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Lai, L.-L., Huang, P.-H., Stemme, G., Niklaus, F. & Gylfason, K. B. (2024). 3D Printing of Glass Micro-Optics with Subwavelength Features on Optical Fiber Tips. ACS Nano, 18(16), 10788-10797
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printing of Glass Micro-Optics with Subwavelength Features on Optical Fiber Tips
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2024 (English)In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 18, no 16, p. 10788-10797Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integration of functional materials and structures on the tips of optical fibers has enabled various applications in micro-optics, such as sensing, imaging, and optical trapping. Direct laser writing is a 3D printing technology that holds promise for fabricating advanced micro-optical structures on fiber tips. To date, material selection has been limited to organic polymer-based photoresists because existing methods for 3D direct laser writing of inorganic materials involve high-temperature processing that is not compatible with optical fibers. However, organic polymers do not feature stability and transparency comparable to those of inorganic glasses. Herein, we demonstrate 3D direct laser writing of inorganic glass with a subwavelength resolution on optical fiber tips. We show two distinct printing modes that enable the printing of solid silica glass structures (“Uniform Mode”) and self-organized subwavelength gratings (“Nanograting Mode”), respectively. We illustrate the utility of our approach by printing two functional devices: (1) a refractive index sensor that can measure the indices of binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at near-infrared wavelengths and (2) a compact polarization beam splitter for polarization control and beam steering in an all-in-fiber system. By combining the superior material properties of glass with the plug-and-play nature of optical fibers, this approach enables promising applications in fields such as fiber sensing, optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and quantum photonics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2024
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-345881 (URN)10.1021/acsnano.3c11030 (DOI)001194459400001 ()2-s2.0-85189353165 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, SSF GMT14-0071Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, SSF STP19-0014
Note

QC 20240425

Available from: 2024-04-24 Created: 2024-04-24 Last updated: 2024-04-25Bibliographically approved
Enrico, A., Buchmann, S., De Ferrari, F., Lin, Y., Wang, Y., Yue, W., . . . Zeglio, E. (2024). Cleanroom‐Free Direct Laser Micropatterning of Polymers for Organic Electrochemical Transistors in Logic Circuits and Glucose Biosensors. Advanced Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cleanroom‐Free Direct Laser Micropatterning of Polymers for Organic Electrochemical Transistors in Logic Circuits and Glucose Biosensors
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2024 (English)In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising devices for bioelectronics, such as biosensors. However, current cleanroom-based microfabrication of OECTs hinders fast prototyping and widespread adoption of this technology for low-volume, low-cost applications. To address this limitation, a versatile and scalable approach for ultrafast laser microfabrication of OECTs is herein reported, where a femtosecond laser to pattern insulating polymers (such as parylene C or polyimide) is first used, exposing the underlying metal electrodes serving as transistor terminals (source, drain, or gate). After the first patterning step, conducting polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), or semiconducting polymers, are spin-coated on the device surface. Another femtosecond laser patterning step subsequently defines the active polymer area contributing to the OECT performance by disconnecting the channel and gate from the surrounding spin-coated film. The effective OECT width can be defined with high resolution (down to 2 µm) in less than a second of exposure. Micropatterning the OECT channel area significantly improved the transistor switching performance in the case of PEDOT:PSS-based transistors, speeding up the devices by two orders of magnitude. The utility of this OECT manufacturing approach is demonstrated by fabricating complementary logic (inverters) and glucose biosensors, thereby showing its potential to accelerate OECT research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2024
Keywords
conjugated polymer, direct writing, organic electrochemical transistor, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate, ultrashort pulsed lasers
National Category
Organic Chemistry Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342521 (URN)10.1002/advs.202307042 (DOI)001142422700001 ()2-s2.0-85182492139 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018‐03483Swedish Research Council, 2022‐04060Swedish Research Council, 2022‐02855Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2015.0178Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2020.0206Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2021.0312Swedish Research Council, 2022-00374
Note

QC 20240123

Available from: 2024-01-23 Created: 2024-01-23 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
Pagliano, S., Schröder, S., Stemme, G. & Niklaus, F. (2023). 3D Printing by Two-Photon Polymerization of Polyimide Objects and Demonstration of a 3D-printed Micro-Hotplate. Advanced Materials Technologies, 8(19), Article ID 2300229.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printing by Two-Photon Polymerization of Polyimide Objects and Demonstration of a 3D-printed Micro-Hotplate
2023 (English)In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 8, no 19, article id 2300229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polyimides are polymeric materials with outstanding thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. For this reason, they find applications in several engineering sectors, including aerospace, microsystems, and biomedical applications. For realizing 3D structures made of polyimides, 3D printing is an attractive technique because it overcomes the limitations of polyimide processing using conventional manufacturing techniques such as molding and subtractive manufacturing. However, current polyimide 3D printing approaches are limited to realizing objects with the smallest dimensions of the order of a few hundred micrometers. 3D printing of polyimide objects featuring sub-micrometer resolution using two-photon polymerization by direct laser writing is demonstrated here. A negative photosensitive polyimide is applied that is widely used in microsystems applications. To demonstrate the utility of this polyimide 3D printing approach and the compatibility of the 3D objects with operation at elevated temperatures, a micro-hotplate is 3D printed and characterized at operating temperatures of above 300 °C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2023
Keywords
flexible photodetectors, full-spectrum detections, near-infrared imaging, near-infrared organic photodetectors, ultranarrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptors
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338507 (URN)10.1002/admt.202300229 (DOI)001049272200001 ()2-s2.0-85167835586 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231115

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Pagliano, S., Marschner, D. E., Maillard, D., Ehrmann, N., Stemme, G., Braun, S., . . . Niklaus, F. (2023). A 3D-Printed Functional Mems Accelerometer. In: 2023 IEEE 36TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, MEMS: . Paper presented at 36th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), JAN 15-19, 2023, Munich, GERMANY (pp. 594-597). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 3D-Printed Functional Mems Accelerometer
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2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 36TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS, MEMS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, p. 594-597Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

3D printing of MEMS devices could enable the cost-efficient production of custom-designed and complex 3D MEMS for prototyping and for low-volume applications. In this work, we present the first micro 3D-printed functional MEMS accelerometers using two-photon polymerization combined with the evaporation of metal strain gauge transducers. We measured the resonance frequency, the responsivity, and the signal stability over a period of 10 h of the 3D-printed accelerometer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Series
Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, ISSN 1084-6999
Keywords
3D printing, two-photon polymerization, shadow masking, strain gauge transducer, Laser Doppler Vibrometer, custom MEMS, low-volume manufacturing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-328424 (URN)10.1109/MEMS49605.2023.10052385 (DOI)000975359200156 ()2-s2.0-85149826299 (Scopus ID)
Conference
36th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), JAN 15-19, 2023, Munich, GERMANY
Note

QC 20230613

Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
Marschner, D. E., Pagliano, S., Huang, P.-H. & Niklaus, F. (2023). A methodology for two-photon polymerization micro 3D printing of objects with long overhanging structures. Additive Manufacturing, 66, Article ID 103474.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A methodology for two-photon polymerization micro 3D printing of objects with long overhanging structures
2023 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 66, article id 103474Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

3D printing by two-photon polymerization (TPP) is a well-established manufacturing approach for realizing 3D polymer structures at the micro- and nanoscale. However, an important shortcoming of 3D printing by two-photon polymerization is that it is extremely challenging to print 3D objects with long overhanging features, which severely limits the application space of this technology. Here, we introduce a methodology for 3D printing by two-photon polymerization that allows the realization of 3D objects with long overhanging structures that cannot be printed using conventional printing strategies. Our methodology combines different printing approaches for realizing the overhanging structure, including locally adjusted printing block sizes and a mix of the Shell & Scaffold and Solid printing modes. As a result, objects with long overhanging parts can be printed without the need for added support structures. Using this approach, we demonstrate successful printing of overhanging cantilevers with a quadratic cross-section of 50 µm x 50 µm and lengths of up to 1000 µm. Thus, our printing modality substantially extends the capabilities and application space of 3D printing by two-photon polymerization and removes current design limitations regarding 3D printed objects with long overhanging structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
3D printing, Direct laser writing, Free-hanging, Overhanging, Two-photon polymerization
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-330983 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2023.103474 (DOI)000950756800001 ()2-s2.0-85150765588 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230705

Available from: 2023-07-05 Created: 2023-07-05 Last updated: 2023-07-05Bibliographically approved
Li, Y., Bleiker, S. J., Edinger, P., Worsey, E., Kulsreshath, M. K., Tang, Q., . . . Niklaus, F. (2023). Design and fabrication of a 4-terminal in-plane nanoelectromechanical relay. In: : . Paper presented at Transducers2023 - The 22nd International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Kyoto, June 25-29, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and fabrication of a 4-terminal in-plane nanoelectromechanical relay
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present 4-terminal (4-T) silicon (Si) nanoelectronmechanical (NEM) relays fabricated on silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafers. We demonstrate true 4-T switching behavior with isolated control and signal paths. A pull-in voltage as low as 11.6 V is achieved with the miniaturized design. 4-T NEM relays are a very promising candidate for building ultra-low-power logic circuits since they enable novel circuit architectures to realize logic functions with far fewer devices than CMOS implementations, while also allowing the dynamic power consumption to be reduced by body-biasing.

Keywords
4-T NEM relays, in-plane Si relays, decoupled signals, low pull-in voltage, ultra-low power consumption
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-339307 (URN)
Conference
Transducers2023 - The 22nd International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Kyoto, June 25-29, 2023
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 871740
Note

QC 20231108

Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
Li, Y., Worsey, E., Bleiker, S. J., Edinger, P., Kulsreshath, M., Tang, Q., . . . Niklaus, F. (2023). Integrated 4-terminal single-contact nanoelectromechanical relays implemented in a silicon-on-insulator foundry process. Nanoscale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated 4-terminal single-contact nanoelectromechanical relays implemented in a silicon-on-insulator foundry process
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2023 (English)In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Integrated nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays can be used instead of transistors to implement ultra-low power logic circuits, due to their abrupt turn-off characteristics and zero off-state leakage. Further, realizing circuits with 4-terminal (4-T) NEM relays enables significant reduction in circuit device count compared to conventional transistor circuits. For practical 4-T NEM circuits, however, the relays need to be miniaturized and integrated with high-density back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnects, which is challenging and has not been realized to date. Here, we present electrostatically actuated silicon 4-T NEM relays that are integrated with multi-layer BEOL metal interconnects, implemented using a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) foundry process. We demonstrate 4-T switching and the use of body-biasing to reduce pull-in voltage of a relay with a 300 nm airgap, from 15.8 V to 7.8 V, consistent with predictions of the finite-element model. Our 4-T NEM relay technology enables new possibilities for realizing NEM-based circuits for applications demanding harsh environment computation and zero standby power, in industries such as automotive, Internet-of-Things, and aerospace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-339308 (URN)10.1039/D3NR03429A (DOI)001085474400001 ()37856244 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85175573525 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 871740
Note

QC 20231113

Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2023-11-19Bibliographically approved
Quack, N., Takabayashi, A. Y., Sattari, H., Edinger, P., Jo, G., Bleiker, S. J., . . . Bogaerts, W. (2023). Integrated silicon photonic MEMS. MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING, 9(1), Article ID 27.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated silicon photonic MEMS
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2023 (English)In: MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING, ISSN 2055-7434, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silicon photonics has emerged as a mature technology that is expected to play a key role in critical emerging applications, including very high data rate optical communications, distance sensing for autonomous vehicles, photonic-accelerated computing, and quantum information processing. The success of silicon photonics has been enabled by the unique combination of performance, high yield, and high-volume capacity that can only be achieved by standardizing manufacturing technology. Today, standardized silicon photonics technology platforms implemented by foundries provide access to optimized library components, including low-loss optical routing, fast modulation, continuous tuning, high-speed germanium photodiodes, and high-efficiency optical and electrical interfaces. However, silicon's relatively weak electro-optic effects result in modulators with a significant footprint and thermo-optic tuning devices that require high power consumption, which are substantial impediments for very large-scale integration in silicon photonics. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology can enhance silicon photonics with building blocks that are compact, low-loss, broadband, fast and require very low power consumption. Here, we introduce a silicon photonic MEMS platform consisting of high-performance nano-opto-electromechanical devices fully integrated alongside standard silicon photonics foundry components, with wafer-level sealing for long-term reliability, flip-chip bonding to redistribution interposers, and fibre-array attachment for high port count optical and electrical interfacing. Our experimental demonstration of fundamental silicon photonic MEMS circuit elements, including power couplers, phase shifters and wavelength-division multiplexing devices using standardized technology lifts previous impediments to enable scaling to very large photonic integrated circuits for applications in telecommunications, neuromorphic computing, sensing, programmable photonics, and quantum computing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-325757 (URN)10.1038/s41378-023-00498-z (DOI)000956092800002 ()36949734 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85150891566 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction in DOI 10.1038/s41378-023-00649-2

QC 20230414

Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Khan, U., Zand, I., Van Iseghem, L., Edinger, P., Jo, G., Bleiker, S. J., . . . Bogaerts, W. (2023). Low power actuators for programmable photonic processors. In: AI and Optical Data Sciences IV: . Paper presented at AI and Optical Data Sciences IV 2023, San Francisco, United States of America, Jan 30 2023 - Feb 2 2023. SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, Article ID 124380K.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low power actuators for programmable photonic processors
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2023 (English)In: AI and Optical Data Sciences IV, SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng , 2023, article id 124380KConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demand for efficient actuators in photonics has peaked with increasing popularity for large-scale general-purpose programmable photonics circuits. We present our work to enhance an established silicon photonics platform with low-power micro-electromechanical (MEMS) and liquid crystal (LC) actuators to enable large-scale programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 2023
Keywords
Liquid Crystals (LC), low-power actuators, Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS), Photonic integrated circuits (PIC), Programmable Photonics, Silicon Photonics
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-333296 (URN)10.1117/12.2647371 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159787071 (Scopus ID)
Conference
AI and Optical Data Sciences IV 2023, San Francisco, United States of America, Jan 30 2023 - Feb 2 2023
Note

Part of ISBN 9781510659810

QC 20230801

Available from: 2023-08-01 Created: 2023-08-01 Last updated: 2023-08-01Bibliographically approved
Lai, L.-L., Huang, P.-H., Stemme, G., Niklaus, F. & Gylfason, K. (2023). Picoliter-volume refractive index sensor 3D-printed in silica glass on an optical fiber tip. In: 2023 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2023: . Paper presented at 2023 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2023, San Jose, United States of America, May 7 2023 - May 12 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID AM4K.1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Picoliter-volume refractive index sensor 3D-printed in silica glass on an optical fiber tip
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2023 (English)In: 2023 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023, article id AM4K.1Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a refractive index sensor additively 3D-printed in silica glass on an optical fiber tip. The sensor shows a sensitivity of 900 nm/RIU and measures a liquid volume as small as 0.6 pl.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2023
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-339979 (URN)2-s2.0-85176336459 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2023 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2023, San Jose, United States of America, May 7 2023 - May 12 2023
Note

Part of ISBN 9781957171258

QC 20231124

Available from: 2023-11-24 Created: 2023-11-24 Last updated: 2023-11-24Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0525-8647

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