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Mainali, B., Luukkanen, J., Silveira, S. & Kaivo-Oja, J. (2018). Evaluating synergies and trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Explorative analyses of development paths in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Sustainability, 10(3), Article ID 815.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating synergies and trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Explorative analyses of development paths in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
2018 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the linkages between multiple targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may help to integrate different sectoral programmes and develop coherent cross-sectoral policy to explore synergies. Synergy is interaction among two or more actions, which will lead to an impact greater or less than the sum of individual effects. Therefore, synergy can be positive or negative (trade-off). This paper aims at developing an analytical framework to evaluate sectoral linkages and examine potential synergies and trade-offs among various SDGs' goals and targets. Synergies and trade-offs related to energy access (SDG7), clean water and sanitation access (SDG6), food security and sustainable agriculture (SDG2) and poverty alleviation (SDG1) have been evaluated from the perspective of developing countries using examples from South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) and Sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Ethiopia and Rwanda), and historical data for the period between 1990 and 2012. The analytical framework includes both qualitative and quantitative methods. Network analysis technique has been used for exploring the conceptual linkage among different indicators, and capturing the targets associated with SDGs. Advanced Sustainability Analysis (ASA) developed under the European framework programme has been used for quantifying the synergies and trade-offs among sustainability indicators. The analysis showed strong synergy among various SDG targets. Interestingly, the potential synergy differs from country to country and over time. Ghana and Sri Lanka had relatively higher potential synergy, whereas Rwanda and Nepal had relatively lower potential synergy among the various targets. Higher synergy values were evidenced in those cases where the policy have recognized and emphasized on linkages among cross-sectoral targets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2018
Keywords
South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sustainable development goals, Synergies, Trade-off
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224814 (URN)10.3390/su10030815 (DOI)000428567100242 ()2-s2.0-85044005994 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180327

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Khatiwada, D., Palmén, C. & Silveira, S. (2018). Evaluating the palm oil demand in Indonesia: Production trends, yields, and emerging issues.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the palm oil demand in Indonesia: Production trends, yields, and emerging issues
2018 (English)In: ISSN 1759-7269Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the development of domestic and international demand for Indonesian palm oil, in line with national biofuel mandates and established export markets. Domestic demand for palm oil for (i) achieving biodiesel targets and (ii) meeting food and industrial uses reaches 20 million tonnes by 2025, equivalent to 61% of Indonesian production in 2014. Thus, it is possible for Indonesia to be self-sufficient, reaching the biodiesel targets without increasing plantation areas. However, to meet both domestic and international demand, a total 51 million tonnes of crude palm oil will be needed in 2025. This requires additional land up to 6 million hectares with current yields. The expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has led to debates related to deforestation, threatened biodiversity, and greenhouse gas emissions. We show that increasing agricultural yields could serve the purpose, benefiting biodiesel production while reducing the need for new land. Therefore, we recommend that the ambitious Indonesian biodiesel mandates are pursued in combination with a strategy for increased productivity in palm oil production, utilization of degraded land to contain greenhouse gas emissions, and use of palm oil biomass residues for energy production.

Keywords
Biodiesel, Palm Oil, Yields, Land Use, Biofuel Policy, Indonesia
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224787 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QCR 20180326

Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Xylia, M., Silveira, S., Duerinck, J. & Meinke-Hubeny, F. (2018). Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes. Energy Efficiency, 11(5), 1135-1159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes
2018 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1135-1159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the impact of the rising availability of steel scrap on the future steel production up to the year 2100 and implications for steel production capacity planning. Steel production processes are energy, resource, and emission intensive, but there are significant variations due to different production routes, product mixes, and processes. This analysis is based on the development of steel demand, using the Steel Optimization Model, which provides a region-detailed representation of technologies, energy and material flows, and trade activities. It is linked to the Scrap Availability Assessment Model which estimates the theoretical steel scrap availability. Aggregated crude steel production is estimated to evolve into an almost balanced split by 2050 between the primary production route using iron ore in the blast oven furnace and the secondary route using mostly steel scrap in the electric arc furnace. By 2060, the share of secondary steel production will exceed the share of primary steel production globally. The results also estimate a global increase in scrap use from 611 Mtonnes in 2015 to 1500 Mtonnes in 2050, with the highest growth being for post-consumer scrap. In 2050, almost 50% of post-consumer scrap is expected to be traded, with the main exporter being China and major importing regions being Africa, India, and other developing Asian countries. The results provide valuable insights on scrap availability and capacity development at the regional level for producers contemplating new investments. Regional availability, quality, and trade patterns of scrap will influence production route choices, possibly in favor of secondary routes. Also, policy instruments such as carbon taxation may affect investment choices and favor more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive emerging technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Steel production, Steel scrap, Material flow analysis, Energy efficiency, Energy modeling
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-230485 (URN)10.1007/s12053-017-9583-7 (DOI)000432748200006 ()2-s2.0-85034818690 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180614

Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Xylia, M., Silveira, S., Duerinck, J. & Meinke-Hubeny, F. (2018). Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes. Energy Efficiency, 11(5), 1135-1159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes
2018 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1135-1159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the impact of the rising availability of steel scrap on the future steel production up to the year 2100 and implications for steel production capacity planning. Steel production processes are energy, resource, and emission intensive, but there are significant variations due to different production routes, product mixes, and processes. This analysis is based on the development of steel demand, using the Steel Optimization Model, which provides a region-detailed representation of technologies, energy and material flows, and trade activities. It is linked to the Scrap Availability Assessment Model which estimates the theoretical steel scrap availability. Aggregated crude steel production is estimated to evolve into an almost balanced split by 2050 between the primary production route using iron ore in the blast oven furnace and the secondary route using mostly steel scrap in the electric arc furnace. By 2060, the share of secondary steel production will exceed the share of primary steel production globally. The results also estimate a global increase in scrap use from 611 Mtonnes in 2015 to 1500 Mtonnes in 2050, with the highest growth being for post-consumer scrap. In 2050, almost 50% of post-consumer scrap is expected to be traded, with the main exporter being China and major importing regions being Africa, India, and other developing Asian countries. The results provide valuable insights on scrap availability and capacity development at the regional level for producers contemplating new investments. Regional availability, quality, and trade patterns of scrap will influence production route choices, possibly in favor of secondary routes. Also, policy instruments such as carbon taxation may affect investment choices and favor more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive emerging technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Steel production, Steel scrap, Material flow analysis, Energy efficiency, Energy modeling
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-230417 (URN)10.1007/s12053-017-9583-7 (DOI)000432748200006 ()2-s2.0-85034818690 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180619

Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Dreier, D., Silveira, S., Khatiwada, D., Fonseca, K. V., Nieweglowski, R. & Schepanski, R. (2018). Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 58, 122-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil
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2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 58, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study estimates Well-to-Wheel (WTW) fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for six types of city buses with conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains, including two-axle, articulated and bi-articulated chassis in the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system in Curitiba, Brazil. Particular emphasis is put on the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel, TTW) of the city buses using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The simulations are based on real-world driving patterns collected from Curitiba, comprising 42 driving cycles that represent city bus operation on seven BRT routes with six operation times for each. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses use 30% and 75% less WTW fossil energy per distance compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (19.46 MJfossil,WTW/km). This gives an absolute reduction of 1115 gCO2e,WTW/km in WTW GHG emissions when operating a plug-in hybrid-electric city bus instead of a conventional two-axle city bus (1539 gCO2e,WTW/km). However, a conventional bi-articulated city bus can be environment-friendlier than hybrid-electric city buses in terms of WTW fossil energy use and WTW GHG emissions per passenger-distance, if its passenger capacity is sufficiently utilised. Nonetheless, the plug-in hybrid-electric city bus remains the most energy-efficient and less polluting option. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains offer the possibility to achieve much higher levels of decarbonisation in the BRT system in Curitiba than the blending mandate of 7%vol biodiesel into diesel implemented in Brazil in 2016. In addition, the simulations show that TTW energy use can considerably vary by up to 77% between different operation times, BRT routes and types of city buses. In conclusion, advanced powertrains and large passenger capacity utilisation can promote sustainability in Curitiba's BRT system. The results of this analysis provide important insights for decision makers both in Curitiba and other cities with similar conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Advanced powertrain, Bi-articulated bus, Bus rapid transit, Simulation, Tank-to-Wheel, Well-to-Wheel
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219634 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2017.10.015 (DOI)000425198400010 ()2-s2.0-85035352688 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20171211

Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Xylia, M., Leduc, S., Patrizio, P., Silveira, S. & Kraxner, F. (2017). Developing a dynamic optimization model for electric bus charging infrastructure. In: Transportation Research Procedia: . Paper presented at 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary (pp. 776-783). Elsevier, 27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a dynamic optimization model for electric bus charging infrastructure
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 776-783Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urban regions account for 64% of global primary energy use and 70% of carbon emissions. For that reason, options to decarbonize urban environments are receiving increasing attention. In this context, public transport shall play a key role in decarbonizing urban road transport. One efficient way to achieve that is shifting towards clean fuels and modern electric buses, an option that is already under implementation in several cities around the world. In this paper, the basis for developing a dynamic optimization model for establishing charging infrastructure for electric buses is presented, using Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study. The model places constraints depending on the bus stop type (end or middle stop) which affects the time available for charging at each particular location. It also identifies the optimal technology type for the buses: conductive or inductive. In addition, the electric buses compete with buses run on biogas or biodiesel. In this paper, we present the results of a cost minimization scenario with constraints placed on the available charging time and power, differentiated between end stops and major public transport hubs. The mean charging time is 7.33 minutes, with a standard deviation of 4.78 minutes for all bus stops. The inner city bus routes require less charging time, which ranges on average at around 3 minutes. The installation of chargers at the locations proposed in the model would require scheduling adjustments and careful planning for the density of charging occasions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457 ; 27
Keywords
charging infrastructure, electric bus, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, optimization, public transport, Sweden
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223095 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.075 (DOI)2-s2.0-85039946918 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary
Note

QC 20180214

Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Silveira, S., Khatiwada, D., Leduc, S., Kraxner, F., Venkata, B. K., Tilvikine, V., . . . Kalinichenko, A. (2017). Opportunities for bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region. In: International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10-12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia: . Paper presented at International Scientific Conference on Environmental and Climate Technologies, CONECT 2017, 10 May 2017 through 12 May 2017 (pp. 157-164). Elsevier, 128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities for bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region
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2017 (English)In: International Scientific Conference “Environmental and Climate Technologies”, CONECT 2017, 10-12 May 2017, Riga, Latvia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 128, p. 157-164Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Security of energy supply, promotion of the bio-economy, nutrient recycling, and innovation are prioritized policy areas in the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUBSR). The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has a great bioenergy potential worth exploring in this context. This paper explores the state-of-art of bioenergy systems and synergies with eco-systems services in the BSR region in the context of developing the region's bio-economy. In this brief assessment, we consider 8 countries (i.e. Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Denmark, and Belarus) in the region. While the production and use of modern bioenergy can help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, promote energy security, diversify energy resources, and contribute to a successful circular economy and rural development, it is important to find a balance between the exploration of resources and the management of eco-systems services. In addition, both climate change vulnerability and bioenergy production may affect the environment and the capacity of the BSR to deliver ecosystem services (ESS). We recommend integrated strategies for optimal use of bioresources in the region. Bioeconomy can be realized by innovative approaches, establishing cross-cutting institutional and policy linkages for increased prosperity and green growth in the Baltic Sea Region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 128
Keywords
Baltic Sea Region, bioeconomy, bioenergy, ecosystem services (EES), synergies
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218388 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.036 (DOI)000426437200023 ()2-s2.0-85033803897 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Scientific Conference on Environmental and Climate Technologies, CONECT 2017, 10 May 2017 through 12 May 2017
Funder
Swedish Institute
Note

QC 20171128

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Khatiwada, D., Scheer, J., Egeskog, Y. & Silveira, S. (2016). Analyzing the lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia. In: 15th World Renewable Energy Congress: . Paper presented at 15th World Renewable Energy Congress (WREC) 2016. 19-23 September, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyzing the lifecycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of palm oil biodiesel production in Indonesia
2016 (English)In: 15th World Renewable Energy Congress, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study performs sustainability analysis of palm oil biodiesel production systems in Indonesia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach is used to evaluate the net GHG emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the entire production chain. The main aim of the study is to investigate the energy and environmental aspects of the palm oil biodiesel production chain. The worthiness of biodiesel production and use in terms of GHG emissions is compared with conventional diesel. The system boundary includes the mass and energy flows during the cultivation, harvesting, palm oil milling, and bio-refining phases. Energy inputs and emissions due to agricultural activities such land preparation, seedling, application of fertilizers/chemicals, and planting are considered in the analysis. The scope of the study also includes collection and transport of palm oil feedstock, fresh fruit brunch (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) for biodiesel production. Assessment of climate change impact is also performed when it comes to improvements of agricultural practices and alternation of soil carbon stocks due to land use change.

The study examines the utilization of co-products (e.g. kernel oil, glycerol), palm oil residues, and waste water (effluents) generated during the palm biodiesel production system. Palm kernel and glycerol are important commodities/products which have high market values. The use of biomass residues (e.g. fibres and shells) for energy production in efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of palm oil milling effluent (POME) are also explored. Sensitivity analysis is performed for the most influencing parameters such as palm oil yield, the rate of fertilizer application, plant conversion efficiencies while determining the environmental and energy gains. Since the palm oil biodiesel production systems involve multiple co-products and services, it is of utmost importance to use appropriate allocation methods in order to divide environmental burdens and resource inputs. We use allocation by energy content and economic values, and system expansion considering the substitution of fossil based power by bioelectricity derived from biomass cogeneration plants and/or electricity generation using biogas produced from POME treatment. The study finds that bioelectricity generation from surplus biomass residues and biogas from POME, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can significantly help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international LCA studies and discusses issues related to land use on climate change impact. Recommendations are made for the appropriate utilization of palm oil, its co-products, and residues for the both energy and climate benefits.  

Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment, Palm Oil, Biodiesel, Indonesia
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223393 (URN)
Conference
15th World Renewable Energy Congress (WREC) 2016. 19-23 September, Jakarta, Indonesia
Note

QC 20180327

Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
Harahap, F., Palmén, C., Silveira, S. & Khatiwada, D. (2016). Conditions for a sustainable development of palm-oil-based biodiesel in Indonesia. In: : . Paper presented at Sustainable Palm Oil and Climate Change: The Way Forward Through Mitigation and Adaptation, 16-18 March 2016, Bali, Indonesia. ICOPE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditions for a sustainable development of palm-oil-based biodiesel in Indonesia
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The government of Indonesia sees bioenergy as an attractive option to promote socio-economic development and improve energy security. Modernization of bioenergy can add value to existing resources and serve to meet increasing energy demand, as well as create jobs and reduce poverty. Policy efforts have given direction to this development, promoting biodiesel production and use. Indonesia is the largest palm oil producer and exporter in the world. At the same time, palm oil is the basis for both food and biodiesel production in the country. A 30% mandatory biodiesel blending target has been set for 2025. To meet the target, palm oil production needs to increase or palm oil diverted from other uses to produce biodiesel. In addition, the development of biodiesel will have to address environmental impacts, particularly land use change, and the dynamics of palm oil trade. Land allocation affects the development of the agro-industrial sector, and the capacity to deliver the mandatory targets. We investigate the land issue through a cross-sectoral analysis of four policy areas, i.e. renewable energy/biofuel, agriculture, climate and forestry. Our study examines the potential land available for biodiesel feedstock production and the potential yields that can be obtained. Preliminary results indicate that the blending target could be met from palm oil obtained from 5-7 Mha land after meeting palm oil domestic demand for food production and other industrial non-food uses. Degraded land could be used and thus no threat needs to be posed to food security, deforestation and climate change. However, to guarantee the sustainability of the development process, inconsistencies need to be addressed in the sectoral policies, areas suitable for plantation expansion need to be clearly mapped, conditions for exploration more strictly defined, and complementary policy instruments need to be put in place to promote schemes with enhanced yields and upgrading technologies over time. This research is part of the on-going program INSISTs (Indonesian Swedish Initiative for Sustainable Energy Solutions), a joint research and innovation platform established between Sweden and Indonesia. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICOPE, 2016
Keywords
palm oil, biodiesel, yield, policy analysis, feedstock, blending target
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185510 (URN)
Conference
Sustainable Palm Oil and Climate Change: The Way Forward Through Mitigation and Adaptation, 16-18 March 2016, Bali, Indonesia
Projects
STEM BIOENERGI INDONESIEN
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, T6473
Note

QC 20160421

Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-21 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
Khatiwada, D., Venkata K., B., Silveira, S. & Johnson X., F. (2016). Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Applied Energy, 164, 756-768
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia
2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, p. 756-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are -7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Life cycle assessment; GHG emissions; Net energy values
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180644 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.11.032 (DOI)000372379700068 ()2-s2.0-84951850116 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20160219

Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7123-1824

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