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Pearce, M., Eliasson, L., Iyer, N., Kiss, M., Kushwah, R., Larsson, J., . . . Xie, E. (2019). Science prospects for SPHiNX - A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission. Astroparticle physics, 104, 54-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Science prospects for SPHiNX - A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission
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2019 (English)In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 104, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are exceptionally bright electromagnetic events occurring daily on the sky. The prompt emission is dominated by X-/gamma-rays. Since their discovery over 50 years ago, GRBs are primarily studied through spectral and temporal measurements. The properties of the emission jets and underlying processes are not well understood. A promising way forward is the development of missions capable of characterising the linear polarisation of the high-energy emission. For this reason, the SPHiNX mission has been developed for a small-satellite platform. The polarisation properties of incident high-energy radiation (50-600 keV) are determined by reconstructing Compton scattering interactions in a segmented array of plastic and Gd3Al2Ga3O12(Ce) (GAGG(Ce)) scintillators. During a two-year mission, similar to 200 GRBs will be observed, with similar to 50 yielding measurements where the polarisation fraction is determined with a relative error <= 10%. This is a significant improvement compared to contemporary missions. This performance, combined with the ability to reconstruct GRB localisation and spectral properties, will allow discrimination between leading classes of emission models. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Polarimetry, X-ray, Gamma-ray burst, Small satellite
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238522 (URN)10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.08.007 (DOI)000447479300004 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 232/16
Note

QC 20181106

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Pearce, M., Eliasson, L., Iyer, N., Kiss, M., Kushwah, R., Larsson, J., . . . Xie, F. (2019). Science prospects for SPHiNX – A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission. Astroparticle physics, 104, 54-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Science prospects for SPHiNX – A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 104, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are exceptionally bright electromagnetic events occurring daily on the sky. The prompt emission is dominated by X-/γ-rays. Since their discovery over 50 years ago, GRBs are primarily studied through spectral and temporal measurements. The properties of the emission jets and underlying processes are not well understood. A promising way forward is the development of missions capable of characterising the linear polarisation of the high-energy emission. For this reason, the SPHiNX mission has been developed for a small-satellite platform. The polarisation properties of incident high-energy radiation (50–600 keV) are determined by reconstructing Compton scattering interactions in a segmented array of plastic and Gd3Al2Ga3O12(Ce) (GAGG(Ce)) scintillators. During a two-year mission, ∼ 200 GRBs will be observed, with ∼ 50 yielding measurements where the polarisation fraction is determined with a relative error ≤ 10%. This is a significant improvement compared to contemporary missions. This performance, combined with the ability to reconstruct GRB localisation and spectral properties, will allow discrimination between leading classes of emission models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Gamma-ray burst, Polarimetry, Small satellite, X-ray, Ellipsometry, Polarimeters, Polarization, Satellites, Stars, X rays, Gamma ray bursts, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), High energy emission, High energy radiation, Linear polarisation, Scattering interactions, Small-satellite, Temporal measurements, Gamma rays
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236345 (URN)10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.08.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052499332 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 232/16
Note

QC 20181108

Available from: 2018-11-08 Created: 2018-11-08 Last updated: 2018-11-08Bibliographically approved
Pearce, M., Eliasson, L., Iyer, N., Kiss, M., Kushwah, R., Larsson, J., . . . Xie, F. (2019). Science prospects for SPHiNX - A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission. Astroparticle physics, 104, 54-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Science prospects for SPHiNX - A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 104, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are exceptionally bright electromagnetic events occurring daily on the sky. The prompt emission is dominated by X-/gamma-rays. Since their discovery over 50 years ago, GRBs are primarily studied through spectral and temporal measurements. The properties of the emission jets and underlying processes are not well understood. A promising way forward is the development of missions capable of characterising the linear polarisation of the high-energy emission. For this reason, the SPHiNX mission has been developed for a small-satellite platform. The polarisation properties of incident high-energy radiation (50-600 keV) are determined by reconstructing Compton scattering interactions in a segmented array of plastic and Gd3Al2Ga3O12(Ce) (GAGG(Ce)) scintillators. During a two-year mission, similar to 200 GRBs will be observed, with similar to 50 yielding measurements where the polarisation fraction is determined with a relative error <= 10%. This is a significant improvement compared to contemporary missions. This performance, combined with the ability to reconstruct GRB localisation and spectral properties, will allow discrimination between leading classes of emission models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Polarimetry, X-ray, Gamma-ray burst, Small satellite
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238104 (URN)10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.08.007 (DOI)000447479300004 ()2-s2.0-85052499332 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190111

Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Xie, F., Pearce, M. & SPHiNX, C. (2018). A Study of Background Conditions for Sphinx-The Satellite-Borne Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter. Galaxies, 6(2), Article ID 50.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study of Background Conditions for Sphinx-The Satellite-Borne Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter
2018 (English)In: Galaxies, E-ISSN 2075-4434, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SPHiNX is a proposed satellite-borne gamma-ray burst polarimeter operating in the energy range 50-500 keV. The mission aims to probe the fundamental mechanism responsible for gamma-ray burst prompt emission through polarisation measurements. Optimising the signal-to-background ratio for SPHiNX is an important task during the design phase. The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit is used in this work. From the simulation, the total background outside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is about 323 counts/s, which is dominated by the cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma rays, which contribute similar to 60% and similar to 35% of the total background, respectively. The background from albedo neutrons and primary and secondary cosmic rays is negligible. The delayed background induced by the SAA-trapped protons is about 190 counts/s when SPHiNX operates in orbit for one year. The resulting total background level of similar to 513 counts/s allows the polarisation of similar to 50 GRBs with minimum detectable polarisation less than 30% to be determined during the two-year mission lifetime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
polarimeter, Compton scattering, GRB, background
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232265 (URN)10.3390/galaxies6020050 (DOI)000436552000012 ()2-s2.0-85047239209 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180719

Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Chauvin, M., Florén, H.-G., Friis, M., Jackson, M., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., . . . Pearce, M. (2018). Accretion geometry of the black-hole binary Cygnus X-1 from X-ray polarimetry [Letter to the editor]. Nature Astronomy, 2(8), 652-655
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accretion geometry of the black-hole binary Cygnus X-1 from X-ray polarimetry
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2018 (English)In: Nature Astronomy, ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 652-655Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black hole binary (BHB) systems comprise a stellar-mass black hole and a closely orbiting companion star. Matter is transferred from the companion to the black hole, forming an accretion disk, corona and jet structures. The resulting release of gravitational energy leads to the emission of X-rays1. The radiation is affected by special/general relativistic effects, and can serve as a probe for the properties of the black hole and surrounding environment, if the accretion geometry is properly identified. Two competing models describe the disk–corona geometry for the hard spectral state of BHBs, based on spectral and timing measurements2,3. Measuring the polarization of hard X-rays reflected from the disk allows the geometry to be determined. The extent of the corona differs between the two models, affecting the strength of the relativistic effects (such as enhancement of the polarization fraction and rotation of the polarization angle). Here, we report observational results on the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission (19–181 keV) from a BHB, Cygnus X-14, in the hard state. The low polarization fraction, <8.6% (upper limit at a 90% confidence level), and the alignment of the polarization angle with the jet axis show that the dominant emission is not influenced by strong gravity. When considered together with existing spectral and timing data, our result reveals that the accretion corona is either an extended structure, or is located far from the black hole in the hard state of Cygnus X-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228215 (URN)10.1038/s41550-018-0489-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85051090128 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180521

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Chauvin, M., Florén, H.-G. -., Friis, M., Jackson, M., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., . . . Pearce, M. (2018). Correction: Shedding new light on the crab with polarized X-rays (Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07390-7). Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article ID 7975.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction: Shedding new light on the crab with polarized X-rays (Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07390-7)
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 7975Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This Article contains a typographical error in the legend of Figure 2. "Gaussian 1, 2 and 3& #x1D70E;" should read: "Gaussian 1, 2 and 3σ". 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
Keywords
erratum
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236576 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-24853-7 (DOI)000432341000001 ()2-s2.0-85047251454 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 22 October 2018; Erratum; Correspondence Address: Pearce, M.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of PhysicsSweden; email: pearce@kth.se. QC 20181126

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Munini, R., Boezio, M., Bruno, A., Christian, E. C., Nolfo, G. A., Felice, V. D., . . . Potgieter, M. S. (2018). Evidence of Energy and Charge Sign Dependence of the Recovery Time for the 2006 December Forbush Event Measured by the PAMELA Experiment. Astrophysical Journal, 853(1), Article ID 76.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of Energy and Charge Sign Dependence of the Recovery Time for the 2006 December Forbush Event Measured by the PAMELA Experiment
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2018 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 853, no 1, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New results on the short-term galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) intensity variation (Forbish decrease) in 2006 December measured by the PAMELA instrument are presented. Forbush decreases are sudden suppressions of the GCR intensities, which are associated with the passage of interplanetary transients such as shocks and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Most of the past measurements of this phenomenon were carried out with groundbased detectors such as neutron monitors or muon telescopes. These techniques allow only the indirect detection of the overall GCR intensity over an integrated energy range. For the first time, thanks to the unique features of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer, the Forbush decrease, commencing on 2006 December 14 and following a CME at the Sun on 2006 December 13, was studied in a wide rigidity range (0.4-20 GV) and for different species of GCRs detected directly in space. The daily averaged GCR proton intensity was used to investigate the rigidity dependence of the amplitude and the recovery time of the Forbush decrease. Additionally, for the first time, the temporal variations in the helium and electron intensities during a Forbush decrease were studied. Interestingly, the temporal evolutions of the helium and proton intensities during the Forbush decrease were found to be in good agreement, while the low rigidity electrons (<2 GV) displayed a faster recovery. This difference in the electron recovery is interpreted as a charge sign dependence introduced by drift motions experienced by the GCRs during their propagation through the heliosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Keywords
cosmic rays, Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs), Sun: heliosphere, Sun: particle emission
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222300 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aaa0c8 (DOI)000423361100012 ()2-s2.0-85041112562 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardSwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20180206

Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-06 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Menn, W., Bogomolov, E. A., Simon, M., Vasilyev, G., Adriani, O., Barbarino, G. C., . . . Zampa, N. (2018). Lithium and Beryllium Isotopes with the PAMELA Experiment. Astrophysical Journal, 862(2), Article ID 141.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium and Beryllium Isotopes with the PAMELA Experiment
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2018 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 862, no 2, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cosmic ray (CR) lithium and beryllium (Li-6, Li-7, Be-7, Be-9, Be-10) isotopic composition has been measured with the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on board the Resurs-DKJ satellite on 2006 June 15. The rare lithium and beryllium isotopes in CRs are believed to originate mainly from the interaction of high-energy carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei with the interstellar medium (ISM), but also on "tertiary" interactions in the ISM (i.e., produced by further fragmentation of secondary beryllium and boron). In this paper, the isotopic ratios Li-7/Li-6 and Be-7/(Be-9 + Be-10), measured between 150 and 1100 MeV n(-1) using two different detector systems from 2006 July to 2014 September, will be presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Keywords
astroparticle physics, cosmic rays
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-233280 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aacf89 (DOI)000440621800003 ()2-s2.0-85051533703 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180822

Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Martucci, M., Munini, R., Boezio, M., Di Felice, V., Adriani, O., Barbarino, G. C., . . . Raath, J. L. (2018). Proton Fluxes Measured by the PAMELA Experiment from the Minimum to the Maximum Solar Activity for Solar Cycle 24. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 854(1), Article ID L2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proton Fluxes Measured by the PAMELA Experiment from the Minimum to the Maximum Solar Activity for Solar Cycle 24
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2018 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 854, no 1, article id L2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precise measurements of the time-dependent intensity of the low-energy (<50 GeV) galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are fundamental to test and improve the models that describe their propagation inside the heliosphere. In particular, data spanning different solar activity periods, i.e., from minimum to maximum, are needed to achieve comprehensive understanding of such physical phenomena. The minimum phase between solar cycles 23 and 24 was peculiarly long, extending up to the beginning of 2010 and followed by the maximum phase, reached during early 2014. In this Letter, we present proton differential spectra measured from 2010 January to 2014 February by the PAMELA experiment. For the first time the GCR proton intensity was studied over a wide energy range (0.08-50 GeV) by a single apparatus from a minimum to a maximum period of solar activity. The large statistics allowed the time variation to be investigated on a nearly monthly basis. Data were compared and interpreted in the context of a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model describing the GCRs propagation through the heliosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Keywords
astroparticle physics, cosmic rays, Sun: heliosphere
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223499 (URN)10.3847/2041-8213/aaa9b2 (DOI)000424238600002 ()2-s2.0-85042130192 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180223

Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Bruno, A., Carlson, P., Pearce, M., Zampa, N. & et al., . (2018). Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission. Astrophysical Journal, 862(2), Article ID 97.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission
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2018 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 862, no 2, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the significant progress achieved in recent years, the physical mechanisms underlying the origin of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are still a matter of debate. The complex nature of both particle acceleration and transport poses challenges to developing a universal picture of SEP events that encompasses both the low-energy (from tens of keV to a few hundreds of MeV) observations made by space-based instruments and the GeV particles detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors in ground-level enhancements (GLEs). The high-precision data collected by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment offer a unique opportunity to study the SEP fluxes between similar to 80 MeV and a few GeV, significantly improving the characterization of the most energetic events. In particular, PAMELA can measure for the first time with good accuracy the spectral features at moderate and high energies, providing important constraints for current SEP models. In addition, the PAMELA observations allow the relationship between low and high-energy particles to be investigated, enabling a clearer view of the SEP origin. No qualitative distinction between the spectral shapes of GLE, sub-GLE and non-GLE events is observed, suggesting that GLEs are not a separate class, but are the subset of a continuous distribution of SEP events that are more intense at high energies. While the spectral forms found are to be consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory, which predicts spectral rollovers at high energies that are attributed to particles escaping the shock region during acceleration, further work is required to explore the relative influences of acceleration and transport processes on SEP spectra.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018
Keywords
acceleration of particles, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar-terrestrial relations, space vehicles, Sun: flares, Sun: particle emission
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241148 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aacc26 (DOI)000440020900007 ()2-s2.0-85051457381 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190114

Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7011-7229

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