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Hedberg, Yolanda, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2145-3650
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Publications (10 of 66) Show all publications
Wang, X., Herting, G., Wei, Z., Odnevall Wallinder, I. & Hedberg, Y. (2019). Bioaccessibility of nickel and cobalt in powders and massive forms of stainless steel, nickel- or cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt metals in artificial sweat. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, 106, 15-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioaccessibility of nickel and cobalt in powders and massive forms of stainless steel, nickel- or cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt metals in artificial sweat
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2019 (English)In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 106, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nickel (Ni)and cobalt (Co)are the most common metal allergens upon skin contact at occupational settings and during consumer handling of metals and alloys. A standardized test (EN, 1811)exists to assess Ni release from articles of metals and alloys in massive forms intended for direct and prolonged skin contact, but no corresponding test exists for other materials such as powders or massive forms of alloys placed on the market or to determine the release of Co, for which only limited data is available. Differences in Ni and Co release from massive forms of a range of common stainless steels and some high-alloyed grades compared to Ni and Co metals were therefore assessed in artificial sweat for 1 week at 30 °C according to EN 1811. A comparable modified test procedure was elaborated and used for powders and some selected massive alloys. All alloys investigated released significantly less amount of Ni (100–5000-fold)and Co (200–400,000-fold)compared with Ni and Co metal, respectively. Almost all alloys showed a lower bioaccessible concentration (0.007–6.8 wt% Ni and 0.00003–0.6 wt% Co)when compared to corresponding bulk alloy contents (0.1–53 wt% Ni, 0.02–65 wt% Co). Observed differences are, among other factors, related to differences in bulk composition and to surface oxide characteristics. For the powders, less Ni and Co were released per surface area, but more per mass, compared to the corresponding massive forms. © 2019 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press Inc., 2019
Keywords
Artificial sweat, Classification, Corrosion, EN 1811, Metal release, Particles, Regulation, Skin sensitizer, alloy, cobalt, dermatological agent, nickel, oxide, stainless steel, unclassified drug, Article, calibration, chemical composition, concentration (parameter), particle size, pH, powder, priority journal, surface area, surface property
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252512 (URN)10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.04.017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064756776 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190710

Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Wei, Z. & Chevez, F. M. (2019). Chromium(III), chromium(VI) and cobalt release from leathers produced in Nicaragua. Contact Dermatitis, 80(3), 149-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chromium(III), chromium(VI) and cobalt release from leathers produced in Nicaragua
2019 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Leather exposure has been associated with chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) contact dermatitis. Cr(VI) in leather is now restricted to < 3 mg/kg in the EU. Cr(III) is not restricted. Objectives: To analyse 29 differently coloured Cr-tanned leather samples from two Nicaraguan tanneries, and to compare their release of Cr, Cr(VI) and Co with that of leathers produced in Europe. Methods: Cr, Cr(VI) and Co were extracted in phosphate buffer for 3 hours at 25 degrees C according to EN ISO 17075. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and spectrophotometry were used for detection of the metals in phosphate buffer. Results: There was no difference in total Cr or Cr(VI) release between European and Nicaraguan leathers. There was no association between Cr(VI) and total Cr release. Co was released primarily from leathers of one tannery. Cr(III) was released in significantly higher amounts than Cr(VI). Conclusions: Future investigations and regulations should focus on Cr(III) and Co as well as on Cr(VI).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
allergic contact dermatitis, chromium, chromium(VI), cobalt, exposure analysis, leather
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244500 (URN)10.1111/cod.13165 (DOI)000457748900002 ()30485451 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057855384 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190328

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
McCarrick, S., Wei, Z., Moelijker, N., Derr, R., Persson, K.-A., Hendriks, G., . . . Karlsson, H. L. (2019). High variability in toxicity of welding fume nanoparticles from stainless steel in lung cells and reporter cell lines: the role of particle reactivity and solubility. Nanotoxicology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High variability in toxicity of welding fume nanoparticles from stainless steel in lung cells and reporter cell lines: the role of particle reactivity and solubility
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2019 (English)In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Millions of people in the world perform welding as their primary occupation resulting in exposure to metal-containing nanoparticles in the fumes generated. Even though health effects including airway diseases are well-known, there is currently a lack of studies investigating how different welding set-ups and conditions affect the toxicity of generated nanoparticles of the welding fume. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nine types of welding fume particles generated via active gas shielded metal arc welding (GMAW) of chromium-containing stainless steel under different conditions and, furthermore, to correlate the toxicity to the particle characteristics. Toxicological endpoints investigated were generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and activation of ToxTracker reporter cell lines. The results clearly underline that the choice of filler material has a large influence on the toxic potential. Fume particles generated by welding with the tested flux-cored wire (FCW) were found to be more cytotoxic compared to particles generated by welding with solid wire or metal-cored wire (MCW). FCW fume particles were also the most potent in causing ROS and DNA damage and they furthermore activated reporters related to DNA double- strand breaks and p53 signaling. Interestingly, the FCW fume particles were the most soluble in PBS, releasing more chromium in the hexavalent form and manganese compared to the other fumes. These results emphasize the importance of solubility of different metal constituents of the fume particles, rather than the total metal content, for their acute toxic potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
Keywords
Welding, genotoxicity, ToxTracker, chromium(VI), manganese, metal release
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257811 (URN)10.1080/17435390.2019.1650972 (DOI)000481646900001 ()31418618 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070998815 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190906

Available from: 2019-09-06 Created: 2019-09-06 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Znidarsic, M., Herting, G., Milosev, I. & Odnevall Wallinder, I. (2019). Mechanistic insight on the combined effect of albumin and hydrogen peroxide on surface oxide composition and extent of metal release from Ti6Al4V. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, 107(3), 858-867
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic insight on the combined effect of albumin and hydrogen peroxide on surface oxide composition and extent of metal release from Ti6Al4V
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 858-867Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The titanium–aluminium (6 wt%)–vanadium (4 wt%) (Ti6Al4V) alloy is widely used as an orthopedic and dental implant material due to its high corrosion resistance in such environments. The corrosion resistance is usually determined by means of electrochemical methods, which may not be able to detect other chemical surface reactions. Literature findings report a synergistic effect of the combination of the abundant protein albumin and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the extent of metal release and corrosion of Ti6Al4V. The objectives of this study were to gain further mechanistic insight on the interplay of H 2 O 2 and albumin on the metal release process of Ti6Al4V with special focus on (1) kinetics and (2) H 2 O 2 and albumin concentrations. This was accomplished mainly by metal release and surface oxide composition investigations, which confirmed the combined effect of H 2 O 2 and albumin on the metal release process, although not detectable by electrochemical open circuit potential measurements. A concentration of 30 mM H 2 O 2 induced substantial changes in the surface oxide characteristics, an oxide which became thicker and enriched in aluminum. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) seemed to be able to deplete this aluminum content from the outermost surface or at least to delay its surface enrichment. This effect increased with increased BSA concentration, and for time periods longer than 24 h. This study hence suggests that short-term (accelerated) corrosion resistance measurements are not sufficient to predict potential health effects of Ti6Al4V alloys since also chemical dissolution mechanisms play a large role for metal release, possibly in a synergistic way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
implant, XPS, inflammation, complexation, dissolution
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248329 (URN)10.1002/jbm.b.34182 (DOI)000461683400040 ()30102828 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052655822 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190409

Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Atapour, M., Wei, Z., Chaudhary, H., Lendel, C., Odnevall Wallinder, I. & Hedberg, Y. (2019). Metal release from stainless steel 316L in whey protein - And simulated milk solutions under static and stirring conditions. Food Control, 101, 163-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal release from stainless steel 316L in whey protein - And simulated milk solutions under static and stirring conditions
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2019 (English)In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 101, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stainless steel is an important transport and processing contact material for bovine milk and dairy products. Release (migration) of metals, ions, complexes or wear debris/particles, and metal-induced protein aggregation in such environments are hence important to consider both from a corrosion and food safety perspective. This study aims on investigating the release of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) from AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with whey protein solutions relevant for protein drinks, and on how the whey proteins are influenced by stirring with a magnetic stir bar and metal release. Mechanistic insight is gained by parallel investigations of metal release from two reference non-protein containing solutions, a metal-complexing (citrate-containing) simulated milk solution (SMS) and a low complexing phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). All immersion exposures were conducted at pH 6.8 for 0.5, 4, 24 and 48 hat room temperature at static and stirring conditions. All solutions and samples were investigated using different chemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical methods. Significantly higher amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni were released into the whey protein solution (80 g/L) as compared to SMS and PBS. Strong enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide and reduction of the surface oxide thickness were associated with a higher amount of Ni release in the metal-complexing solutions (SMS and whey protein) compared with PBS. Stirring conditions resulted in higher amounts of metal release, enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide, and clear signs of wear of the 316L surface in all solutions compared to static conditions. The wear mechanism in the whey protein solution was different as compared to corresponding processes in SMS and PBS, involving an etching-like process and larger-sized wear debris. Electrochemical measurements at static conditions confirmed observed differences between the solutions, with the lowest corrosion resistance observed for coupons exposed in the whey protein solution, followed by SMS and PBS. Released metals in solution from the 316L coupons in contact with the whey protein solution resulted in enhanced rates of protein aggregation and precipitation of protein aggregates from solution. Further studies should be made to investigate other relevant test conditions and assess toxicological risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Protein, Whey, Stainless steel, Metal release, Food, Milk, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Photon cross correlation spectroscopy, UV- visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Polarization resistance, Corrosion
National Category
Corrosion Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251269 (URN)10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.02.031 (DOI)000465049000023 ()2-s2.0-85063112841 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190513

Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Dobryden, I., Chaudhary, H., Wei, Z., Claesson, P. M. & Lendel, C. (2019). Synergistic effects of metal-induced aggregation of human serum albumin. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 173, 751-758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergistic effects of metal-induced aggregation of human serum albumin
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 751-758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) occurs often via skin contact and from different dental and orthopedic implants. The metal ions bind to proteins, which may induce structural changes and aggregation, with different medical consequences. We investigated human serum albumin (HSA) aggregation in the presence of Co-II, Cr-III, and/or Ni-II ions and/or their nanoparticle precipitates by using scattering, spectroscopic, and imaging techniques, at simulated physiological conditions (phosphate buffered saline - PBS, pH 7.3) using metal salts that did not affect the pH, and at HSA:metal molar ratios of up to 1:8. Co ions formed some solid nano particles in PBS at the investigated conditions, as determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis, but the Cr-III anions and Ni-II ions remained fully soluble. It was found that all metal ions induced HSA aggregation, and this effect was significantly enhanced when a mixture of all three metal ions was present instead of any single type of ion. Thus, the metal ions induce aggregation synergistically. HSA aggregates formed linear structures on a mica surface in the presence of Cr-III ions. A clear tendency of aggregation and linearly aligned aggregates was seen in the presence of all three metal ions. Spectroscopic investigations indicated that the majority of the HSA molecules maintained their alpha helical secondary structure and conformation. This study highlights the importance of synergistic effects of metal ions and/or their precipitates on protein aggregation, which are highly relevant for implant materials and common exposures to metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel, Binding, Albumin, Aggregation
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241193 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.10.061 (DOI)000454377300089 ()30384272 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055579350 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190121

Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Wei, Z., Edin, J., Karlsson, A. E., Petrovic, K., Soroka, I. L., Odnevall Wallinder, I. & Hedberg, Y. (2018). Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, 106(7), 2673-2680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can gamma irradiation during radiotherapy influence the metal release process for biomedical CoCrMo and 316L alloys?
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 106, no 7, p. 2673-2680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2018
Keywords
BSA, implant, passivation, radicals, radiotherapy
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Corrosion Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225956 (URN)10.1002/jbm.b.34084 (DOI)000445449800017 ()29424962 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041712415 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015–04177Carl Tryggers foundation , CTS 15:353
Note

QC 20180611

Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Erfani, B., Matura, M. & Lidén, C. (2018). Chromium(III) release from chromium-tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study.. Contact Dermatitis, 78(5), 307-314
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chromium(III) release from chromium-tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study.
2018 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 78, no 5, p. 307-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not.

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals.

METHOD: Ten Cr-allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr-tanned and a Cr-free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers.

RESULTS: Four of 10 Cr-allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr-tanned bracelet within 7-21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr-tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin.

CONCLUSIONS: This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr-tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr-allergic individuals.

Keywords
allergic contact dermatitis, chromium, leather, skin exposure assessment, use test
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-225955 (URN)10.1111/cod.12946 (DOI)000428991800001 ()29322530 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040509202 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Note

QC 20180530

Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Cappellini, F., Hedberg, Y., McCarrick, S., Hedberg, J., Derr, R., Hendriks, G., . . . Karlsson, H. L. (2018). Mechanistic insight into reactivity and (geno)toxicity of well-characterized nanoparticles of cobalt metal and oxides. Nanotoxicology, 12(6), 602-620
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic insight into reactivity and (geno)toxicity of well-characterized nanoparticles of cobalt metal and oxides
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2018 (English)In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 602-620Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An increasing use of cobalt (Co)-based nanoparticles (NPs) in different applications and exposures at occupational settings triggers the need for toxicity assessment. Improved understanding regarding the physiochemical characteristics of Co metal NPs and different oxides in combination with assessment of toxicity and mechanisms may facilitate decisions for grouping during risk assessment. The aim of this study was to gain mechanistic insights in the correlation between NP reactivity and toxicity of three different Co-based NPs (Co, CoO, and Co3O4) by using various tools for characterization, traditional toxicity assays, as well as six reporter cell lines (ToxTracker) for rapid detection of signaling pathways of relevance for carcinogenicity. The results showed cellular uptake of all NPs in lung cells and induction of DNA strand breaks and oxidative damage (comet assay) by Co and CoO NPs. In-depth studies on the ROS generation showed high reactivity of Co, lower for CoO, and no reactivity of Co3O4 NPs. The reactivity depended on the corrosion and transformation/dissolution properties of the particles and the media highlighting the role of the surface oxide and metal speciation as also confirmed by in silico modeling. By using ToxTracker, Co NPs were shown to be highly cytotoxic and induced reporters related to oxidative stress (Nrf2 signaling) and DNA strand breaks. Similar effects were observed for CoO NPs but at higher concentrations, whereas the Co3O4 NPs were inactive at all concentrations tested. In conclusion, our study suggests that Co and CoO NPs, but not Co3O4, may be grouped together for risk assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Cobalt, nanomaterials, genotoxicity, risk assessment, grouping
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240194 (URN)10.1080/17435390.2018.1470694 (DOI)000439981600008 ()29790399 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047266606 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-4598 2015-04177 2013-5621 2017-03931
Note

QC 20181214

Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, Y., Uter, W., Banerjee, P., Lind, M.-L., Steengaard, S. S., Teo, Y. & Liden, C. (2018). Non-oxidative hair dye products on the European market: What do they contain?. Contact Dermatitis, 79(5), 281-287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-oxidative hair dye products on the European market: What do they contain?
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2018 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 281-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Hair dyeing is very common and may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Oxidative (often termed permanent or semi-permanent) hair dye products have constituted the focus of market surveys and toxicological risk assessments, while non-oxidative (semi-permanent, temporary or direct) products have not been assessed. Objectives: To identify the hair dye substances presently used in non-oxidative hair dye products in Europe. Methods: Ingredient label data on eligible products in 5 European countries were collected, and 289 different non-oxidative hair dye products were included in this study. Results: Up to 9 hair dye substances were present in each product. Sixty-eight individual hair dye substances were identified on the 289 product labels, and their occurrence ranged from 0.3% to 34%. There were differences concerning substances used and their number per product between products of different consistency and colour. Conclusions: The hair dye substances in non-oxidative hair dye products are different from those in oxidative hair dye products, and are currently not covered by patch test series. The toxicological and skin-sensitizing profile of the substances in non-oxidative hair dye products, as well as their concentrations, should be further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2018
Keywords
consumer products, cosmetics, exposure analysis, hair dyes, ingredient label, market survey, non-permanent, temporary
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237087 (URN)10.1111/cod.13074 (DOI)000446074000004 ()30028011 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85050624419 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181024

Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2145-3650

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