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Chopin, T., Costa-Pierce, B. A., Troell, M., Hurd, C. L., Costello, M. J., Backman, S., . . . Yarish, C. (2024). Deep-ocean seaweed dumping for carbon sequestration: Questionable, risky, and not the best use of valuable biomass. One Earth, 7(3), 359-364
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep-ocean seaweed dumping for carbon sequestration: Questionable, risky, and not the best use of valuable biomass
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2024 (English)In: One Earth, ISSN 2590-3330, E-ISSN 2590-3322, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deep-ocean seaweed dumping is not an ecological, economical, or ethical answer to climate-change mitigation via carbon “sequestration.” Without sound science and sufficient knowledge on impacts to these fragile ecosystems, it distracts from more rational and effective blue-carbon interventions. We call for a moratorium on sinking seaweeds to deep-ocean ecosystems until its efficacy is established, and there is robust, evidence-based assessment of its environmental, economic, and societal sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2024
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-344545 (URN)10.1016/j.oneear.2024.01.013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187566995 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20240321

Available from: 2024-03-20 Created: 2024-03-20 Last updated: 2024-03-21Bibliographically approved
Pechsiri, J. S., Thomas, J.-B., El Bahraoui, N., Acien Fernandez, F. G., Chaouki, J., Chidami, S., . . . Gröndahl, F. (2023). Comparative life cycle assessment of conventional and novel microalgae production systems and environmental impact mitigation in urban-industrial symbiosis. Science of the Total Environment, 854, Article ID 158445.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative life cycle assessment of conventional and novel microalgae production systems and environmental impact mitigation in urban-industrial symbiosis
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 854, article id 158445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The versatility of microalgae biomass as candidates for various products and bioremediation needs motivates interests towards design and implementation of novel microalgae bioreactors. Conventional open-reactors are reliant on large quantities of sunlight and space while yields are constrained by outdoor environment conditions. Conversely, closed-reactor systems like bubble columns reduces these constrains on microalgae growth while occupying far less space at the expense of high energy demands, notably from lighting systems. A novel patented closed reactor design has recently been proposed that improves the bubble column concept with an efficient and effective lighting system. The present study uses Life Cycle Assessment approach to compare the environmental performance of conventional reactors and the proposed internally luminated novel closed reactor design, expressing impacts per kg biostimulant for the Scenedesmus almeriensis harvest from such units. All performance data was collected from a pilot facility in Almeria, Spain. Urban-industrial symbiosis scenarios are also portrayed in the study using wastewater and incinerator flue gas. Results show that under synthetic nutrient and carbon inputs in Spanish pilot operations, the cumulative energy demand for the novel photobioreactors is similar to conventional vertically-stacked horizon bioreactors but are substantially more demanding than conventional open reactors. However, when leveraging renewable energy sources and the photosynthesis process to consume wastestreams in urban-industrial symbiosis scenarios, the novel photobioreactor was able to achieve up to 80 % improvements in several impact categories e.g. eutrophication and climate change. Impact mitigation credits per kg dwt biomass across all energy scenarios in symbiosis amount to asymptotic to 1.8 kg CO(2)eq and asymptotic to 0.09 kg PO4 eq. This highlights that such closed and internally illuminated photobioreactors can be competitive with conventional reactors, and have potential to harness photosynthesis to reduce environmental burdens in an urban-industrial symbiosis setting. Possible economies of scale and the associated potential gains in efficiencies are further discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Biostimulant, Microalgae, Bioreactor, Life cycle assessment, Industrial Symbiosis
National Category
Control Engineering Diagnostic Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-320479 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158445 (DOI)000862764700015 ()36058335 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85138165687 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20221026

Available from: 2022-10-26 Created: 2022-10-26 Last updated: 2022-10-26Bibliographically approved
Li, J., Bergman, K., Thomas, J.-B., Gao, Y. & Gröndahl, F. (2023). Life Cycle Assessment of a large commercial kelp farm in Shandong, China. Science of the Total Environment, 903, Article ID 166861.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life Cycle Assessment of a large commercial kelp farm in Shandong, China
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 903, article id 166861Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The environmental benefits of seaweed cultivation have gained a lot of attention, both in policy strategies and by private companies. Sustainability evaluations of seaweed farming have however focused on a very small part of global production of seaweed - on European cultivations at research and pilot-scales although Asia stands for 99 % of global production with China alone producing 60 %. In this study, we use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of a 400-hectare Chinese kelp farm with a yearly harvest of 60,000 tons. Primary data from the farm was used to assess impacts up until harvest for the functional unit of 1 ton of fresh-weight kelp. Included in the LCA were impact on climate change, acidification terrestrial and marine eutrophication, and use of land water and energy. In addition, we calculated nutrient uptake. Further, we extracted inventory data of four published LCA studies of farmed kelp and recalculated environmental impacts, applying the same background data and method choices with the aim to compare the effects of scale and cultivation system. The results of the hotspot analysis showed that the plastic ropes and buoys dominated impacts on climate change, freshwater and marine eutrophication, and energy consumption. Consequently, the most effective improvement action was recycling after use. The yearly harvest of the Chinese farm was 1000–4000 times larger than previously evaluated farms compared. Results suggest that streamlined and mature production in the large-scale Chinese kelp farm led to lower electricity and fuel consumption compared to small-scale production, thus placing the Chinese farm with a climate impact of 57.5 kg CO2 eq. per ton fresh-weight kelp on the lower end when comparing the carbon footprint. There was a large variation in carbon footprints, which implies that the kelp cultivation sector has considerable room for optimization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
Keywords
Commercial production, Environmental impact, LCA, Saccharina japonica, Seaweed aquaculture
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-337784 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.166861 (DOI)001080438800001 ()37673254 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85170425758 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231009

Available from: 2023-10-09 Created: 2023-10-09 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Björk, M., Rosenqvist, G., Gröndahl, F. & Bonaglia, S. (2023). Methane emissions from macrophyte beach wrack on Baltic seashores. Ambio, 52(1), 171-181
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methane emissions from macrophyte beach wrack on Baltic seashores
2023 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Beach wrack of marine macrophytes is a natural component of many beaches. To test if such wrack emits the potent greenhouse gas methane, field measurements were made at different seasons on beach wrack depositions of different ages, exposure, and distance from the water. Methane emissions varied greatly, from 0 to 176 mg CH4-C m−2 day−1, with a clear positive correlation between emission and temperature. Dry wrack had lower emissions than wet. Using temperature data from 2016 to 2020, seasonal changes in fluxes were calculated for a natural wrack accumulation area. Such calculated average emissions were close to zero during winter, but peaked in summer, with very high emissions when daily temperatures exceeded 20 °C. We conclude that waterlogged beach wrack significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and that emissions might drastically increase with increasing global temperatures. When beach wrack is collected into heaps away from the water, the emissions are however close to zero.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Baltic Sea, Beach cast, Climate change, Greenhouse gas, Marine macrophytes, Methane
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-329047 (URN)10.1007/s13280-022-01774-4 (DOI)000846110100001 ()36029461 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85137064230 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230614

Available from: 2023-06-14 Created: 2023-06-14 Last updated: 2023-06-14Bibliographically approved
Guinguina, A., Hayes, M., Gröndahl, F. & Krizsan, S. J. (2023). Potential of the Red Macroalga Bonnemaisonia hamifera in Reducing Methane Emissions from Ruminants. Animals, 13(18), Article ID 2925.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential of the Red Macroalga Bonnemaisonia hamifera in Reducing Methane Emissions from Ruminants
2023 (English)In: Animals, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 13, no 18, article id 2925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Researchers have been exploring seaweeds to reduce methane (CH4) emissions from livestock. This study aimed to investigate the potential of a red macroalga, B. hamifera, as an alternative to mitigate CH4 emissions. B. hamifera, harvested from the west coast of Sweden, was used in an in vitro experiment using a fully automated gas production system. The experiment was a randomized complete block design consisting of a 48 h incubation that included a control (grass silage) and B. hamifera inclusions at 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% of grass silage OM mixed with buffered rumen fluid. Predicted in vivo CH4 production and total gas production were estimated by applying a set of models to the gas production data and in vitro fermentation characteristics were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of B. hamifera reduced (p = 0.01) predicted in vivo CH4 and total gas productions, and total gas production linearly decreased (p = 0.03) with inclusion of B. hamifera. The molar proportion of propionate increased (p = 0.03) while isovalerate decreased (p = 0.04) with inclusion of B. hamifera. Chemical analyses revealed that B. hamifera had moderate concentrations of polyphenols. The iodine content was low, and there was no detectable bromoform, suggesting quality advantages over Asparagopsis taxiformis. Additionally, B. hamifera exhibited antioxidant activity similar to Resveratrol. The findings of this study indicated that B. hamifera harvested from temperate waters of Sweden possesses capacity to mitigate CH4 in vitro.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), 2023
Keywords
dairy cow, greenhouse gas, macroalga, methane
National Category
Animal and Dairy Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338066 (URN)10.3390/ani13182925 (DOI)001075525700001 ()37760326 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85172783313 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20231013

Available from: 2023-10-13 Created: 2023-10-13 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Nathaniel, H., Franzén, D., Lingegård, S., Franzen, F., Soderqvist, T. & Gröndahl, F. (2023). Using stakeholder perceptions to deepen the understanding of beachcast governance and management practices on Gotland, Sweden. Ocean and Coastal Management, 239, Article ID 106583.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using stakeholder perceptions to deepen the understanding of beachcast governance and management practices on Gotland, Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 239, article id 106583Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2023
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-326876 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106583 (DOI)000968662300001 ()2-s2.0-85151027595 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230515

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
Stenius, I., Folkesson, J., Bhat, S., Sprague, C. I., Ling, L., Özkahraman, Ö., . . . Thomas, J.-B. (2022). A system for autonomous seaweed farm inspection with an underwater robot. Sensors, 22(13), Article ID 5064.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A system for autonomous seaweed farm inspection with an underwater robot
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2022 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 13, article id 5064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper outlines challenges and opportunities in operating underwater robots (so-called AUVs) on a seaweed farm. The need is driven by an emerging aquaculture industry on the Swedish west coast where large-scale seaweed farms are being developed. In this paper, the operational challenges are described and key technologies in using autonomous systems as a core part of the operation are developed and demonstrated. The paper presents a system and methods for operating an AUV in the seaweed farm, including initial localization of the farm based on a prior estimate and dead-reckoning navigation, and the subsequent scanning of the entire farm. Critical data from sidescan sonars for algorithm development are collected from real environments at a test site in the ocean, and the results are demonstrated in a simulated seaweed farm setup.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2022
Keywords
seaweed farm, algae farm, behavior trees, simulation, mission planning, field testing, system integration, AUV
National Category
Robotics Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-315805 (URN)10.3390/s22135064 (DOI)000822263500001 ()35808560 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133393540 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220721

Available from: 2022-07-21 Created: 2022-07-21 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Kotta, J., Gröndahl, F. & Barboza, F. R. (2022). Assessing the potential for sea-based macroalgae cultivation and its application for nutrient removal in the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 839, 156230, Article ID 156230.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the potential for sea-based macroalgae cultivation and its application for nutrient removal in the Baltic Sea
2022 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 839, p. 156230-, article id 156230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Marine eutrophication is a pervasive and growing threat to global sustainability. Macroalgal cultivation is a promising circular economy solution to achieve nutrient reduction and food security. However, the location of production hotspots is not well known. In this paper the production potential of macroalgae of high commercial value was predicted across the Baltic Sea region. In addition, the nutrient limitation within and adjacent to macroalgal farms was investigated to suggest optimal site-specific configuration of farms. The production potential of Saccharina latissima was largely driven by salinity and the highest production yields are expected in the westernmost Baltic Sea areas where salinity is > 23. The direct and interactive effects of light availability, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations regulated the predicted changes in the production of Ulva intestinalis and Fucus vesiculosus. The western and southern Baltic Sea exhibited the highest farming potential for these species, with promising areas also in the eastern Baltic Sea. Macroalgal farming did not induce significant nutrient limitation. The expected spatial propagation of nutrient limitation caused by macroalgal farming was less than 100-250 m. Higher propagation distances were found in areas of low nutrient and low water exchange (e.g. offshore areas in the Baltic Proper) and smaller distances in areas of high nutrient and high water exchange (e.g. western Baltic Sea and Gulf of Riga). The generated maps provide the most sought-after input to support blue growth initiatives that foster the sustainable development of macroalgal cultivation and reduction of in situ nutrient loads in the Baltic Sea.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
Keywords
Seaweed farming, Aquaculture, Blue growth, Eutrophication control
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-315346 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156230 (DOI)000811732300010 ()35643144 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131147366 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction in: Science of The Total Environment, vol. 901. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165870, WOS: 001057609500001 , Scopus: 2-s2.0-85171617312”

QC 20220704

Available from: 2022-07-04 Created: 2022-07-04 Last updated: 2023-10-16Bibliographically approved
Krizsan, S. J., Hayes, M., Gröndahl, F., Ramin, M., O'Hara, P. & Kenny, O. (2022). Characterization and in vitro assessment of seaweed bioactives with potential to reduce methane production. FRONTIERS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE, 3, Article ID 1062324.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and in vitro assessment of seaweed bioactives with potential to reduce methane production
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2022 (English)In: FRONTIERS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE, ISSN 2673-6225, Vol. 3, article id 1062324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study collates compositional analysis of seaweeds data with information generated from in vitro gas production assays in the presence and absence of seaweeds. The aim was to assess and rank 27 native northern European seaweeds as potential feed ingredients for use to reduce methane emissions from ruminants. It provides information for use in future in vivo dietary trials concerning feed manipulation strategies to reduce CH4 emissions efficiently from domestic ruminants based on dietary seaweed supplementation. The seaweeds H. siliquosa and A. nodosum belonging to phylum Phaeophyta displayed the highest concentration of phlorotannins and antioxidant activity among the macroalgae giving anti-methanogenic effect in vitro, while this explanation was not valid for the observed reduction in methane when supplementing with C. filum and L. digitata in this study. D. carnosa and C. tenuicorne belonging to phylum Rhodophyta had the highest protein content among the macroalgae that reduced methane production in vitro. There were no obvious explanation from the compositional analysis conducted in this study to the reduced methane production in vitro when supplementing with U. lactuca belonging to phylum Chlorophyta. The strongest and most complete methane inhibition in vitro was observed when supplementing with Asparagopsis taxiformis that was used as a positive control in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media SA, 2022
Keywords
phlorotannins, methane, macroalgae, ruminants, greenhouse gas
National Category
Animal and Dairy Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-331228 (URN)10.3389/fanim.2022.1062324 (DOI)001008221200001 ()2-s2.0-85159913955 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230706

Available from: 2023-07-06 Created: 2023-07-06 Last updated: 2023-07-06Bibliographically approved
Söderqvist, T., Nathaniel, H., Franzén, D., Franzén, F., Hasselström, L., Gröndahl, F., . . . Thomas, J.-B. (2022). Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region. Ambio, 51(5), 1302-1313
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region
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2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1302-1313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Harvesting beach-cast can help mitigate marine eutrophication by closing land-marine nutrient loops and provide a blue biomass raw material for the bioeconomy. Cost–benefit analysis was applied to harvest activities during 2009–2018 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, highlighting benefits such as nutrient removal from the marine system and improved recreational opportunities as well as costs of using inputs necessary for harvest. The results indicate that the activities entailed a net gain to society, lending substance to continued funding for harvests on Gotland and assessments of upscaling of harvest activities to other areas in Sweden and elsewhere. The lessons learnt from the considerable harvest experience on Gotland should be utilized for developing concrete guidelines for carrying out sustainable harvest practice, paying due attention to local conditions but also to what can be generalized to a wider national and international context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Beach recreation, Beach wrack, Bioeconomy, Circular economy, Eutrophication, Nutrient loops, biomass, cost-benefit analysis, marine environment, pollutant removal, spatiotemporal analysis, Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Gotland, Sweden, nitrogen, Baltic States, cost benefit analysis, Nutrients
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-313251 (URN)10.1007/s13280-021-01641-8 (DOI)000719717500001 ()34787831 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119203226 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220613

Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3745-4092

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