1934-8703, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large investments are made annually to develop and maintain IT systems. Successful outcome of IT projects is therefore crucial for the economy. Yet, many IT projects fail completely or are delayed or over budget, or they end up with less functionality than planned. This article describes a Bayesian decision-support model. The model is based on expert elicited data from 51 experts. Using this model, the effect management decisions have upon projects can be estimated beforehand, thus providing decision support for the improvement of IT project performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keywords
IT project success factors, decision support, Bayesian networks, Noisy-OR, expert elicitation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129084 (URN)10.1080/10580530.2014.854033 (DOI)000329911500003 ()2-s2.0-84892973418 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140131. Updated from accepted to published.

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ulrik, F., Buschle, M. & Österlind, M. (2013). An experiment in SLA decision-making. In: : . Paper presented at Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services - 10th International Conference, GECON 2013, Zaragoza, Spain, September 18-20, 2013 (pp. 256-267).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experiment in SLA decision-making
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Decision-makingwithregardtoavailabilityservicelevelagree- ments (SLAs) is investigated. An experimental economics approach was used to elicit the preferences for different SLA alternatives from the sub- jects (N = 16), all professionally working with IT management. A pre- viously published scenario on downtime costs in the retail business was used in the experimental setup. Subjects made 18 pairwise choices under uncertainty. After the experiment, they were paid based on one of their choices, randomly selected. The subjects rarely behaved as expected util- ity maximizers in the experiment. This raises questions about company SLA management in real situations, and calls for further research.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 0302-9743
Keywords
Availability, Decision-making, Experiment, Service Level Agreements, SLA Management
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138043 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-02414-1_19 (DOI)2-s2.0-84886423931 (Scopus ID)9783319024134 (ISBN)
Conference
Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services - 10th International Conference, GECON 2013, Zaragoza, Spain, September 18-20, 2013
Note

QC 20150210

Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johnson, P., Ullberg, J., Buschle, M., Franke, U. & Shahzad, K. (2013). P2AMF: Predictive, probabilistic architecture modeling framework. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: . Paper presented at 5th International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability, IWEI 2013, 27 March 2013 through 28 March 2013, Enschede (pp. 104-117).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>P2AMF: Predictive, probabilistic architecture modeling framework
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2013 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 2013, p. 104-117Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the design phase of business and software system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. Existing prediction systems do, however, not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P 2AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about architecture models given in the form of UML class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P2AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P2AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment, and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348 ; 144
Keywords
class diagram, Object Constraint Language, object diagram, prediction, probabilistic inference, system properties, UML, Class diagrams, Object diagrams, System property, Forecasting, Industry, Interoperability, Markup languages, Inference engines
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134654 (URN)000345294000010 ()2-s2.0-84875673907 (Scopus ID)9783642367953 (ISBN)978-3-642-36796-0 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability, IWEI 2013, 27 March 2013 through 28 March 2013, Enschede
Note

QC 20131211

Available from: 2013-12-11 Created: 2013-11-27 Last updated: 2017-04-28Bibliographically approved
Sandels, C., Franke, U. & Nordström, L. (2013). Vehicle to grid: System reference architectures and Monte Carlo simulations. International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, 11(2-3), 205-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle to grid: System reference architectures and Monte Carlo simulations
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, ISSN 1471-0226, Vol. 11, no 2-3, p. 205-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent data have shown that it could be profitable on some control markets to use Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) as control power resources. The concept where battery driven vehicles such as PHEVs provide ancillary service to the grid is commonly referred to as Vehicle to Grid (V2G). As each PHEV has a limited capacity, it is necessary to have a control system that aggregates a large number of vehicles. This paper investigates what is required in order to design such a system. The result is presented as reference architectures and contains propositions of important components, processes and information needs. It is shown that a PHEV can provide control power in two different ways that in turn generate several different system concepts. A mathematical model is presented that allows comparison between the different solutions.

Keywords
Aggregator, Control market, Phev, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, Reference architecture, V2G, Vehicle to grid, Vehicle to grids, Commerce, Digital storage, Electric vehicles, Mathematical models, Profitability, Monte Carlo methods
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134465 (URN)10.1504/IJVAS.2013.053780 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877778975 (Scopus ID)
Funder
StandUp
Note

QC 20150624

Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2015-06-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2017-7914

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