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Villarroel-Schneider, J., Mainali, B., Marti-Herrero, J., Malmquist, A., Martin, A. R. & Alejo, L. (2020). Biogas based polygeneration plant options utilizing dairy farms waste: A Bolivian case. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 37, Article ID UNSP 100571.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas based polygeneration plant options utilizing dairy farms waste: A Bolivian case
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2020 (English)In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 37, article id UNSP 100571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents a comparative techno-economic feasibility analysis for two polygeneration plant solutions, applied to low-income dairy farms in Bolivia. The first option considers an internally fired microturbine (IFMT) and, the second, an internal combustion engine (ICE). They are integrated with an absorption refrigeration system and a fertilizer dryer. Biogas, produced with farms waste, fuels these power generators. The levelized costs of biogas for cooking, electricity, cooling and fertilizers were determined. The cost of biogas, for both options, was found to be 0.020 USD/kWh, which is lower than the subsidized price of LPG. The most competitive cost of electricity was determined for the ICE plant option; it was found to be 0.082 USD/kWh and is lower than the subsidized cost of fossil fuel-based electricity. The cost of cooling was found to be around 0.082 USD/kWh, which is slightly higher than the cost of cooling supplied by using grid electricity. In a realistic scenario, the shorter payback period was found to be 4.4 years for the ICE plant option. From this, the ICE-based plant was found as the most feasible option. Additionally, if no subsidies are applied to the fossil fuel-based services, the proposed polygeneration systems are a highly competitive alternative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2020
Keywords
Polygeneration plant, Techno-economic study, Biogas, Dairy farm, Energy services, Electricity, Cooling, Fertilizer
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-270895 (URN)10.1016/j.seta.2019.100571 (DOI)000514838400008 ()2-s2.0-85075041947 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200324

Available from: 2020-03-24 Created: 2020-03-24 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
Wegener, M., Ordóñez, C. L., Isalgué, A., Malmquist, A. & Martin, A. R. (2020). How much does it cost to go off-grid with renewables?: A case study of a polygeneration system for a neighbourhood in hermosillo, Mexico. In: 11th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2019: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2019, 4-5 July 2019, Budapest, Hungary (pp. 395-405). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How much does it cost to go off-grid with renewables?: A case study of a polygeneration system for a neighbourhood in hermosillo, Mexico
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2020 (English)In: 11th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2019, Springer , 2020, p. 395-405Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As governments and companies struggle to meet their own objectives for the energy transition, more innovative social and technological measures are needed to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. For this purpose, an assessment of an off-grid polygeneration system, which can serve the electric and cooling demand of a neighbourhood in Hermosillo, Mexico, has been conducted. Energy computations have been done, the energy demand of one dwelling has been measured to ascertain the correctness of the computations, and a demand model for the entire neighbourhood has been created. Based on the model, an off-grid polygeneration system has been designed, which uses a biodiesel engine, PV panels, and an absorption chiller. The system has been optimized for its economic performance and is compared to the currently used system. The results show that the polygeneration system with higher energy efficiency could reduce GHG emissions down to 14%. However, electricity in Hermosillo is heavily subsidized making it harder for innovative systems to compete. Moreover, even without the state subsidies to the end user, the polygeneration system has still a nearly 30% higher Net Present Cost (NPC) than the conventional system over its project lifetime of 20 years. Nonetheless, with precise political incentives and further advances in the applied technologies, small-scale renewable polygeneration systems could become cost-efficient alternatives in the near future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Bio-solar, Off-grid polygeneration, Urban energy systems, Gas emissions, Greenhouse gases, Photovoltaic cells, Sustainable development, Absorption chillers, Conventional systems, Economic performance, Energy transitions, Poly-generation, Polygeneration system, Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-268005 (URN)10.1007/978-981-32-9868-2_34 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076483824 (Scopus ID)9789813298675 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Sustainability and Energy in Buildings, SEB 2019, 4-5 July 2019, Budapest, Hungary
Note

QC 20200329

Available from: 2020-03-29 Created: 2020-03-29 Last updated: 2020-03-29Bibliographically approved
Noor, I.-e., Coenen, J., Martin, A. R. & Dahl, O. (2020). Performance assessment of chemical mechanical planarization wastewater treatment in nano-electronics industries using membrane distillation. Separation and Purification Technology, 235, Article ID 116201.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance assessment of chemical mechanical planarization wastewater treatment in nano-electronics industries using membrane distillation
2020 (English)In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 235, article id 116201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wastewater from chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes in nano-electronics industries must be treated properly in order to fulfil local and international environmental regulations. This study is focused on a performance assessment of membrane distillation (MD) technology for CMP wastewater treatment. A new prototype of air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module was utilized, with feed water consisting of CMP wastewater collected from imec, Belgium. The module was tested at different operating conditions (temperatures, flow rates and filtration time) and responses in terms of separation efficiency, permeate water quality, transmembrane flux, specific heat demand and exergy efficiency were determined. High quality permeate was produced in all trials, i.e. conductivity ~2.11 µS/cm, pH ~5.4, TOC ~1.13 ppm, IC ~0.24 ppm, TDS ~1.18 ppm and COD ~ 1.9 ppm; for most of the contaminants the separation efficiency was >99%. These findings clearly show that the resulting MD permeate does not exceed environmental regulations for release to recipient, and the permeate can even be considered for reuse. Moreover, the determined specific heat demand at different operating conditions was varying between 1390 and 2170 kWh/m3 whereas; the achievable exergy efficiency was ~19%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Chemical mechanical planarization, Separation efficiency, Membrane distillation, Nano-electronics, Energy analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy Technology; Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-264242 (URN)10.1016/j.seppur.2019.116201 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073547535 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191202

Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Wegener, M., Isalgué, A., Malmquist, A. & Martin, A. R. (2019). 3E-Analysis of a Bio-Solar CCHP System for theAndaman Islands, India—A Case Study. Energies, 12(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3E-Analysis of a Bio-Solar CCHP System for theAndaman Islands, India—A Case Study
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy services are especially expensive on remote islands due to longer and more unstable fuel supply chains. In this paper, different renewable energy systems utilizing locally available biomass and solar energy are proposed as alternatives for a hotel resort on Neil Island, India. Based on local demand data, commercial information, and scientific literature, four cases are modelled with the simulation software HOMER and their economic, energetic, as well as ecological (3E) performances are compared. The robustness of each case configuration is tested with a sensitivity analysis. The results show that a biomass-based, solar-assisted combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system offers an economic saving potential of more than 500,000 USD over twenty years and could decrease CO2 emissions by 365 t per year. When not applying CCHP measures, system performance is significantly worsened. A solar and battery-assisted diesel generator system shows similar economic outcomes as the CCHP system but worse ecological performance. Implementing the biomass-based CCHP system could improve the ecological footprint of the island, substantially decrease expenditure for the hotel owner, and generate a new source of income for surrounding farmers through biomass selling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Renewable energy; biomass gasification; bio-solar; small-scale CCHP
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247950 (URN)10.3390/en12061113 (DOI)000465616800079 ()2-s2.0-85065974903 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190402

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-06-11Bibliographically approved
Noor, I.-e., Martin, A. R. & Santarelli, M. (2019). Exergy Analysis of Air Gap Membrane Distillation Unit for Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment. In: Faouzi Hidoussi (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy: . Paper presented at International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19). , Article ID 608.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exergy Analysis of Air Gap Membrane Distillation Unit for Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy / [ed] Faouzi Hidoussi, 2019, article id 608Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Since Membrane Distillation (MD) is an energy-intensive separation process, therefore, it is vital to consider a realistic measure of energy evaluation for the MD system. Exergy analysis of Xzero flat-plate air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) laboratory and pilot scale units for treatment of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) wastewater from Nano-electronics manufacturing is focused in this study. Experimental work has been performed using the bench scale AGMD system considering different operating conditions and chemical concentrations for obtaining the thermodynamic and physicochemical data for the exergy calculation. Moreover, previously reported performance of a pilot scale AGMD module is employed to evaluate the system operation in the terms of thermal energy in order to execute the exergy analysis. Exergy flow rates in the AGMD system, minimum work input required, total exergy gain by the system and by CMP wastewater, system’s component share for exergy destruction and exergy efficiencies were calculated. The exergy analysis outcomes show that higher amount of exergy flow rates are associated with the hot streams in the AGMD separation process. Minimum work input required was 0.5 kW at feed temperature of 358K and flow rate of 7.2 kg/min for bench scale unit whereas for pilot scale system, 1.5 kW minimum work input was required at the same feed temperature with flow rate of 20 kg/min. The exergy efficiency varied between 12-19% for bench scale AGMD system and 18-24% for pilot scale AGMD system. Moreover, it was found out that MD modules, hot water recirculation tank and cooling water tank are needed to be optimized for better performance.

Keywords
Chemical Mechanical Polishing, Exergy Analysis, Industrial Wastewater, Membrane Distillation, Nano-electronics, Thermodynamic
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259134 (URN)978-1-912532-05-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19)
Note

QC 20191105

Available from: 2019-09-11 Created: 2019-09-11 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Noor, I.-e., Coenen, J., Martin, A. R., Dahl, O. & Åslin, M. (2019). Experimental investigation and techno-economic analysis of tetramethylammonium hydroxide removal from wastewater in nano-electronics manufacturing via membrane distillation. Journal of Membrane Science, 579, 283-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation and techno-economic analysis of tetramethylammonium hydroxide removal from wastewater in nano-electronics manufacturing via membrane distillation
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 579, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In nano-electronics manufacturing, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is extensively used in the photo-lithography and etching processes, leading to a waste disposal issue. The present study focuses on TMAH wastewater treatment in nano-electronics industries by using membrane distillation technology. Actual TMAH wastewater samples were collected at imec, Belgium. An air gap membrane distillation bench unit was employed to perform the experiments for different operating conditions i.e., feed temperatures and flow rates. High quality water is recovered after reducing the TMAH concentration to 1 ppm and lowering the TOC to 0.8 ppm from 8 ppm. For the industrial scale TMAH wastewater treatment, industrial waste heat driven and district heating driven membrane distillation systems are designed and analyzed. It is determined that 14 GWh thermal energy is required annually to treat 20,000 m 3 of TMAH wastewater/year while considering 65 °C as the membrane distillation feed temperature. Expected unit water treatment cost is found as low as 16 $/m 3 of TMAH wastewater, roughly 80% lower than current disposal costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Membrane distillation, Techno-economic analysis, Tetramethylammonium hydroxide, Waste heat, Wastewater
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-246407 (URN)10.1016/j.memsci.2019.02.067 (DOI)000461667700027 ()2-s2.0-85062439874 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190401

Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-09Bibliographically approved
Villarroel-Schneider, J., Malmquist, A., Araoz, J. A., Marti-Herrero, J. & Martin, A. R. (2019). Performance Analysis of a Small-Scale Biogas-Based Trigeneration Plant: An Absorption Refrigeration System Integrated to an Externally Fired Microturbine. Energies, 12(20), Article ID 3830.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Analysis of a Small-Scale Biogas-Based Trigeneration Plant: An Absorption Refrigeration System Integrated to an Externally Fired Microturbine
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2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 3830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) systems fueled by raw biogas can be an interesting alternative for supplying electricity and thermal services in remote rural areas where biogas can be produced without requiring sophisticated equipment. In this sense, this study considers a performance analysis of a novel small-scale CCHP system where a biogas-fired, 5 kW(el) externally fired microturbine (EFMT), an absorption refrigeration system (ARS) and heat exchangers are integrated for supplying electricity, refrigeration and hot water demanded by Bolivian small dairy farms. The CCHP solution presents two cases, current and nominal states, in which experimental and design data of the EFMT performance were considered, respectively. The primary energy/exergy rate was used as a performance indicator. The proposed cases show better energy performances than those of reference fossil fuel-based energy solutions (where energy services are produced separately) allowing savings in primary energy utilization of up to 31%. Furthermore, improvements in electric efficiency of the EFMT and coefficient of performance (COP) of the ARS, identified as key variables of the system, allow primary energy savings of up to 37%. However, to achieve these values in real conditions, more research and development of the technologies involved is required, especially for the EFMT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
combined cooling, heat and power, CCHP, trigeneration, dairy farm, refrigeration, efficiency, performance, externally fired microturbine
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-265463 (URN)10.3390/en12203830 (DOI)000498391700026 ()2-s2.0-85075075418 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20191218

Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-20Bibliographically approved
Lorenzi, G., Vieira, R. d., Santos Silva, C. A. & Martin, A. R. (2019). Techno-economic analysis of utility-scale energy storage in island settings. Journal of Energy Storage, 21, 691-705
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic analysis of utility-scale energy storage in island settings
2019 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 21, p. 691-705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The decarbonization of the electricity supply in isolated and remote energy systems is an open challenge in the transition to a sustainable energy system. In this paper, the possibility to increase the penetration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation on the island of Terceira (Azores) is investigated through the installation of a utility-scale energy storage facility. The electric power dispatch on the island is simulated through a unit commitment model of the fossil and renewable power plants that has the objective of minimizing the cost of electricity generation. Battery energy storage is employed to partially decouple production and supply, and to provide spinning reserve in case of sudden generator outage. Two technological options, namely lithium-ion and vanadium flow batteries, are compared in terms of net present value and return on investment, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of the local utility. The economic evaluation takes also into account the degradation of the battery performance along the years. The results, obtained in a future-price scenario, show that both the technologies entail a positive investment performance. However, vanadium flow batteries have the best results, given that they can produce a net present value that exceeds 430% of the initial capital invested after 20 years, with a return on investment higher than 35%. In this scenario, the renewable share can reach up to 46%, compared to the current 26%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Utility-scale energy storage, RES integration, Battery energy storage, Lithium-ion Battery, Vanadium flow battery, Investment analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245936 (URN)10.1016/j.est.2018.12.026 (DOI)000459203100062 ()2-s2.0-85060242160 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190313

Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Wegener, M., Malmquist, A., Isalgue, A. & Martin, A. R. (2018). Biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power for small scale applications - A review. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 96, 392-410
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass-fired combined cooling, heating and power for small scale applications - A review
2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 96, p. 392-410Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growing demand for energy and the accelerating threats from climate change call for innovative and sustainable solutions to decrease dependency on fossil fuels. Biomass-based, small-scale Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) systems are one of these solutions, because they can satisfy the energy demands of the consumer with enhanced flexibility, lower losses, less costs and less environmental pollution as compared to centralized facilities. Due to recent advances in several scientific subfields with relevance to small-scale CCHP, a rapidly increasing amount of literature is now available. Therefore, a structural overview is essential for engineers and researchers. This paper presents a review of the current investigations in small-scale CCHP systems covering biomass-fired concepts and solar extensions. To this end, critical system components are described and analysed according to their specific advantages and drawbacks. Recent case studies have been collected and key findings are highlighted according to each type of prime mover. The results indicate a scientific bias towards the economic viability of such systems and the need for real-life and experiment system data. However, the potential of biomass-fired CCHP systems and of such systems with solar extensions has clearly been recognised. Based on the results, future policy implementations should focus on fostering such systems in areas with high energy costs and to increase energy resilience in developed regions. Additionally research and industry applying novel prime mover technologies should be financially supported.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Small-scale CCHP, Trigeneration, Biomass, Bio-solar
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237089 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.07.044 (DOI)000446310700030 ()2-s2.0-85051640034 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181024

Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Kabalina, N., Costa, M., Weihong, Y. & Martin, A. R. (2018). Impact of a reduction in heating, cooling and electricity loads on the performance of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on waste gasification. Energy Journal, 151, 594-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of a reduction in heating, cooling and electricity loads on the performance of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on waste gasification
2018 (English)In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 151, p. 594-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
polygeneration, district heating and cooling, refuse derived fuel, municipal solid waste, gasification
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226907 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.078 (DOI)000432509000051 ()2-s2.0-85046033334 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180504

Available from: 2018-04-27 Created: 2018-04-27 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3661-7016

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