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Link, S., Arvelakis, S., Paist, A., Liliedahl, T. & Rosén, C. (2018). Effect of leaching pretreatment on the gasification of wine and vine (residue) biomass. Renewable energy, 115, 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of leaching pretreatment on the gasification of wine and vine (residue) biomass
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2018 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 115, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Utilization of biomass residues for energetic purposes increases the share of renewables in the total energy balance. Gasification is one of the thermochemical processes that converts solid biomass to valuable gaseous products. Prior to the gasification process, biomass material could be treated to improve the quality or composition of the product gas. Our focus is on fluidized bed gasification of untreated vine and pretreated vine residue and pretreated wine residue. Natural and artificial leaching were used as pretreatment methods. Our results showed that CO and H-2 content in the product gas are higher in leached (16.9 and 10.0% respectively) vine residue than in untreated material (14.5 and 7.7% respectively). The naturally leached wine residue was found to have the highest CO content (18.1%) and relatively high H2 content (9.7%) in the product gas, but lower CH4 (1.0%) and CO2 content (5.6%). The results of tar measurements indicated that the leaching pre-treatment lowers the tar content in the evolved product gas, e.g. by 36% in the case of vine residues. As a result, the controlled leaching pretreatment is recommended as an effective way of upgrading the composition of agricultural biomass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Biomass, Pretreatment, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217398 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2017.08.028 (DOI)000413615500001 ()2-s2.0-85030782109 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171124

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Zhou, C., Rosén, C. & Engvall, K. (2017). Selection of dolomite bed material for pressurized biomass gasification in BFB. Fuel processing technology, 159, 460-473
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of dolomite bed material for pressurized biomass gasification in BFB
2017 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 159, p. 460-473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dolomite is considered advantageous as bed material in fluidized bed gasification processes, due to its catalytic tar cracking and anti-sintering properties. However, in case of pressurized fluidized bed gasifiers, the use of dolomite is challenging. High temperature in the presence of steam favors the production of clean syngas due to the intensified cracking of tar in the presence of CaO, whereas it simultaneously increases the tendency of fragmentation of dolomite particles after full calcination. The present study was carried out to examine the influence of the properties of dolomite on the stability of dolomite in a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, with the aim of determining criteria for dolomite selection. Glanshammar dolomite exhibited a better stability in the mechanital strength after calcination, compared to Sala dolomite. The corresponding change of micro-structure that occurred during dolomite chemical transformation was presented. The crystal pattern and Si distribution in the crystal lattice are the possible explanations for the superior performance of the Glanshammar dolomite compared to the Sala dolomite.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
Keywords
Dolomite, Pores, Crystal, Pressurized fluidized bed, Gasification
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206238 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.01.008 (DOI)000397353800050 ()2-s2.0-85012025848 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170517

Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved
Zhou, C., Rosén, C. & Engvall, K. (2016). Biomass oxygen/steam gasification in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed: Agglomeration behavior. Applied Energy, 172, 230-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass oxygen/steam gasification in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed: Agglomeration behavior
2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 172, p. 230-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the anti-agglomeration abilities of Ca- and Mg-containing bed materials, including dolomite and magnesite, in a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using pine pellets and birch chips as feedstock, is investigated. The most typical bed material-silica sand-was also included as a reference for comparison. The sustainability of the operation was evaluated via analyzing the temperatures at different levels along the bed height. During the performances, the aim was to keep the temperature at the bottom zone of the reactor at around 870 °C. However, the success highly depends on the bed materials used in the bed and the temperature can vary significantly in case of agglomeration or bad mixing of bed materials and char particles. Both Glanshammar and Sala dolomites performed well with no observed agglomeration tendencies. In case of magnesite, the bed exhibited a high agglomeration tendency. Silica sand displayed the most severe agglomeration among all bed materials, even when birch chips with a low silica content was fed at a relatively low temperature. The solid samples of all the bed materials were inspected by light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) detector was used to detect the elemental distribution in the surface. The crystal chemical structure was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Magnesite agglomerates glued together by big molten ash particles. There was no coating layer detected on magnesite particles at bed temperatures - below 870 °C. But when the temperature was above 1000 °C, a significant amount of small molten ash particles was deposited on the magnesite particles, indicating a pronounced tendency for formation of a coating layer in case of long-term operation. An increasing trend of Si on the surface of dolomite particles was observed. Simultaneously, potassium deposition on the surface is not obvious. The analyses, based on the XRD diffraction and the K2O-SiO2-MgO and K2O-SiO2-CaO ternary diagrams, suggest that the observed decreases in the risks for agglomeration using dolomite, cannot be attributed to formation of alkali-containing compounds with higher melting points, but to the reaction between dolomite and silica, consuming a considerable portion of silicon and thus hinder the formation of low-melting potassium silicate, as well as its ability to stabilize the temperatures under pressurized conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Agglomeration, Calcium, Dolomite, Gasification, Magnesite, Silica sand
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186929 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.106 (DOI)000376790400020 ()2-s2.0-84962136699 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160526

Available from: 2016-05-26 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Liliedahl, T., Sjöström, K., Engvall, K. & Rosén, C. (2011). Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(SUPPL. 1), S63-S70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defluidisation of fluidised beds during gasification of biomass
2011 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no SUPPL. 1, p. S63-S70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Defluidisation and agglomeration during fluidised bed gasification of biomass is analysed and discussed. It is argued that the agglomeration and defluidisation processes, in principle, closely resemble those that determine the behaviour of glass during glass processing. Crucial properties for working with glass melts are the viscosity, stickiness, surface tension, etc. It is, however, (very) difficult to theoretically quantify these properties through thermodynamics or other theoretical means. Hence it will be problematic to theoretically predict agglomeration and defluidisation. Models for predicting defluidisation must therefore probably be of an empirical nature. As a consequence of this, a number of fluidised bed gasification tests were empirically analysed with respect to defluidisation. In total 145 tests were evaluated; of these 51 defluidised or exhibited some kind of bed disturbance. A number of fuels and bed materials were included in the analysis using a multivariate statistical approach.Based on the analysis an empirical regression equation for predicting the defluidisation temperature during fluidised bed gasification is suggested.

Keywords
Biomass, Defluidisation, Fluidised bed gasification, Multivariate analysis, Prediction
National Category
Energy Systems Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48152 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.05.006 (DOI)000297610300008 ()2-s2.0-80054839207 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, SES6-CT-2004-502587
Note
QC 20111116Available from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Romey, I., Adorni, M., Wartmann, J., Herdin, G., Beran, R., Sjöström, K. & Rosén, C. (2001). Concept for a Decentralised Combined Heat and Power Generation Unit for Biomass Gasification. In: Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion: (pp. 499-508). Wiley-Blackwell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concept for a Decentralised Combined Heat and Power Generation Unit for Biomass Gasification
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2001 (English)In: Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, Wiley-Blackwell, 2001, p. 499-508Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of an improved process for decentralised combined heat and power generation from biomass gasification was the main goal of this project. Based on gasification tests performed in a bench-scale pressurised fluidised gasifier a concept for an allothermal gasification unit was made. Air-blown as well as steam-blown tests were carried out considering three different kinds of biomass (birch, salix, and crushed pelletised straw) against a wide spectrum of operation conditions with different bed-materials (silica sands, magnesite and dolomite). The aim of the gas quality optimisation was the production of a fuel gas (syngas) with a high H2 and low tar content suitable for a gas engine. The tar content was measured with SPA method and a gravimetric method. The tests were performed at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, in close co-operation with the University of Essen. Jenbacher AG designed a new type of cylinder head for the direct feeding of the hot pressurised syngas into the gas engine in co-operation with the Technical University of Graz. Taking the results obtained into account a concept of decentralised combined heat and power generation (CHP) unit with an electrical power output of 1 MW was set up.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2001
Keywords
Allothermal gasification unit, Bed-materials, CO2-neutral fuel, Decentralised combined heat, Power generation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181295 (URN)10.1002/9780470694954.ch40 (DOI)2-s2.0-84949255440 (Scopus ID)9780470694954 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20160212

Available from: 2016-02-12 Created: 2016-01-29 Last updated: 2016-02-12Bibliographically approved
Zevenhoven-Onderwater, M., Backman, R., Skrifvars, B. J., Hupa, M., Liliedahl, T., Rosén, C., . . . Hallgren, A. (2001). The ash chemistry in fluidised bed gasification of biomass fuels. Part II: Ash behaviour prediction versus bench scale agglomeration tests. Fuel, 80(10), 1503-1512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ash chemistry in fluidised bed gasification of biomass fuels. Part II: Ash behaviour prediction versus bench scale agglomeration tests
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2001 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1503-1512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is part II in a series of two. Ash behaviour modelling of the gasification of four biomass fuels is compared with pilot-scale experiments carried out in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and an atmospheric test rig of Termiska Processer AB (TPS). Experiments were provocative with respect to agglomeration of the bed material. Thus, in the experiments, the agglomeration was allowed to happen without any corrective changes in the operation. Small-scale experiments showed clear defluidisation in five cases. Some degree of bed disturbance or agglomeration occurred in seven out of 13 cases. In nine of these cases, agglomerates were also found in the samples analysed with SEM/EDX analyses. In six out of 13 cases, the thermodynamic multi-phase multi-component equilibrium calculations were in agreement with SEM/EDX analysis, i.e. predicted fort-nation of agglomerates. In two cases, no or small amounts of agglomerates were predicted, nor were these found with SEM/EDX analysis. In two cases out of 13, the modelling predicted some degree of agglomeration while no agglomerates could be detected with SEM/EDX analysis. However, in these cases, agglomerates were found in the pilot-scale experiments. Thus it is shown that the thermodynamic multi-phase multi-component equilibrium calculations are a useful prediction tool for the formation of agglomerates in (pressurised) fluidised bed gasification of biomass fuels thereby enhancing the understanding of the chemistry involved.

Keywords
biomass, ash, PFBG, Gibbs' energy minimisation, bed sintering, agglomeration, thermodynamic properties, phase-diagrams, optimization, systems, combustion
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-20949 (URN)10.1016/S0016-2361(01)00004-7 (DOI)000171094100015 ()
Note
QC 20100525 QC 20120103Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2460-914X

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