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Kumar, N. T. & Martin, A. R. (2017). Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE. Energies, 10(4), Article ID 481.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, 481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC) region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU) water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD) process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD) system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keyword
solar domestic hot water (SDHW), co-production, membrane distillation (MD), solar combi, thermal storage
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208255 (URN)10.3390/en10040481 (DOI)000400065000070 ()
Note

QC 20170626

Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Kabalina, N., Costa, M., Weihong, Y. & Martin, A. R. (2017). Energy and economic assessment of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels. Paper presented at 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), JUN 19-23, 2016, Portoroz, SLOVENIA. Energy, 137, 696-705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and economic assessment of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 137, 696-705 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional district heating and cooling (DHC) systems are compelled to reduce their fossil fuel dependency while ensuring profitability as cooling and heating demands decline. One solution is to retrofit the system with a gasifier and product gas upgrading equipment so that the system will be able to diversify its fuel input, including biomass and waste resources, while simultaneously producing synthetic natural gas (SNG), synthetic gas (syngas) and char complementarily to heat, cold and electricity. The main objective of this study is to assess energetically and economically a polygeneration DHC system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels considering the following sub-product scenarios: char; char and syngas; char and SNG; and char, syngas and SNG. The results show that when char is the only sub product of the modified DHC system, the investment payback is 3 years, the discounted net cash flow (DNCF) is 142 mln USD, and the system trigeneration efficiency is 83.6%. When other sub-products are supplied by the system, its performance reduces but the system DNCF increases, while the investment payback remains constant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Gasification, Polygeneration, District heating and cooling system, Energy and economic assessment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-219347 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.110 (DOI)000414879400062 ()2-s2.0-85021386850 (Scopus ID)
Conference
29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS), JUN 19-23, 2016, Portoroz, SLOVENIA
Note

QC 20171205

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Kabalina, N., Costa, M., Weihong, Y., Martin, A. & Santarelli, M. (2017). Exergy analysis of a polygeneration-enabled district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuel. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141, 760-773.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exergy analysis of a polygeneration-enabled district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuel
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 141, 760-773 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating and cooling (DHC) systems, modified or retrofitted with integration of gasifiers and gas upgrading equipment, represent promising alternatives to traditional approaches since various scenarios of products complementary to heat, cold, and electricity can be realized, namely: char only; char and syngas; char, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (H-2); and char, syngas, SNG and H-2. This manuscript evaluates a polygeneration-enabled DHC system in detail (operation during a typical year) from exergetic and exergoeconomic perspectives. The base DHC system utilizes natural gas as fuel with a nominal capacity of 29 MW heat, 35 MW of cold, and 5 MW of electricity. The retrofit employs refuse derived fuel (RDF) as feedstock to an atmospheric gasifier with downstream gas clean-up, a gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator along with heat exchangers for integration with the base DHC system. The exergy analysis revealed that the polygeneration system presents adequate performance at all scenarios established. Among the sets of value-added products the combination of char and syngas is the most beneficial as the system efficiency reaches a value of similar to 72%. The outcomes of the exergoeconomic analysis support the exergy results. The lower production costs for value-added products are achieved for the maximum simultaneous char and syngas production, with each of these costs estimated to be 6.1 USD/GJ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Exergy, Gasification, Synthetic natural gas, Polygeneration, District heating and cooling
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199463 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.151 (DOI)000389090300069 ()2-s2.0-84994494343 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170123

Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Asim, M., Imran, M., Leung, M. K. H., Kumar, N. T., Martin, A. R. & Kashif, F. (2017). Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in Dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors. Desalination and Water Treatment, 92, 46-59.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in Dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors
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2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 92, 46-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the experimental analysis performed on solar thermal integrated membrane distillation (MD) system using flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. The system will be utilized for cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water for single family in Dubai comprising of four to five members. Experiments have been performed in Ras Al Khaimah Research and Innovation Centre (RAKRIC) facility. The experimental setup has been installed to achieve the required production of 15-25 L/d of drinking water and 250 L/d of hot water for domestic purposes. Experiments have been performed on MD setup at optimized flow rates of 6 L/min on hot side and 3 L/min on cold side for producing the desired distillate. The hot side and cold side MD temperature has been maintained between 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C, and 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The total annual energy demand comes out to be 8,223 kWh (6,000 kWh is for pure water and 2,223 kWh for hot water). The optimum aperture areas for flat plate and evacuated tube collector field have been identified as 8.5 and 7.5 m(2), respectively. Annual energy consumption per liter for pure water production is 1, 0.85 and 0.7 kWh/L for different MD hot and cold inlet temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DESALINATION PUBL, 2017
Keyword
Membrane distillation, RAKRIC, Flat plate collectors, Evacuated tube collectors, Annual energy demand
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220846 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2017.21499 (DOI)000418408700006 ()2-s2.0-85037055301 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180110

Available from: 2018-01-10 Created: 2018-01-10 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Kumar, N. T. & Martin, A. R. (2017). Experimental modeling of an air-gap membrane distillation module and simulation of a solar thermal integrated system for water purification. Desalination and Water Treatment, 84, 123-134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental modeling of an air-gap membrane distillation module and simulation of a solar thermal integrated system for water purification
2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 84, 123-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Membrane distillation is a novel process that could be adapted effectively for many water purification applications. In recent years, several bench, pilot and commercial scale membrane distillation systems with production capacities ranging from 20 L/d to 50 m(3)/d were developed and tested. In this work, a single cassette air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module was characterized to identify the effect of process parameters on distillate flux and thermal efficiency. Favorable conditions to obtain distillate flow rate of 1.5-3 kg/h were determined on a bench scale experimental setup. Factorial design of experiments was conducted and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop an empirical regression model relating operating parameters with AGMD system performance indicators. Operating parameters including hot feed inlet temperature (T-Hin), cold feed inlet temperature (T-Cin), feed flow rate (V-f) and feed conductivity (C-f) were considered. Distillate flux (J(d)) and specific performance ratio (SPR) were selected as the performance indicators for the modeling. The developed regression model using RSM was tested by analysis of variance. Regression analysis showed agreement with the experimental data fitted with second-order polynomial model having determination coefficient (R-2) values of 0.996 and 0.941 for J(d) and SPR, respectively. Numerical optimization has been carried out to identify optimal set of operating conditions for achieving desired operation. Also, dynamic simulation of the membrane distillation module integrated solar thermal system has been reported along with validation of the system model by comparing with the experimental data obtained from a pilot scale setup located in UAE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DESALINATION PUBL, 2017
Keyword
AGMD, Factorial design, Response surface methodology, ANOVA, Solar membrane distillation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217068 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2017.21201 (DOI)000412880600013 ()
Note

QC 20171122

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Birru, E., Erlich, C., Herrera, I., Martin, A. R., Feychting, S., Vitez, M., . . . Puskoriute, L. (2016). A Comparison of Various Technological Options for Improving Energy and Water Use Efficiency in a Traditional Sugar Mill. Sustainability, 8(12), Article ID 1227.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of Various Technological Options for Improving Energy and Water Use Efficiency in a Traditional Sugar Mill
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2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 12, 1227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is a comparison of four technological improvements proposed in previous works for the Cuban sugar mill Carlos Balino. These technological options are: (1) utilization of excess wastewater for enhanced imbibition; (2) utilization of waste heat for thermally driven cooling; (3) utilization of excess bagasse for pellets; and (4) modification of the cogeneration unit for maximum electric power generation. The method used for the evaluation of the technological options involves using criteria such as energy saving, financial gains, and CO2 emission saving potential. The results of the analysis show that the first three technological improvement options are attractive only during the crushing season. On the other hand, the last technological improvement option can be attractive if a year round generation of surplus power is sought. The first technological improvement option leads to only minor changes in energy utilization, but the increase in sugar yield of 8.7% leads to attractive profitability with an extremely low payback period. The CO2 emissions saved due to the fourth technological improvement option are the highest (22,000 tonnes/year) and the cost of CO2 emissions saved for the third technological improvement option (lowest) amount to 41 USD/tonne of CO2 emissions saved. The cycle efficiencies of the third and fourth technological improvement options are 37.9% and 36.8%, respectively, with payback periods of 2.3 and 1.6 years. The second technological improvement option is the least attractive alternative of the group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keyword
sugar cane bagasse, Carlos Balino, energy efficiency, wastewater reuse, imbibition, CO2 emission, absorption chiller, pellet, electricity, energy saving, payback period
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199509 (URN)10.3390/su8121227 (DOI)000389317100018 ()2-s2.0-85007346954 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170117

Available from: 2017-01-17 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Mohan, G., Kumar, U., Pokhrel, M. K. & Martin, A. (2016). A novel solar thermal polygeneration system for sustainable production of cooling, clean water and domestic hot water in United Arab Emirates: Dynamic simulation and economic evaluation. Applied Energy, 167, 173-188.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel solar thermal polygeneration system for sustainable production of cooling, clean water and domestic hot water in United Arab Emirates: Dynamic simulation and economic evaluation
2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 167, 173-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel solar thermal polygeneration (STP) system for production of cooling, clean water and domestic hot water is modeled and analyzed for the weather conditions of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The system comprises of solar collectors for production of thermal energy, single stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (VAC) for providing air conditioning to office cabins and membrane distillation (MD) modules for clean water production along with domestic hot water generation as by-product. The performance of STP is analyzed with three different solar collectors - flat plate collectors (FPC), evacuated tube collector (ETC) and compound parabolic collector (CPC). The system is modeled and dynamically simulated using TRNSYS software for optimization of various design parameters like slope of the collectors, mass flow rate through the collector loop, storage capacity and area of collectors. Combined and system efficiency of the STP system has been determined for optimum conditions. Economic benefits are analyzed for different collectors and fuel costs savings. A lowest payback period of 6.75 years is achieved by STP with evacuated tube collector field having gross area of 216 m2. STP system has cumulative savings of $520,000 over the life time of the project through roof top solar collector installation. In terms of environmental benefits, 109 metric tons/year of CO2 emissions would be avoided and hence the overall payback period would be reduced by 8% based on cost saving through carbon credits. Economic and environmental benefits were aided by steady system performances of absorption chiller (35 kW), membrane distiller (80 l/day) and heat recovery system (1.2 m3/h) throughout the year. The complete simulation results of the STP system is utilized for the development, installation and testing of a polygeneration system at RAKRIC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Absorption chiller, Membrane distillation, Polygeneration, Solar thermal, TRNSYS, UAE
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187199 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.116 (DOI)000373748400014 ()2-s2.0-84954561865 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160519

Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Khan, E. U., Martin, A. R. & Bundschuh, J. (2016). Biogas energy polygeneration integrated with air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) as arsenic mitigation option in rural Bangladesh. In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016: . Paper presented at 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016, 19 June 2016 through 23 June 2016 (pp. 554-556). CRC Press/Balkema.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas energy polygeneration integrated with air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) as arsenic mitigation option in rural Bangladesh
2016 (English)In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability - Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016, CRC Press/Balkema , 2016, 554-556 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sustainable energy and drinking water access have been seen as major challenges for rural households in Bangladesh despite of governmental and non-governmental organizations have been made extensive efforts. This study contemplates a universal approach towards tackling both of these issues via biogas based polygeneration integrated with membrane distillation employed at the village level. The specific technologies chosen for the key energy conversion steps are as follows: plug-flow digester (co-digestion and mesophilic condition); internal combustion engine; and air-gap membrane distillation. The proposed techno-economic results show that daily electricity demand can be met with such a system while simultaneously providing 0.4 m3cooking fuel and 2–3 L pure drinking water. Cost analysis illustrates that the approach is highly favorable compare to other available system. The payback time of such system is between 2 and 2.5 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press/Balkema, 2016
Keyword
Anaerobic digestion, Arsenic, Biogas, Distillation, Energy conversion, Internal combustion engines, Potable water, Sustainable development, Air gap membrane distillation, Electricity demands, Membrane distillation, Mesophilic condition, Mitigation options, Nongovernmental organizations, Plug flow digester, Sustainable energy, Rural areas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207553 (URN)2-s2.0-85017009729 (Scopus ID)9781138029415 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016, 19 June 2016 through 23 June 2016
Note

Conference code: 175559; Export Date: 22 May 2017; Conference Paper. QC 20170531

Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2017-05-31Bibliographically approved
Woldemariam, D., Khan, E., Kullab, A. & Martin, A. (2016). District Heat-Driven Water Purification Via Membrane Distillation: New possibilities for applications in various industrial processes. Energiforsk AB.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District Heat-Driven Water Purification Via Membrane Distillation: New possibilities for applications in various industrial processes
2016 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Water purification is an important separation process that can be found in various industrial applications. Process water quality varies between applications, but the trend of increased reuse or recycling of process streams in combination with stricter emission regulations lead to additional needs for water purification in the future. Membrane technology such as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration are often employed. However even if these technologies are mature there is still a need to explore alternatives that can lead to more robust performance, lower energy consumption, reduced environmental effects, and lower costs. Membrane Distillation (MD) is such an alternative. The process is heat driven and can be paired up with district heating when a high degree of purity is desired.The purpose of this project is to develop MD’s role within a district heating perspective. The following three sub-goals have been investigated:Sub-goal

Sub-goal 1 considered a mapping of water purification in relevant industrial processes. Various possible application areas were identified, including treatment of flue gas condensate, ultrapure water, processes in the food industry, reconcentrating, desalination, and others. Three case studies with relevance to MD driven by district heating were identified for further analysis.Sub-goal 2 encompassed system analyses and optimization studies for the particular case studies:

• Wastewater treatment at Astra Zeneca in Södertälje. It is theoretically possible to place MD between the district heating network and end users in order to achieve advanced treatment for a smaller wastewater line. The district heating demand would increase by about 7-13%, and costs (excluding retrofitting) are estimated to increase by 60% compared to the available treatment method (activated carbon).• Reconcentrating of ethanol from CO2 scubber water at Agroetanol inNorrköping. The concept involves off-loading of the distillation column via introduction of MD technology. Exchange between steam (distillation column) and district heating (MD system) is roughly balanced which implies significant cost savings potential with MD.• Water purification and reconcentrating at Arla Foods, Kalmar facility. A poor thermal integration yields a high district heating demand for MD in this particular application.For sub-goal 3 experimental investigations were conducted for two MD prototypes. A newer generation of MD prototype showed a marked reduction in heat losses with increase in yield, which in turn leads to lower energy demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Energiforsk AB, 2016. 68 p.
Keyword
Membrane Distillation, District heating, Heat demand, Energy efficiency, Techno-economy, Pharmaceuticals, Bioethanol, Dairy, Wastewater
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182484 (URN)978-91-7673-229-8 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20160226

Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-02-26Bibliographically approved
Mohan, G., Kumar, N. T., Pokhrel, M. K. & Martin, A. (2016). Experimental investigation of a novel solar thermal polygeneration plant in United Arab Emirates. Renewable energy, 91, 361-373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of a novel solar thermal polygeneration plant in United Arab Emirates
2016 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 91, 361-373 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The demands for space air conditioning and clean drinking water are relatively high in Middle East North African (MENA) countries. A sustainable and innovative approach to meet these demands along with the production of domestic hot water is experimentally investigated in this paper. A novel solar thermal poly-generation (STP) pilot plant is designed and developed for production of chilled water for air conditioning using absorption chiller, clean drinking water with membrane distillation units and domestic hot water by heat recovery. The STP system is developed with a flexibility to operate in four different modes: (i) solar cooling mode (ii) cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water (iii) cogeneration of cooling and desalination (iv) trigeneration. Operational flexibility allows consumers to utilize the available energy based on seasonal requirements. Performance of STP system is analyzed during summer months in RAKRIC research facility. Energy flows in STP pilot plant during peak load operations are analyzed for all four modes. STP system with trigeneration mode utilizes 23% more useful energy compared to solar cooling mode, which improves overall efficiency of the plant. Economic benefits of STP with trigeneration mode are evaluated with fuel cost inflation rate of 10%. STP plant has potential payback period of 9.08 years and net cumulative savings of $454,000 based on economic evaluation.

Keyword
Absorption chiller, Air gap membrane distillation, Solar thermal, Poly-generation, Domestic hot water
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185334 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.072 (DOI)000372382800035 ()2-s2.0-84957876420 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160421

Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3661-7016

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