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Publications (10 of 164) Show all publications
Smith, A. D., Li, Q., Vyas, A., Haque, M. M., Wang, K., Velasco, A., . . . Enoksson, P. (2019). Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Microsupercapacitors in Self-Powering Sensor Networks: Present and Future Development. Sensors, 19(19), Article ID 4231.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Microsupercapacitors in Self-Powering Sensor Networks: Present and Future Development
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2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 19, article id 4231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an urgent need to fulfill future energy demands for micro and nanoelectronics. This work outlines a number of important design features for carbon-based microsupercapacitors, which enhance both their performance and integration potential and are critical for complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. Based on these design features, we present CMOS-compatible, graphene-based microsupercapacitors that can be integrated at the back end of the line of the integrated circuit fabrication. Electrode materials and their interfaces play a crucial role for the device characteristics. As such, different carbon-based materials are discussed and the importance of careful design of current collector/electrode interfaces is emphasized. Electrode adhesion is an important factor to improve device performance and uniformity. Additionally, doping of the electrodes can greatly improve the energy density of the devices. As microsupercapacitors are engineered for targeted applications, device scaling is critically important, and we present the first steps toward general scaling trends. Last, we outline a potential future integration scheme for a complete microsystem on a chip, containing sensors, logic, power generation, power management, and power storage. Such a system would be self-powering.

Keywords
energy storage, IoT, microsupercapacitors, self-powering systems, sensor networks
National Category
Nano Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261098 (URN)10.3390/s19194231 (DOI)000494823200175 ()2-s2.0-85072778122 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191106

Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Quack, N., Sattari, H., Takabayashi, A. Y., Zhang, Y., Edinger, P., Errando-Herranz, C., . . . Bogaerts, W. (2019). Exploiting Mechanics at the Nanoscale to Enhance Photonic Integrated Circuits. In: 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 - Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019; San Diego; United States; 3 March 2019 through 7 March 2019 (pp. 1-3). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Article ID 8696652.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting Mechanics at the Nanoscale to Enhance Photonic Integrated Circuits
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2019 (English)In: 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, p. 1-3, article id 8696652Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the maturing and the increasing complexity of Silicon Photonics technology, novel avenues are pursued to reduce power consumption and to provide enhanced functionality: exploiting mechanical movement in advanced Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits provides a promising path to access a strong modulation of the effective index and to low power consumption by employing mechanically stable and thus non-volatile states. In this paper, we will discuss recent achievements in the development of MEMS enabled systems in Silicon Photonics and outline the roadmap towards reconfigurable general Photonic Integrated Circuits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
integrated optics, silicon photonics, MEMS, reconfigurable photonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Nano Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-258915 (URN)2-s2.0-85065483032 (Scopus ID)978-1-943580-53-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019; San Diego; United States; 3 March 2019 through 7 March 2019
Projects
MORPHIC
Note

QC 20191112

Available from: 2019-09-11 Created: 2019-09-11 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Pagliano, S., Gota, F., Raja, S. N., Dubois, V. J., Stemme, G. & Niklaus, F. (2019). Feedback-free electromigrated tunneling junctions from crack-defined gold nanowires. In: Feedback-free electromigrated tunneling junctions from crack-defined gold nanowires: . Paper presented at 32nd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Seoul, Korea, from 27-31 January 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feedback-free electromigrated tunneling junctions from crack-defined gold nanowires
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2019 (English)In: Feedback-free electromigrated tunneling junctions from crack-defined gold nanowires, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tunneling junctions are pairs of electrodes separated by gaps of a few nanometers (< 3 nm) that allow electrons to tunnel across the gap. Tunneling junctions are of great importance for applications such as label-free biomolecule sensing and single molecule electronics, but their fabrication remains difficult and laborious. In this paper, we present a simple 2-stage process for the fabrication of tunneling junctions consisting of electrode pairs made of gold (Au). This is achieved by combining a novel methodology for fabricating crack-defined Au nanowires at wafer-scale with a constant voltage, feedback-free electromigration procedure to form tunneling nanogaps free of debris.

Keywords
tunneling junctions, crack junction, electromigration
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250572 (URN)
Conference
32nd IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Seoul, Korea, from 27-31 January 2019.
Note

QCR 20190820

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Fan, X., Fredrik, F., Smith, A. D., Schröder, S., Wagner, S., Rödjegård, H., . . . Niklaus, F. (2019). Graphene ribbons with suspended masses as transducers in ultra-small nanoelectromechanical accelerometers. Nature Electronics, 2(9), 394-404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphene ribbons with suspended masses as transducers in ultra-small nanoelectromechanical accelerometers
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2019 (English)In: Nature Electronics, ISSN 2520-1131, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [eo]

Nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) sensors and actuators could be of use in the development of next-generation mobile, wearable and implantable devices. However, these NEMS devices require transducers that are ultra-small, sensitive and can be fabricated at low cost. Here, we show that suspended double-layer graphene ribbons with attached silicon proof masses can be used as combined spring–mass and piezoresistive transducers. The transducers, which are created using processes that are compatible with large-scale semiconductor manufacturing technologies, can yield NEMS accelerometers that occupy at least two orders of magnitude smaller die area than conventional state-of-the-art silicon accelerometers. With our devices, we also extract the Young’s modulus values of double-layer graphene and show that the graphene ribbons have significant built-in stresses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259517 (URN)10.1038/s41928-019-0287-1 (DOI)000486394600009 ()2-s2.0-85072131685 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191004

Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-10-14Bibliographically approved
Shi, X., Huang, Z., Laakso, M., Niklaus, F., Sliz, R., Fabritius, T., . . . Cao, W. (2019). Quantitative assessment of structural and compositional colors induced by femtosecond laser: A case study on 301LN stainless steel surface. Applied Surface Science, 484, 655-662
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative assessment of structural and compositional colors induced by femtosecond laser: A case study on 301LN stainless steel surface
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 484, p. 655-662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The topic of durable coloration and passivation of metal surfaces using state-of-the-art techniques has gained enormous attention and devotion with unremitting efforts of researchers worldwide. Although femtosecond laser marking has been performed on many metals, the related coloration mechanisms are mainly referred to structural colors produced by the interaction of visible light with periodic surface structures. Yet, general quantitative determination of the resulting colors and their origins remain elusive. In this work, we realized quantitative separations of structural colors and compositional pigmentary colors on 301LN austenitic stainless steel surfaces that were treated by femtosecond laser machining. The overall color information was extracted from surface reflectance, with structural color given by numerical simulations, and oxide compositions by chemical state analysis. It was shown that the laser-induced apparent colors of 301LN steel surfaces were combinations of structural and compositional colorations, with the former dominating the angular response and the latter setting up the brownish bases. In addition to the quantification of colors, the analysis method in this work may be useful for the generation and specification of tailored color palettes for practical coloration on metal surfaces by femtosecond laser marking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Compositional color, Femtosecond laser marking, Laser coloration, Structural color, Chemical analysis, Femtosecond lasers, Marking machines, Microalloyed steel, Structural metals, Chemical state analysis, Femtosecond laser machining, Periodic surface structures, Quantitative assessments, Quantitative determinations, Quantitative separation, State-of-the-art techniques, Color
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252501 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.04.147 (DOI)000471830700072 ()2-s2.0-85064510118 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction in DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.144583 ISI:000502040600167

QC 20190711. QC 20200115

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Enrico, A., Dubois, V. J., Niklaus, F. & Stemme, G. (2019). Scalable Manufacturing of Single Nanowire Devices Using Crack-Defined Shadow Mask Lithography. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 11(8), 8217-8226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scalable Manufacturing of Single Nanowire Devices Using Crack-Defined Shadow Mask Lithography
2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 8217-8226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Single nanowires (NWs) have a broad range of applications in nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, and nano photonics, but, to date, no technique can produce single sub 20 nm wide NWs with electrical connections in a scalable fashion. In this work, we combine conventional optical and crack lithographies to generate single NW devices with controllable and predictable dimensions and placement and with individual electrical contacts to the NWs. We demonstrate NWs made of gold, platinum, palladium, tungsten, tin, and metal oxides. We have used conventional i-line stepper lithography with a nominal resolution of 365 nm to define crack lithography structures in a shadow mask for large-scale manufacturing of sub-20 nm wide NWs, which is a 20-fold improvement over the resolution that is possible with the utilized stepper lithography. Overall, the proposed method represents an effective approach to generate single NW devices with useful applications in electrochemistry, photonics, and gas- and biosensing.

National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250298 (URN)000460365300061 ()2-s2.0-85061896644 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190430

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Fan, X., Forsberg, F., Smith, A. D., Schröder, S., Wagner, S., Östling, M., . . . Niklaus, F. (2019). Suspended Graphene Membranes with Attached Silicon Proof Masses as Piezoresistive Nanoelectromechanical Systems Accelerometers. Nano letters (Print), 19(10), 6788-6799
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspended Graphene Membranes with Attached Silicon Proof Masses as Piezoresistive Nanoelectromechanical Systems Accelerometers
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2019 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 6788-6799Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Graphene is an atomically thin material that features unique electrical and mechanical properties, which makes it an extremely promising material for future nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Recently, basic NEMS accelerometer functionality has been demonstrated by utilizing piezoresistive graphene ribbons with suspended silicon proof masses. However, the proposed graphene ribbons have limitations regarding mechanical robustness, manufacturing yield, and the maximum measurement current that can be applied across the ribbons. Here, we report on suspended graphene membranes that are fully clamped at their circumference and have attached silicon proof masses. We demonstrate their utility as piezoresistive NEMS accelerometers, and they are found to be more robust, have longer life span and higher manufacturing yield, can withstand higher measurement currents, and are able to suspend larger silicon proof masses, as compared to the previous graphene ribbon devices. These findings are an important step toward bringing ultraminiaturized piezoresistive graphene NEMS closer toward deployment in emerging applications such as in wearable electronics, biomedical implants, and internet of things (IoT) devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259524 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01759 (DOI)000490353500011 ()2-s2.0-85073124932 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191011. QC 20191111

Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
Wang, X., Schroder, S., Enrico, A., Kataria, S., Lemme, M. C., Niklaus, F., . . . Roxhed, N. (2019). Transfer printing of nanomaterials and microstructures using a wire bonder. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 29(12), Article ID 125014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transfer printing of nanomaterials and microstructures using a wire bonder
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 29, no 12, article id 125014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scalable and cost-efficient transfer of nanomaterials and microstructures from their original fabrication substrate to a new host substrate is a key challenge for realizing heterogeneously integrated functional systems, such as sensors, photonics, and electronics. Here we demonstrate a high-throughput and versatile integration method utilizing conventional wire bonding tools to transfer-print carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon microstructures. Standard ball stitch wire bonding cycles were used as scalable and high-speed pick-and-place operations to realize the material transfer. Our experimental results demonstrated successful transfer printing of single-walled CNTs (100 m-diameter patches) from their growth substrate to polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, or Au/parylene electrode substrates, and realization of field emission cathodes made of CNTs on a silicon substrate. Field emission measurements manifested excellent emission performance of the CNT electrodes. Further, we demonstrated the utility of a high-speed wire bonder for transfer printing of silicon microstructures (60 m 60 m 20 m) from the original silicon on insulator substrate to a new host substrate. The achieved placement accuracy of the CNT patches and silicon microstructures on the target substrates were within 4 m. These results show the potential of using established and extremely cost-efficient semiconductor wire bonding infrastructure for transfer printing of nanomaterials and microstructures to realize integrated microsystems and flexible electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
transfer printing, wire bonding, heterogeneous integration, carbon nanotubes, field emission, flexible electronics, assembly
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-264155 (URN)10.1088/1361-6439/ab4d1f (DOI)000493114400001 ()2-s2.0-85076055727 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191209

Available from: 2019-12-09 Created: 2019-12-09 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Parrilla, M., Cuartero, M., Sanchez, S. P., Rajabi, M., Roxhed, N., Niklaus, F. & Crespo, G. A. (2019). Wearable All-Solid-State Potentiometric Microneedle Patch for Intradermal Potassium Detection. Analytical Chemistry, 91(2), 1578-1586
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wearable All-Solid-State Potentiometric Microneedle Patch for Intradermal Potassium Detection
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2019 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 1578-1586Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new analytical all-solid-state platform for intradermal potentiometric detection of potassium in interstitial fluid is presented here. Solid microneedles are modified with different coatings and polymeric membranes to prepare both the potassium-selective electrode and reference electrode needed for the potentiometric readout. These microneedle-based electrodes are fixed in an epidermal patch suitable for insertion into the skin. The analytical performances observed for the potentiometric cell (Nernstian slope, limit of detection of 10(-4.9) potassium activity, linear range of 10(-4.2) to 10(-1.1), drift of 0.35 +/- 0.28 mV h(-1)), together with a fast response time, adequate selectivity, and excellent reproducibility and repeatability, are appropriate for potassium analysis in interstitial fluid within both clinical and harmful levels. The potentiometric response is maintained after several insertions into animal skin, confirming the resiliency of the microneedle-based sensor. Ex vivo tests based on the intradermal detection of potassium in chicken and porcine skin demonstrate that the microneedle patch is suitable for monitoring potassium changes inside the skin. In addition, the dimensions of the microneedles modified with the corresponding layers necessary to enhance robustness and provide sensing capabilities (1000 mu m length, 45 degrees tip angle, 15 mu m thickness in the tip, and 435 mu m in the base) agree with the required ranges for a painless insertion into the skin. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that the patch can be used for at least 24 h without any side effect for the skin cells. Overall, the developed concept constitutes important progress in the intradermal analysis of ions related to an electrolyte imbalance in humans, which is relevant for the control of certain types of diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243957 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04877 (DOI)000456350000049 ()30543102 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059747630 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Bleiker, S. J., Dubois, V. J., Schröder, S., Ottonello Briano, F., Gylfason, K. B., Stemme, G. & Niklaus, F. (2018). Adhesive Wafer Bonding for Heterogeneous System Integration. In: The Electrochemical Society (Ed.), ECS Meeting Abstracts: . Paper presented at Americas International Meeting on Electrochemistry and Solid State Science (AiMES 2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive Wafer Bonding for Heterogeneous System Integration
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2018 (English)In: ECS Meeting Abstracts / [ed] The Electrochemical Society, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Adhesive wafer bonding, Wafer bonding, Integration, Hetergeneous integration, MEMS, NEMS, CMOS
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-253894 (URN)
Conference
Americas International Meeting on Electrochemistry and Solid State Science (AiMES 2018)
Note

QC 20190624

Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0525-8647

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